Psych Unit 2 Exam
According to Erikson, what occurs in the "Trust vs. Mistrust" stage?
Children trust that the world will meet their basic need
According to Erikson, what occurs in the "Autonomy vs. shame and doubt" stage?
Infants succeed (or fail) in giving sense of of self-rule over their own actions
What is Freud's "Psychoanalytic theory"?
Freud believes that conflicts during oral and anal stages shaped a child's later personality
Ex: Too strict toilet training= anal retentive personality
What is "Behaviorism"?
Infant's emotions and personality are molded as parent's reinforce or punish a child's behavior; Social referencing strengthens learning through observation, like Bandura's Bobo doll experiment
What is the "Cognitive theory"?
Infants for a concept of what to expect from others; They create a WORKING MODEL or a set of assumptions about relationships
In the socio-cultural theory, what is ethnotheory?
Theory that is embedded within a particular culture or ethnic group
What is the difference between "Proximal vs. Distal parenting"?
- Proximal parenting: Close, physical with child's entire body
- Distal parenting: Practice focuses on the intellect rather than the body (talking face to face)
*Keller et al (2204) --> Nso vs. Greek
-Nso parents were proximal parents, as a result, children were not able to recognize themselves in the mirror, but they were compliant
- Greek parents were distal parents. Their children were able to recognize themselves in a mirror, but they were not compliant
What are the basic emotions during a child's first year and time?
- Social Smile: 6- 10 weeks
Laughter: 3-4 months
Anger: General distress occurred since birth; Anger 4- 8 months
Fear: Stranger wariness and separation anxiety = 8- 12 months
What are the self-conscious emotions of a child during the first two years of their life?
-Occurs during the second year of a child's life as they become aware of self as separate and unique
- Pride, Envy, Guilt, Embarrassment, and Shame
- The realization that one is unique, separate from others
- "Me self" emerges during 15-18 months
- Dot of rouge experiment: Child recognizes that there is a dot in their face
What is temperament?
Refers to individual differences in EMOTION, ACTIVITY, and SELF-CONTROL
What are the types of temperament?
- Easy (40%)
- Difficult: (10%) Cried and fussed a lot, made tantrums, and risk aggressive behavior
- Slow to warm up (15%): Adjust more slowly to new experiences
What is "goodness of fit"?
The match between a child's temperament and environment --> Environment DOES matter
What is "Synchrony"?
Coordinated interaction between a caregiver and its infant starts the process of attachment
What is the "still-face technique"?
A mother goes from being animated to being flat - babies do not like that
What is attachment?
-Attachment is a close, emotional bond between and infant and caregivers that develop during the first year
- Internal working model:
What is the internal working model? (Mention Bowlby)
A set of expectations formed early in life about the availability of attachment figures
- "it is the prototype of all later love relationships
What are the key behaviors when measuring attachment via Strange situation (Ainsworth)?
- Seeking (or avoiding) proximity
- Maintaining (or resisting) contact
- LEVEL OF DISTRESS
- Ease of comforting UPON REUNION
- Ability of infant to use primary caregiver as secure bas
What are the four attachment classifications?
Type B: Secure --> Explores toys, may cry when caregiver leaves, happy upon caregiver return (long term outcomes == happy, social person)
Type A: Insecure-Avoidant --> Child does not cry, explores toys, avoids/ ignores caregiver upon return
Type C: Insecure-Resistant--> Little or no exploration of toys, cries when caregiver leaves, avoids (cry/anger) upon caregiver return
Type D: Disorganized/ Disoriented --> Inconsistent behavior toward caregiver (may be abused or neglected)
What factors affect attachment?
- Opportunity of attachment
- Quality of care-giving
- Infant characteristics
- Parent's internal working models
What is the "Adult Attachment Interview'?
Taps current state of mind regarding early attachment relationships
- Anxious-Avoidant --> Dismissing
-Secure --> Secure
-Anxious-resistant --> Pre-occupied
What are the classifications of the adult attachment interview?
- Dismissing: Lack of memories and stereotyped descriptions (derogation of attachment)
- Secure: Clear memories and coherent discourse
- Pre-occupied: Conflicted/ confused discourse (passivity or anger)
How does attachment affect later development?
- Attachment predicts predicts personality and social development into adulthood
- Secure attachment is associated with positive outcomes: social competence, academic achievement, and quality of caregiving
- Continuity of caregiving
Explain the physical growth during the ages of 2 to 6 and its influences.
-Children become slimmer and more muscular during the ages of 2 - 6 (growing over 3 inches and gaining 5 pounds every year)
- [A typical six year old will weigh 46 pounds and be 46 inches tall]
- Growth is influenced by Ethnicity and culture, Genes, SES, and Nutrition
What is the "Just so" Phenomenon?
- A child isists that a particular experience cocur in the same sequnce and manner
[Children tend to be picky eaters and insist on rituals]
- This declines after age 3
What is the speed of processing in brain development?
- Speed of processing--> Myelination: fatty coating axons that speed up transmission of nerve impulses
What is the purpose of the corpus callosum in brain development?
It myelinates rapidly from ages 2-6 for a more efficient communication between hemispheres (left hemisphere houses language)
What is lateralization in brain development?
("sidedness") Refers to teh specialization of certain functions by each side of the brain
Why is the limbic system important?
Crucial for the expression and regulations of emotions
What is the purpose of the amygdala, the hippocampus and the hypothalamus in the limbic system?
The amygdala focuses on emotion like fear and anxiety while the hippocampus focuses on memory and location. The hypothalamaus responds to amygdala and hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body
What si the difference between ross motor skills and fine motor skills
Gross motor skills helps with balance when running, jumping, skipping (greater speed and endurance) while fine motor Skills are for self- help (dressing yourself, eating, tying shoes, drawing)
What is the progress of artwork during play years?
- Scribbles during second year
- First representational forms by age 3
- Boundaries and tadpoles (more detail on face than rest of body) by ages 3 and 4
- More realistic drawings by ages 5 and 6
What is centration?
The tendency to focus on one aspect of the situation to the exclusion of others (Ex: a child thinks that a tall 4 year old is older than a short 5 year old.
What is egocentrism?
The inability to consider another person's point of view [Ex: a child comfots his sad father by giving him his teddy bear; 3 mountain problem: (child couldn't see doll because a mountain was covering it, so she thought that the doll didn't exist, as opposed to someone that can see it)
What does it mean when a child focuses on appearance?
Children tend to focus on what is apparent and ignore other relevant attributes [Ex: A child thinks that a girl with short hair is a boy]
What is static reasoning?
Children assume that the world doesn't change [Ex: child is surprised to learn that "his" teacher is someone else's mother]
What is irreversibility?
It is the inability to mentally reverse a series of steps (Children fail to recognize that reversing a process can sometimes restore it to its original state) [Ex- A child refuses to eat a hamburger that is -contaminated- even when a substance is removed]
What is conservation and how is it shown in a pre-operational child?
Recognizing that physical traits of objects remain the same despite changes in appearance
- Piaget conducted an experiment where liquid of one container was moved into a cup that was molded differently - children failed to see that the amount of liquid was the same because they cannot think logically until age 7
What are the major limitations with Piaget's theory?
- Piaget underestimated children's cognitive ability
- Piaget focused too much on preschoolers’ limitations and children’s ability to give verbal explanations
- Tasks contained unfamiliar elements and used ambiguous questions
- Bottom line: Children show some elements of logical operations long before concrete operations
According to Piaget, what is an egocentric thought?
Can adjust language to fit the level of the listener; Can take others’ perspectives in simple situations
According to Piaget, how can you solve appearance vs. reality tasks??
Can solve appearance – reality tasks in nonverbal ways or in “game-like” setting
According to Piaget, what is categorization?
Able to recognize everyday knowledge into nested categories
According to Piaget, what is an illogical thought?
Can think logically when the task is simplified and relevant to everyday life
According to Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory, what is guided participation?
- He viewed children as an appentice in thinking - one whose cognition is directed by more knowledgeable members of society
- Guided participation: Children learn from others who guide their experiences (challenge, assist, motivate, instruct)
According to Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory, what is Zone of proximal development and scaffolding?
- Range of abilities that a person can perform with assistance but not yet independently; scaffolding is the way a person is guided in his or her ZPD
According to Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory, what is private speech?
Internal dialogue that helps develop new ideas and solve problems (children do things out loud)
Evaluation of Vygotsky’s Theory
- Helps cultural diversity in cognition
- Emphasizes importance of teaching
- Focuses on language but deemphasizes observations and other learning theories
- Says little about biological contributions to cognition
- Vague in explanation of change
What is the theory of mind and thefactors that contribute to it?
*A person's theory of what other people might be thinking
- Awareness of mental life (Infancy- age 3)
- Mastery of (false beliefs) [about age 4]
- Brain maturation (pre-frontal cortex), culture, older siblings, and language ability
What is the sensitive period in language development?
Early childhood is a sensitive period for language because it is a time when language learning happens easily [2-6 year olds learn an average of 10 new words per day]
What is fast mapping?
Children learn new words by putting them into categories [Ex: If a child has "animal" in a category, learning tiger will be easier if he already knows lion]
What is over-regularization?
Applying grammar rules even when exeptions occur [Ex: using "goed" to the store, sheeps, tooths]
What occurs in Erikson's third stage: Initiative vs. guilt?
- Children take the initiative to undertake adult tasks, but feel guilty when they fail. (A little bit of guilt is okay, so a child should not be criticized or punished severely when he or she fails)
- A typical 3 to 5 year has a positive self-concept and a high self-esteem
Intrinsic motivation and Leeper et al 1973
-Comes from within the individual (joy of personal accomplishment); Parents should encourage this by not promising rewards for tasks that are already enjoyable (They should praise a job well done)
- Leeper et al 1973: Pre-schoolers were given paper and markers and were separated into three groups: no reward, expected reward (told before they drew anything, and unexpected reward (reward given after they had drawn
*Major finding: Extrinsic motivation undercut intrinsic motivation
- By age 3 and 4, most kids learn how to cope with and channel their emotions
- Emotional self- regulation: (develops as a result of experience and brain maturation); Influenced by: genes, early experiences (stressors),culture, brain maturation, gender, attachment (as a parent we need to learn to say no and stick with it)
What is the Marshmallow test?
Children were told that if they wait 15 minutes, they will get two marshmallows (delay of gratification) --> huge predictor of success and ability to say no
Parten's types of play
- Solitary play: Plays alone, unaware of other children playing nearby
- Onlooker play: Watches other children play
- Parallel: Plays with similar toys, but not together
- Associative: Interact and share, but not yet mutual or reciprocal (oudoor play)
- Coorperative: Play together in common goal or turn-taking
What is the role of rough and tumble play and socio-dramatic play?
- Rough and tumble play: mimics aggression with no intention of harm (like wrestling) --> Usually requires social experience among participants and space to play
- Socio-dramatic play: Pretend play in which children act out self-created roles or themes (like playing house or doctor)
According to Baumrind, what does it mean for a parenting style to be authoritative?
High levels of warmth, acceptance and communication; moderate expectations for maturity; Discipline strategies involve a lot of communication (firm but fair)
According to Baumrind, what does it mean for a parenting style to be Authoritarian?
Little warmth and acceptance; One-way communication (parent-->child); Very high expectations for maturity; High in coercive control (strict, often use physical discipline)
According to Baumrind, what does it mean for a parenting style to be persimissive?
High levels of warmth, acceptance, and communication; few to no expectations for maturity; little to no discipline
According to Baumrind, what does it mean for a parenting style to be un-involved?
Low level of acceptance and involvement; general indifference regarding autonomy granting
What are the outcomes of the parenting styles?
*Authoritative parents have children who are successful, happy, intelligent and articulate
*Authoritarian parents raise obedient but unhappy children
*Permissive raise children who lack self-control and are the least happy
Why is the authoritative parenting style more effective?
Because parents mold care and concern along with confidence and self-controlled behavior; They make appropriate demands and engage in autonomy granting (independence); they are more fair, reasonable, involved and accepting
What are the Cultural variations in parenting styles? (Lansford et. al. 2004) [White families vs. African American families]
- White families viewed physical punishment as wrong, but used it when they no longer have tolerance --> physical punishment did predict aggression in their children
- A.A. families: physical punishment was milder and was used as parental warmth --> there were lower levels of aggression and anti-socialness in their children
*CULTURAL VARIATIONS MUST BE VIEWED IN LARGER CONTEXT!
What is Gender Typing? What are the influences? What are the parents' roles?
*Process of developing gender roles or gender-linked preferences and behaviors valued by society
- Influences: genetic (evolutionary adaptiveness and hormones) and environmental (family, teachers, peers)
- Parent's role in gender-typing: Direct verbal comments about expectations; Differentially reinforce activities (like boys are for girls and trucks are for boys)--> Channeling: differential encouragement of toys, activities, skills and chores
What is the social learning theory in relation to gender typing?
Behavior (modeling and reinforcement) leads to gender typing
What is Gender Identity?
* An image of one-self as masculine or feminine
What is gender schema?
A combination of social learning and cognitive developmental theories (Environment
What is the cognitive-developmental theory?
Cognitive understanding that sex is biologically based and permanent
What is androgyny?
High levels of both masculine and feminine personality traits
Gender-stereotyped beliefs and behavior
- By age 2, children label themselves and others as boys or girls
- By age 3, children prefer to play with children of the same sex
- By age 6, gender segregation in play patterns is very pronounced
- Rate of overweight and obese children is increasing in America --> An estimated 16% of children is obese
- Ages 6 - 11, should be a healthy time for children
What causes obesity?
Overweight parents, low SES, poor eating habits, low physical activity, Fast-food and super-sizing, TV
TV viewing and obesity
- Average American child watches 3-4 hours of TV every day
- Several studies show a POSITIVE association between TV and obesity
- This occurs because: TV replaces physical activity, increase consumption of food while watching TV, advertising encourages poor food choices, and reduction in resting metabolism
Health risks and stigma of obesity
*Obese children are more likely to be obese adults
- Health risks include: high blood pressure and cholesterol, respiratory problems, liver and gallbladder problems, sleep and digestive disorders
- Stigma of obesity: feeling unattractive, depression, loneliness, school problems (getting teased)
Brain maturation during the school years
- Reaction time is REDUCED
- Selective attention: Ability to concentrate on one stimuli while ignoring others
- Automatization: Some skills become automatic/routine (like reading, writing one's name)
What is IQ?
What are the main criticisms of IQ testing?
What is the Flynn Effect?
- IQ tests are designed to measure intellectual aptitude or ability to learn in school --> IQ = (mental age/ chronological age) x 100
- Criticisms: Tests are culturally biased, a person's potential changed over time (IQ tests should be part of a battery of assessments for an individual child), and it ignores many types of intelligence
- Flynn effect: IQ's of entire nations have increased dramatically
What does an IQ really tell us?
*Role of grit
- IQ tests can help detect learning disabilities, giftedness, and other needs
- IQ predicts school achievements, and to some degree, career attainments
- Non-cognitive factors like emotional intelligence and grit (perseverance and passion) might be better life predictors than IQ tests
According to Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence, what is analytic intelligence?
Being able to apply strategies, acquire task-relevant and meta-cognitive knowledge, and engage in self-regulation
According to Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence, what is creative intelligence?
Being able to solve novel problems, make processing skill automatic to free working memory for complex thinking
According to Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelligence, what is practical intelligence?
Being able to adapt to, shape, and/or select environment to meet both personal goals and the demands of one's everyday world
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence
Linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily- kinesthetic, naturalistic, interpersonal and intrapersonal
Autistic Spectrum Disorder
*Autism: Developmental disorder characterized by impaired social communication and interaction across multiple contexts
- Causes of autism: genes, teratogens (Thimerosal), viruses, infections, drugs
Symptoms of Autism
- Deficits in social communication and social interaction include: lack of social-emotional reciprocity, delays in non-verbal communication, deficits in developing and maintaining relationships
- Restrictive, repetitive behaviors: insistence on sameness and routines, highly restricted fixated routines, hyperactivity or hypoactivity to sensory input
Piaget stage of concrete operations and logical thinking
The concrete operational stage (7-11 years) is characterized by more logical, flexible, and organized through experiences and perceptions
What is classification, according to Piaget?
It is the ability to organize things into categories or groups according to some shared characteristics
What is Piaget's class inclusion problem?
At age 8. children will say that there are more yellow flowers than blue flowers because they can't distinguish that both are flowers
According to Piaget, what is identity?
Certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change [When you pour milk from a bottle to a glass, it is still milk]
According to Piaget, what is transitive inference?
Refers to the ability to infer an unspoken connection between one factor and another [Ex: Lauren is taller than Jessica. Jessica is taller Maddy. Who is taller, Maddy or Lauren?]
- Seriation: Knowledge that things can be arranged in a logical sequence
According to Piaget, what is reversibility?
Sometimes you can return something to its original state by reversing the process [Water--> Ice --> Water]
Accroding to Piaget, what is spatial reasoning?
School-aged children have more accurate understanding of space than pre-schoolers
- Development of mapping skills:
What are cognitive maps? Know the development of mapping skills
Mental representations of familiar large spaces
*Pre-school (early school age)--> landmarks;
*Ages 8-10 --> landmarks along organized route of travel;
*End of middle childhood -->overall view of large scale space
Vygotsky's view of cognitive development and role of cultural context on learning
- Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed that culture shapes cognition.
- Cultural variations in concrete operational thought: Recent evidence shows that culture and schooling affect children’s mastery of Piagetian tasks and Relevant non-school experiences of some cultures can help too
- Example: Brazilian street children are able to calculate complex computations NOT learned in school (p. 324)
Analyzes how the mind analyzes, stores, and retrieves information; Cognition becomes more efficient in middle childhood
Speed of processing
Increases during the first 2 decades of life; Certain skills become automatic (reading, writing); The result is an increase in intellectual capacity and spread of knowledge
Regulate the analysis and flow of information within the information processing system -->Selective attention, Emotional Regulation, and Metacognition (like thinking about thinking)
Three "parts" of memory
*Sensory register, working memory, and long-term memory
Three “parts” of memory
- Sensory register: Registers incoming stimuli for a split second
- Working memory: Current conscious mental activities occur, improves from 4 – 15 years
- Long-term memory: Stores information for minutes, hours, days, months, years’ unlimited capacity
- Knowledge base: A body of knowledge in a particular subject area that makes it easier to master new concepts --> Interests, motivation, and practice determine the size of the knowledge base
- Example: Pokémon experts (See Balmford et al 2002)
What is code-switching?
Switching how you speak to one person vs. another *Ex: how you speak to your mom would be different than how you speak to your friend)
How does SES affect language?
Children with a lower SES tend to have smaller vocabularies, simpler grammar, and experience more difficulty reading
Gender differences in school performance
- Internationally, girls are more ahead than boys on verbal skills; no difference in math and science skills (gender-similarities hypothesis)
- Gender differences are MUCH greater between nations and by SES
- Major exception: Girls outperform boys during middle childhood; however, by adolescence,
Education in Japan
- Harold Stevenson studied > 5000 families in Minneapolis, Taiwan, and Japan with similar aptitude at school entry YET Asian students outperform U.S students
- The findings:
*Cultural Valuing of academic achievement
*High levels of parental involvement
*More time devoted to classroom instruction
* Emphasis on EFFORT (not innate ability)