Fluids and Electrolytes Questions
In the carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer system, the [a] acts as a weak base, and [b] acts as a weak acid.
a. bicarbonate ion
b. carbonic acid
The source of water that is derived from aerobic cellular respiration and dehydration synthesis reactions is _________ water.
The phosphate buffer system is an important regulator of pH in the cytosol.
The two compartments in which water can be found are plasma and cytosol
They are the Intracellular & Extracellular fluid
The primary means of regulating body water gain is adjusting
the volume of water intake
Which of the following stimulate thirst? (1) a decreased production of saliva, (2) a decrease in nerve impulses from hypothalamic osmoreceptors, (3) an increase in osmolarity of body fluids, (4) angiotensin II release, (5) release of atrial natriuretic peptide, (6) an increase in blood volume.
1, 3, and 4
Which of the following is not true/false concerning the protein buffer system?
Protein buffers are primary buffers of acids in urine.
Response: Normally phosphate is the only buffer in urine, although carbonic acid/ bicarbonate is also present.
Which of the following statements are true? (1) Buffers prevent rapid, drastic changes in pH of a body fluid. (2) Buffers work slowly. (3) Strong acids lower pH more than weak acids because strong acids contribute fewer H+. (4) Most buffers consist of a weak acid and the salt of that acid, which acts as weak base. (5) Hemoglobin is an important buffer.
1, 4, and 5
Which of the following hormones regulate fluid loss? (1) antidiuretic hormone, (2) aldosterone, (3) atrial natriuretic peptide, (4) thyroxine, (5) cortisol.
1, 2, and 3
Which of the following are true concerning ions in the body? (1) They control osmosis of water between fluid compartments. (2) They help maintain acid–base balance. (3) They carry electrical current. (4) They serve as cofactors for enzyme activity. (5) They serve as neurotransmitters under special circumstances.
1, 2, 3, and 4
Which of the following statements are true? (1) An increase in the carbon dioxide concentration in body fluids increases H + concentration and thus lowers pH. (2) Breath holding results in a decline in blood pH. (3) The respiratory buffer mechanism can eliminate a single volatile acid: carbonic acid. (4) The only way to eliminate nonvolatile acids is to excrete H + in the urine. (5) When the diet contains a large amount of protein, normal metabolism produces more acids than bases.
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5
Concerning acid–base imbalances: (1) Acidosis can cause depression of the central nervous system through depression of synaptic transmission. (2) Renal compensation can resolve respiratory alkalosis or acidosis. (3) A major physiological effect of alkalosis is lack of excitability in the central nervous system and peripheral nerves. (4) Resolution of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis occurs through renal compensation. (5) In adjusting blood pH, renal compensation occurs quickly whereas respiratory compensation takes days.
1 and 2
Which of the following are mismatched?
Hypoventilation: respiratory alkalosis
the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid; plays a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential
can also be asked as: the most abundant intracellular cation
second most common intracellular cation; is a cofactor for enzymes involved in carbohydrate, protein, and Na+/K+ ATPase metabolism
can also be asked: the second most abundant cation in intracellular fluid
the most abundant extracellular cation; essential in fluid and electrolyte balance
the most abundant mineral in the body; plays important roles in blood clotting, neurotransmitter release, maintenance of muscle tone, and excitability of nervous and muscle tissue
ions that are mostly combined with lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and ATP inside cells
most prevalent extracellular anion; can help balance the level of anions in different fluid compartments
second most prevalent extracellular anion; mainly regulated by the kidneys; important for acid–base balance
substances that act to prevent rapid, drastic changes in the pH of a body fluid
inorganic substances that dissociate into ions when in solution
an abnormal increase in the volume of interstitial fluid
occurs when water loss is greater than water gain
can occur during renal failure or destruction of body cells, which releases phosphates into the blood
the swelling of cells due to water moving from plasma into interstitial fluid and then into cells
can be caused by excessive sodium in diet or with dehydration
can be caused by excessive water intake, excessive vomiting, or aldosterone deficiency
condition that can occur as water moves out of plasma into interstitial fluid and blood volume decreases
can be caused by decreased potassium intake or kidney disease; results in muscle fatigue, increased urine output, changes in electrocardiogram
can occur from hypoparathyroidism
can be caused by actual loss of bicarbonate ions, ketosis, or failure of kidneys to excrete H+
can be caused by excessive vomiting of gastric contents, gastric suctioning, use of certain diuretics, severe dehydration, or excessive intake of alkaline drugs
can be caused by emphysema, pulmonary edema, injury to the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata, airway destruction, or disorders of the muscles involved in breathing
can be caused by oxygen deficiency at high altitude, stroke, or severe anxiety