Res Training Test #2
The flow of energy in a biological system; the conversion of macronutrients into biologically usable forms of energy.
The breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules, associated with the release of energy
: The synthesis of larger molecules from smaller molecules; can be accomplished using the energy released from catabolic reactions.
The total of all the catabolic or exergonic and anabolic or endergonic reactions in a biological system.
Allows the transfer of energy from exergonic to endergonic reactions.
The replenish-ment of ATP in human skeletal muscle is accomplished by three basic energy systems:
(1) phosphagen, (2) glycolytic,and (3) oxidative.
Provides ATP primarily for short-term, high-intensity activities (e.g., resistance training and sprinting) and is active at the start of all exercise regardless of intensity
Body stores ~4-6 times more CP
The concentrations of reactants or products (or both) in solution will drive the direction of the reactions
Law of mass action
The breakdown of carbohydrates—either glycogen stored in the muscle or glucose delivered in the blood from liver glycogen—to resynthesize ATP
The end result of glycolysis
Anaerobic glycolysis (or fast glycolysis).
ATP resynthesis occurs at a faster rate but is limited in duration
Pyruvate can be converted to lactate.
This process is often referred to as aerobic glycolysis (or slow glycolysis).
ATP resynthesis rate is slower, but can occur for a longer duration if the exercise intensity is low enough.
Pyruvate can be shuttled into the mitochondria.
The formation of lactate from pyruvate is catalyzed by the enzyme
exercise-induced decrease in pH
May be responsible for much of the fatigue during exercise or after high-intensity exercise
Results from accumulation of H+, NOT lactic acid
Recent evidence suggests that ATP hydrolysis is responsible for H+ accumulation (Fig. 2.1)
Lactate reduces [H+], used as energy substrate
] is a balance between lactate production and removal.
Increases with exercise intensity and is dependent upon the fiber type recruited
Exercise duration, training state, & initial glycogen levels also affect lactate accumulation…
Blood lactate concentrations typically return to baseline values within
an hour after activity.
Light activity during the postexercise period can ____ lactate clearance rates.
Peak blood lactate concentrations occur
5mins after the cessation of exercise.
Time it takes to buffer and transport lactate into the bloo
Lactate can be transported in the blood to the liver
where it is converted to glucose.
begins at 50% to 60% of maximal oxygen uptakein untrained individuals
begins at 70% to 80% in trained athletes
It occurs when the concentration of blood lactate reaches 4 mmol/L
It occurs at higher relative intensities of exercise.
OBLA is a second increase in the rate of lactate accumulation.
Pyruvate that enters the mitochondria is converted to
enter the electron transport system, where they can also be used to resynthesize ATP.
Stimulated by high concentrations of ADP, AMP, Pi, and ammonia and by a slight decrease in pH
Ammonia increases due to AA deamination and increase in [AMP]
Inhibited by lower pH, ATP, CP, citrate, and free fatty acids
Also affected by regulatory enzymes hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase
Control of Glycolysis
If oxygen is present in sufficient quantities, the end product of glycolysis, pyruvate, is not converted to lactate but is transported to the mitochondria, where it is taken up and enters the Krebs cycle.)
NADH and FADH2 molecules transpor
hydrogen atoms to the electron transport chain, where ATP is produced from ADP.
Triglycerides stored in fat cells can be broken down by
Free fatty acids enter the mitochondria, are broken down
and form acetyl-CoA and hydrogen protons.
The acetyl-CoA enters the Krebs cycle.
The hydrogen atoms are carried by NADH and FADH2 to the electron transport chain.
1 mol of glycerol
oxidized in skeletal muscle are the BCAA (leucine, isoleucine, valine)
Protein is broken down into amino acids, which are converted into
glucose, pyruvate, or various Krebs cycle intermediates to produce ATP
is stimulated by ADP and inhibited by ATP.
The rate of the Krebs cycle is reduced if
NAD+ and FAD2+ are not available in sufficient quantities to accept hydrogen.
The extent to which each of the three energy systems contributes to ATP production depends primarily on the _____ of muscular activity and secondarily on the duration.
At no time, during either exercise or rest,
does any single energy system provide the complete supply of energy.
can decrease markedly (50-70%) during the first stage (5-30 seconds) of high-intensity exercise and can be almost eliminated as a result of very intense exercise to exhaustion.
Postexercise phosphagen repletion can occur in a relatively short period;
complete resynthesis of ATP appears to occur within 3 to 5 minutes, and complete creatine phosphate resynthesis can occur within 8 MINUTES
Replenished via aerobic metabolism
The rate of glycogen depletion is related to exercise
Repletion of muscle glycogen during recovery is related to postexercise
postexercise carbohydrate ingestion.
Repletion is optimal if 0.7-3.0g/kg of carbs are ingested every 2 hours
As a result, the phosphagen energy system primarily supplies ATP for high-intensity activities of short duration, the glycolytic system for moderate- to high-intensity activities of short to medium duration, and the oxidative system for low-intensity activities of long duration.
Energy Production and Capacity
A procedure for assessing ability in a particular endeavor.
A test used to assess ability that is performed away from the laboratory and does not require extensive training or expensive equipment.
The process of collecting test data.
The process of analyzing test results forthe purpose of making decisions
A test administered before the beginning of training to determine the athlete’s initial basic ability levels.
A test administered one or more times during the training period to assess progress and modify the program as needed to maximize benefit.
: Periodic reevaluation based on midtests administered during the training, usually at regular intervals.
A test administered after the training period to determine the success of the training program in achieving the training objectives.
The degree to which a test or test item measures what it is supposed to measure
The most important characteristic of testing
The ability of a test to represent the underlying construct (the theory developed to organize and explain some aspects of existing knowledge and observations).
The appearance to the athlete and other casual observers that the test measures what it is purported to measure.
Assumes that anyone taking the test will want to do well and is motivated by the test because it is relevant
The assessment by experts that the testing covers all relevant subtopics or component abilities in appropriate proportions.
Includes all the component abilities needed for a particular sport
The extent to which test scores are associated with some other measure of the same ability
(i.e. comparing BF% from skinfold to DEXA)
For a test to be valid,
it must emulatethe energy requirements and important movements of the sport for which abilityis being tested.
A measure of the degree of consistency or repeatability of a test
Measurement error of reliability can arise from the following:
Failure of the test itself to provide consistent results
Intrasubject (within subjects) variability
Intrarater (within raters) variability
Lack of interrater (between raters) reliability or agreement
The lack of consistent performance by the person tested.
The degree to which different raters agree; also referred to as objectivity or interrater agreement.
The lack of consistent scores by a given tester.
Temperature fluctuations can
reduce ability to compare test results over time.
can impair performance on aerobic endurance tests, although not on tests of strength and power.
Prepare scoring forms ahead of time to increase efficiency and reduce recording errors.
The ____ tester should administer a given test to all athletes if possible. Each tester should administer one test at a time.
Allow 2 to 3 minutes of rest between attempts that are
not close to the athlete’s maximum,
3 to 5 minutes between attempts that are
close to the maximum, and
Complete recovery or > 5 minutes between test trials
or each battery of test (max pull-up test).
Sequence of Tests
Maximum power and strength tests
Local muscular endurance tests
Fatiguing anaerobic capacity tests
Aerobic capacity tests
Related to the force a muscle or muscle group can exert in one maximal effort
1RM test usually begin with 50% of estimated 1RM
3 to 5 attempts
Maximum Muscular Strength (Low-Speed Strength)
Related to the ability of muscle tissue to exert high force while contracting at a high speed (also called maximal anaerobic muscular power or anaerobic power)
Wingate cycle test, height of a vertical jump, or the time to sprint up a staircase
Anaerobic or Maximum Muscular Power (High-Speed Strength)
is the primary energy source for both low-speed and high-speed muscular strength tests.
Maximal rate of energy production by the combined phosphagen and lactic acid energy systems for moderate-duration activities, 30-90 sec (i.e. Wingate test)
Ability of certain muscles or muscle groups to perform repeated
contractions against a submaximal resistance
No rest periods
Chin-ups, push-ups, or resistance exercises with fixed load
Local Muscular Endurance
Maximum rate at which an athlete can produce energy through oxidation of energy resources (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins)
Aerobic Capacity (aerobic power)
Ability to stop, start, and change the direction ofthe body or body parts rapidly and in a controlled manner
Stopwatch should be administered with index finger, reaction times
Movement distance per unit time,
typically quantified as the time
taken to cover a fixed distance
Less than 200m
Range of motion about a body joint
Sit and reach box
Relative proportions by weight of fat and lean tissue
The science of measurement applied to the human body
Generally includes measurements of height,
weight, and selected body girths
Certified balance scale
Same time of day (morning)
Flexible measuring tape
for the tests should be standardized.
Research suggests is the ____________preferred option for stretching during warm-up.
Dynamic stretching can increase performance, while
static stretching can decrease force production, power, running speed, & muscular endurance!
No evidence to show that static stretching prevents
What sports might benefit from static stretching during a warm-up?
Gymnastics & diving – need high flexibility
may consist of 5 to 10 minutes of slow activity such as jogging or skipping.
body temp, HR, BF, respiration and perspiration
viscosity of joint fluids
A general warm-up period
period incorporates movements similar to the movements of the athlete’s sport.
It involves 8-12 minutes of dynamic stretching
A specific warm-up
The more ____ necessary for the sport, the more important the warm-up becomes!
Hold stretch for
Overrides stretch reflex
is a measure of range of motion (ROM) and has static and dynamic components.
refers to the available ROM during active movements and therefore requires voluntary muscular actions.
is the range of possible movement about a joint and its surrounding muscles during a passive movement.
may increase risk of injury.
Inflexibility, hyperflexibility or an imbalance in flexibility
Exercise through a full ROM and develop both agonist and antagonist muscles to
prevent loss of ROM.
Large muscles may impede joint movement
An active person tends to be more flexible than an inactive one, but activity alone will not improve flexibility.
are important in program design
Frequency, Duration, and Intensity of Stretching
Acute effects of stretching on ROM are
Greatest immediately after stretching
Recommended duration of static stretching i
Hold stretch at a position of
When Should an Athlete Stretch
Following practice and competition
Postpractice stretching facilitates ROM improvements because of increased muscle temperature.
Stretching should be performed within 5 to 10 minutes after practice.
Postpractice stretching may also decrease muscle soreness although the evidence on this is ambiguous.
When Should an Athlete Stretch
As a separate session
If increased levels of flexibility are required, additional stretching sessions may be needed.
Stretching should be preceded by a thorough warm-up to allow for the increase in muscle temperature necessary for effective stretching.
This type of session can be especially useful as a recovery session on the day after a competition.
occurs when muscle spindles are stimulated during a rapid stretching movement resulting in contraction of stretched muscle
monitor changes in muscle length
are located at the musculotendinous junction
Sensitive to tension, causing relaxation
inhibition is relaxation of the muscle experiencing tension
inhibition is relaxation occurring in the opposing muscle
Stretching requires movement of a body segment to a point of resistance,
then applying force
occurs when person stretching applies the force
occurs when partner applies the force
is slow and constant, with the end position held for 15-30 seconds (does not trigger stretch reflex)
involves active muscular effort and uses a bouncing-type movement in which the end position is not held (triggers stretch reflex)
Greater chance of injury
is a type of functionally based stretching exercise that uses sport-specific movements to prepare the body for activity.
Requires a partner and involve both passive movement and active muscle action
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) Stretch
Less effective in increasing ROM
Promotes increase in muscle temperatures
Multiple joints can be incorporated in single stretch
May be incorporated in warm-up
Walking knee lift mimics knee lift of sprinter
Isometric and concentric actions of the antagonist (muscle being stretched) are used before
referred to as “hold”
referred to as “contract”
static stretch referred to as “relax”
Passive prestretch (10 seconds)
Isometric hold (6 seconds)
Passive stretch (30 seconds) (autogenic inhibition)
Hold-Relax (“Push & hold”)
Passive prestretch (10 seconds)
Concentric muscle action through full ROM
Passive stretch (30 seconds)
Same as “Hold-Relax in first two phases
During third phase (passive stretch), concentric action of the agonist is used to increase the stretch force
Concentric contraction of quadriceps during passive stretch creates increased ROM (reciprocal inhibition)
Hold-Relax With Agonist Contraction (“Push, then Pull”)
The hold-relax with _____ contraction is the most effective PNF stretching technique due to facilitation via both reciprocal and autogenic inhibition.