typically allows a slight degree of movement
includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis
essentially immovable joints
sutures are the most remembered examples
charactereized by cartilage connecting the bony portions
all characterized by a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity
all are freely movable or diarthrotic
bone regions are united by fibrous connective tissue
include the hip, knee and elbow joints
Describe the structure and function of the following structures or tissues in relation to a synovial joint: ligament, tendon, articular cartilage, synovial membrane, bursa
Ligament: Dense fibrous connective tissue; attaches bones together; reinforces joints.
Tendon: Dense fibrous connective tissue; reinforces the joint capsule as it spans a joint.
Articular cartilage: Hyaline cartilage; reduces friction where bones articulate.
Synovial membrane: Loose connective tissue; produces synovial fluid which decreases frictions within the joint capsule.
Bursa: Fluid-filled synovial sac which cushions the tendon where it crosses the bone.
joint between skull bones
joint between the axis and atlas
ball and socket
intervertebral joints (between articular processes)
joint between forearm bones and wrist
joint between tarsus and tibia/fibula
joint between skull and vertebral column
joint between jaw and skull
joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones
epiphyseal plate of a child's long bone
a multiaxial joint
ball and socket
Along with the saddle joint, a biaxial joint
Along with the pivot joint, a uniaxial joint
When considering movement, what do all uniaxial joints have in common?
They allow movment in only one plane
When considering movement, what do all biaxial joints have in common?
They allowmovement in two planes
When considering movement, what do all multiaxial joints have in common?
They allow all angular movement and rotation
What characteristics to all joints have in common?
All consist of bony regions separated by fibrous or cartilaginous connective tissue.
Which joints, the hip or the knee, is more stable? Name two important factors that contribute to its stability.
Hip; Deep socket for femur and strongly reinforced articular capsule
Name two important factors that contribute to the stability of the knee.
menisci and intracapsular cruciate ligaments.
Describe how the structure of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) allows us to chew hard candy and hazel nuts.
The superior compartment of the synovial cavity causes the mandible to glide forward, distributing forces to the stronger articular tubercle (to prevent breakage of the mandibular fossa)
During muscle contraction, the [a] moves toward the [b].
What structural joint changes are common to the elderly?
Degenerative changes (adhesions and bone spurs) begin to "sprout up" in diarthrotic joints; intervertebral discs begin to degenerate. These changes lead to increased joint stiffness and pain.
Define sprain and dislocation.
Sprain: ligaments reinforcing a joint are damaged by excessive stretching, or torn away fromt he bony attachment.
Dislocation: Bones are foced out of their normal positions in a joint cavity.