80 notecards = 20 pages (4 cards per page)
When biologists wish to study the internal ultrastructure of cells, they can achieve the finest resolution by using
The advantage of light microscopy over electron microscopy is that
A primary objective of cell fractionation is to
In the fractionation of homogenized cells using centrifugation, the primary factor that determines whether a specific cellular component ends up in the supernatant or the pellet is
Which of the following correctly lists the order in which cellular components will be found in the pellet when homogenized cells are treated with increasingly rapid spins in a centrifuge?
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) can be used to fluorescently label a specific protein in cells by genetically engineering cells to synthesize the target protein fused to GFP. What is the advantage of using GFP fusions to visualize specific proteins, instead of staining cells with fluorescently labeled probes that bind to the target protein?
What is the reason that a modern electron microscope (TEM) can resolve biological images to the subnanometer level, as opposed to tens of nanometers achievable for the best super-resolution light microscope?
What technique would be most appropriate to use to observe the movements of condensed chromosomes during cell division?
All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell except
The volume enclosed by the plasma membrane of plant cells is often much larger than the corresponding volume in animal cells. The most reasonable explanation for this observation is that
A mycoplasma is an organism with a diameter between 0.1 and 1.0 µm. What does the organism's size tell you about how it might be classified?
Which of the following is a major cause of the size limits for certain types of cells?
Which of the following statements concerning bacteria and archaea cells is correct?
The evolution of eukaryotic cells most likely involved
Prokaryotes are classified as belonging to two different domains. What are the domains?
If radioactive deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) is added to a culture of rapidly growing bacterial cells, where in the cell would you expect to find the greatest concentration of radioactivity?
Which organelle or structure is absent in plant cells?
Large numbers of ribosomes are present in cells that specialize in producing which of the following molecules?
The nuclear lamina is an array of filaments on the inner side of the nuclear membrane. If a method were found that could cause the lamina to fall into disarray, what would you expect to be the most likely consequence?
Recent evidence shows that when chromosomes decondense during interphase, their DNA molecules do not intermingle. Instead, they occupy distinct territories within the nucleus. Considering the structure and location of the following structures, which is most likely to be involved in chromosome location?
A cell with a predominance of free ribosomes is most likely
Which type of organelle or structure is primarily involved in the synthesis of oils, phospholipids, and steroids?
Which structure is the site of the synthesis of proteins that may be exported from the cell?
The Golgi apparatus has a polarity or sidedness to its structure and function. Which of the following statements correctly describes this polarity?
The fact that the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope has bound ribosomes allows one to most reliably conclude that
The difference in lipid and protein composition between the membranes of the endomembrane system is largely determined by
Hydrolytic enzymes must be segregated and packaged to prevent general destruction of cellular components. Which of the following organelles contains these hydrolytic enzymes in animal cells?
Which of the following statements correctly describes some aspect of protein secretion from prokaryotic cells?
Tay-Sachs disease is a human genetic abnormality that results in cells accumulating and becoming clogged with very large and complex lipids. Which cellular organelle must be involved in this condition?
The liver is involved in detoxification of many poisons and drugs. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in liver cells?
Which of the following produces and modifies polysaccharides that will be secreted?
Which of the following contains hydrolytic enzymes?
Which organelle often takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?
Which organelle is the primary site of ATP synthesis in eukaryotic cells?
Which plant cell organelle contains its own DNA and ribosomes?
Which animal cell organelle contains enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen?
Thylakoids, DNA, and ribosomes are all components found in
In a plant cell, DNA may be found
The chemical reactions involved in respiration are virtually identical between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotic cells, ATP is synthesized primarily on the inner membrane of the mitochondria. In light of the endosymbiont theory for the evolutionary origin of mitochondria, where is most ATP synthesis likely to occur in prokaryotic cells?
One of the key innovations in the evolution of eukaryotes from a prokaryotic ancestor is the endomembrane system. What eukaryotic organelles or features might have evolved as a part of, or as an elaboration of, the endomembrane system?
A cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a cell from
Which type of organelle is found in plant cells but not in animal cells?
Why isn't the mitochondrion classified as part of the endomembrane system?
In a liver cell detoxifying alcohol and some other poisons, the enzymes of the peroxisome remove hydrogen from these molecules and
How does the cell multiply its peroxisomes?
Motor proteins provide for molecular motion in cells by interacting with what types of cellular structures?
Movement of vesicles within the cell depends on what cellular structures?
The smallest cell structure that would most likely be visible with a standard (not super-resolution) research-grade light microscope is
Which of the following contain the 9 + 2 arrangement of microtubules, consisting of nine doublets of microtubules surrounding a pair of single microtubules?
Vinblastine, a drug that inhibits microtubule polymerization, is used to treat some forms of cancer. Cancer cells given vinblastine would be unable to
The differences among the three categories of cytoskeletal elements outlined in the table above would suggest that each of the following has specialized roles. Which of the following is a correct match? (All three elements are involved in the maintenance of cell shape.)
Centrioles, cilia, flagella, and basal bodies have remarkably similar structural elements and arrangements. Which of the following hypotheses is most plausible in light of such structural similarities?
If an individual has abnormal microtubules, due to a hereditary condition, in which organs or tissues would you expect dysfunction?
Cytochalasin D is a drug that prevents actin polymerization. A cell treated with cytochalasin D will still be able to
Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is true?
Cells require which of the following to form cilia or flagella?
All of the following serve an important role in determining or maintaining the structure of plant cells. Which of the following are distinct from the others in their composition?
What do the cell walls of plants and the extracellular matrix of animal cells have in common?
The cell walls of bacteria, fungi, and plant cells and the extracellular matrix of animal cells are all external to the plasma membrane. Which of the following is a characteristic common to all of these extracellular structures?
When a potassium ion (K+) moves from the soil into the vacuole of a cell on the surface of a root, it must pass through several cellular structures. Which of the following correctly describes the order in which these structures will be encountered by the ion?
A mutation that disrupts the ability of an animal cell to add polysaccharide modifications to proteins would most likely cause defects in its
The extracellular matrix is thought to participate in the regulation of animal cell behavior by communicating information from the outside to the inside of the cell via which of the following?
Plasmodesmata in plant cells are most similar in function to which of the following structures in animal cells?
Ions can travel directly from the cytoplasm of one animal cell to the cytoplasm of an adjacent cell through
Which of the following makes it necessary for animal cells, although they have no cell walls, to have intercellular junctions?
Recent evidence shows that signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM) can regulate the expression of genes in the cell nucleus. A likely mechanism is that
Signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton may be transmitted by
ECM proteins are made by ribosomes in which part of a eukaryotic cell?
What types of proteins are not synthesized in the rough ER?
Which of the trees in this figure groups the domains according to similarities in cellular size and architecture?
biologist wants specifically to examine the surfaces of different types of cells in kidney tubules of small mammals. The cells in question can be distinguished by external shape, size, and 3-D characteristics. Which of the following would be the optimum method for her study?
A newspaper ad for a local toy store indicates that a very inexpensive microscope available for a small child is able to magnify specimens nearly as much as the much more costly microscope available in your college lab. What is the primary reason for the price difference?
A biologist ground up some plant leaf cells and then centrifuged the mixture to fractionate the organelles. Organelles in one of the heavier fractions could produce ATP in the light, whereas organelles in the lighter fraction could produce ATP in the dark. The heavier and lighter fractions are most likely to contain, respectively,
Which structure is not part of the endomembrane system?
Which structure is common to plant and animal cells?
Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?
Which structure-function pair is mismatched?
Cyanide binds with at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be found within the
What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
Which cell would be best for studying lyosomes?