284 notecards = 48 pages (6 cards per page)
Which of the following processes is the function of the smooth muscle layer of the digestive system?
Which of the following processes is the primary function of the mouth?
Which of the following processes is the primary function of the villi of the small intestine?
Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid to soften food?
Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid that functions to emulsify dietary fats?
Which of the following accessory organs stores bile?
The capability of the GI tract to move material along its length is called?
This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue containing blood and lymph vessels?
This layer of the GI tract is composed of areolar connective tissue that binds the mucosa to the muscularis?
This layer functions by secreting a lubricating fluid?
These are composed of prominent lymphatic nodules that function in the immune response?
This plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers of the muscularis?
Why do emotions such as anger or fear slow digestion?
This portion of the peritoneum drapes over the transverse colon and coils of the small intestine?
This portion of the peritoneum attaches the liver to the anterior abdominal wall and diaphragm?
This portion of the peritoneum is largely responsible for carrying blood and lymph vessels to the intestines?
The hard palate?
In the mouth, this runs posteriorly to the sides of the pharynx?
In the mouth, the tooth sockets are lined with?
Deciduous molars are replaced by?
How many stages of deglutition are there?
This structure of the stomach allows greater distension for food storage?
Which of the following secrete gastric acid?
This cell secretes the hormone that promotes production of gastric acid?
How long can food stay in the fundus before being mixed with gastric juices?
This major duct carries a fluid rich in bicarbonate ions?
Which of the following gastric enzymes digests proteins?
This is the heaviest gland of the body?
This is found on the liver and is a remnant of the umbilical cord in a fetus?
This is the principle bile pigment?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver?
Which of the following small intestine cells secrete lysozyme?
Which of the following enzymes acts to produce monoglycerides as products?
Which of the following pancreatic enzymes act to produce monosaccharides?
Which of the following pancreatic enzymes act to produce smaller peptides from proteins?
This hormone functions to counteract the effect of gastric acid in the small intestine?
This hormone is stimulates by high levels of dietary fat in the small intestine?
This digestive aid, produced by the stomach, begins digestion by denaturing proteins?
This structure regulates the flow of material into the colon?
Which of the following is the primary function of the large intestine?
Chemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules into simpler ones are called?
Chemical reactions that combine simple molecules and monomers to form complex structures are known as?
When the terminal phosphate is cut off ATP, what is formed?
Reduction is the?
This is a derivative of vitamin B?
Which of the following is NOT a form of phosphorylation?
Glycogenesis is NOT?
This process is the synthesis of triglycerides?
This reaction oxidizes acetyl co-A to produce carbon dioxide, ATP, NADH=H, and FADH2?
Glycolysis, formation of acetyl co-A, Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain are all involved in?
This is the key regulator of the rate of glyocolysis?
Where can pyruvate dehydrogenase be found?
The most abundant product of the reaction of the Kreb cycle is?
The net result of the complete oxidation of glucose does NOT include?
How many reactions take place during the Krebs cycle?
When a large amount of H+ accumulates between the inner and outer mitochondria membranes, this describes?
How many ATPs can come from substrate level phosphorylation during glycolysis?
What hormone stimulates glycogenesis?
What hormone stimulates gluconeogenesis?
Glycogenolysis is _______and stimulates by________?
These transport dietary lipids?
Where does glycolysis take place?
Where does the Kreb cycle take place?
Lipogenesis occurs when?
Excess amino acids in the body are?
Live cells convert?
Which of the following are used in "metabolic crossroads"?
In the absorptive state?
Most glucose that enters the liver is converted to?
Which of the following is NOT a postabsorptive state reaction?
Cardiac muscles can produce ATP from?
The most dramatic metabolic change that occurs with fasting is?
Which of the following is a factor that does NOT affect heat production?
This is a mechanism of heat transfer that involves direct contact?
The higher the relative humidity?
The heat promoting center stimulates parts of the brain that?
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone is secreted by the?
Neuropeptide Y stimulates?
Which of the following is NOT a major nutrient the body needs?
Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?
Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive tract, except the?
Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion?
The lamina propria and mucous epithelium are components of the?
Which of these descriptions best matches the term myenteric plexus?
Contraction of the _____alters the shape of the intestinal lumen and moves epithelial pleats and folds?
The ______are double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend the visceral organs and carry nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels.
Sensory nerve cells, parasympathetic ganglia, and sympathetic postganglionic fibers can be found in the?
Sandwiched between the layer of circular and longitudinal muscle in the muscularis externa is the ?
Which layer of the digestive tract has a dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the muscularis mucosae?
Which of the following is classified as being either squamous or columnar?
Large blood vessels and lymphatics are found in the?
The layer of loose connective tissue that directly supports the digestive epithelium is the?
Which of these descriptions best matches the term submucosal plexus?
The oral mucosa has ______epithelium?
A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following, except in the?
A disease that attacks and disables the myenteric plexus would?
In the digestive and urinary systems, rings of smooth muscle, called ______, regulate the movement of materials along internal passageways.
The ability of functions over a wide range of lengths is called?
What type of muscle cells are arranged in sheets or layers, with adjacent muscle cells electrically connected by gap junctions and mechanically connected by dense bodies?
Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called?
The activities of the digestive system are regulated by?
Which of the following is NOT a function of the digestive system?
A structure that helps prevent food from entering the pharynx prematurely is the?
Functions of the tongue include all of the following, except?
________pairs of salivary glands secrete into the oral cavity?
The roof of the oral cavity is formed by the?
The space between the cheeks or lips and teeth is called the?
The ridge of oral mucosa that surrounds the base of a tooth is the?
Carbohydrate digestive begins in the?
The connection of the anterior portion of the tongue to the underlying epithelium is the?
The uvula is located at the?
The functions of the oral cavity include all of the following, except?
Which of the following is a function of the tongue?
The bulk of each tooth consists of a mineralized matrix similar to that of bone called?
The chamber within a tooth that contains blood vessels and nerves is the?
The root of a tooth is covered by?
The crown of a tooth is covered by?
_______are blade-shaped teeth that function in cutting or clipping?
_______are pointed teeth that are adapted for tearing and slashing?
_________are teeth with flattened crowns and prominent ridges that are adapted for crushing and grinding?
______are also known as canines.
Functions of teeth include?
________crush and grind food.
True esophagus has several variations from the standard plan of the gut tube. These include?
During deglutition, which of the following phases is NOT present?
Muscles known as the pharyngeal constrictors function in?
The ______supports most of the small intestine and provides stability and limited movement?
What provides access for blood vessels entering and leaving the liver?
Which of the following contains adipose tissue and provides padding for the anterior and lateral portions of the abdomen?
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity.
Approximately ________ liters of fluid are secreted and reabsorbed into the peritoneal cavity each day.
The double-layer sheets of serous membrane that support the viscera are called?
Regions of the stomach include all of the following, except?
Which region of the stomach does the esophagus connect to?
The greater omentum is?
The portion of the stomach that is superior to the junction between the stomach and the esophagus is the?
The part of the stomach that functions as a mixing chamber for food secretions in the?
The region of the stomach that empties into the duodenum is the?
A feature of the digestive epithelium that assists expansion of the stomach is the presence of?
The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called?
The _______mechanically digests ingested food?
Parietal cells secrete?
Chief cells secrete?
Gastric pits are?
The enzymes pepsin digests?
An enzyme secreted by the gastric mucosa of a newborn that assists in the digestion of milk proteins is?
All of the following are true of the lining of the stomach, except that it?
Which of the following is greater?
A drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in?
Mary had her stomach mostly removed to try to overcome obesity. As a result you would expect Mary to be at risk for?
Plicate and intestinal villi?
Plicate circulares are?
Which of these enhance the absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine?
Products of fat digestion are transported initially by?
Submucosal glands that secrete mucus are characteristic if the?
Duodenal glands are characteristic of the?
The villi are most developed in the?
Aggregated lymphoid nodules are characteristic of the?
The middle segment of the small intestine is the?
The portion of the small intestine that attaches to the cecum is the?
The part of the digestive tract that plays the primary role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients is the?
G cells of the stomach secrete?
An intestinal hormone that stimulates mucus secretion by the submucosal duodenal glands and dilation of intestinal capillaries is?
The intestinal hormone that stimulates the pancreas to release a watery, bicarbonate-rich fluid is?
An intestinal hormone that stimulates contraction of the gallbladder to release bile is?
An intestinal hormone that stimulates the release of insulin from the pancreatic islet cells is ?
An intestinal hormone that stimulates gastric secretion is?
Which of these descriptions best matches the term gastrin?
The hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach is?
Which of these descriptions best matches the term cholecystokinin (CCK)?
Gastrin secretion in response to elevated luminal pH is an example of?
In response to the hormone cholecystokinin, the pancreas secretes a fluid?
In response to the hormone secretin, the pancreas secretes a fluid?
In response to the arrival of acid chime in the duodenum, the?
A drug that blocks the action of the hormone cholecystokinin would affect?
During the cephalic phase of gastric secretion?
The gastric phase of gastric secretion is triggered by the?
All of the following are true of the intestinal phase of gastric digestion, except that it?
The gastroileal reflex?
The secretion of acid and enzymes by the gastric mucosa is controlled and regulated by?
Which organ is responsible for dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials?
Powerful peristaltic contractions that occur a few times each day in the colon are called?
At the left colic flexure, the colon becomes the?
At the right colic flexure, the colon becomes the?
Approximately the last 15 cm of the digestive tract is the?
The taeniae coli are?
The sac-like structure that joins the ileum at the ileocecal valve is the?
A small, wormlike structure attached to the posteromedial surface of the cecum is the?
This organ is primarily responsible for water absorption?
Movements unique to the large intestine are________movements?
Identify the salivary gland that secretes a watery mixture rich in salivary amylase and buffers
Which of the following is false about secretions from the salivary glands?
The enzyme amylase digests?
Each of the following is a function of the liver, except?
The _______salivary glands are covered by the mucous membrane in the floor of the mouth?
Which salivary gland produces a serous secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase?
The ________gland empties into the oral cavity at the level of the second upper molar?
The functions of the liver include?
Increased secretion by all the salivary glands results from?
A blockage of the ducts from the parotid gland would?
The human liver is composed of______lobes?
The structure that marks the division between the right and left lobes of the liver is the?
Which of the following is a remnant of the fetal umbilical vein?
In the center of a liver lobule there is a?
The basic function unit of the liver is the?
________are arranged within a lobule of the liver into a series of plates converging towards a central vein?
The Kupffer cells of the liver?
Which of these descriptions best matches the term duodenal ampulla?
The duodenal ampulla receives secretions from the?
The fusion of the hepatic duct and cystic duct forms the?
The exocrine portion of the pancreas is composed of?
The pancreas produces?
The pancreas produces ______digesting enzymes in the form of proenzymes?
Bile is stored in the?
Enzymes secreted by the pancreas include?
An enzyme that digests proteins into peptides is?
Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with digestion of?
Tom has hepatitis, an inflammation of the liver. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe in Tom?
Tony is a chronic alcoholic with cirrhosis of the liver, a condition in which liver cells die and are replaced by connective tissue. Which of the following signs would you expect to observe in Tony?
The sum of all of the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called?
Cells synthesize new organic components for which of the following reasons?
The citric acid cycle?
The carbon dioxide of respiration is formed during?
The electron transport system?
Reactions within________provide most of the energy needed by a typical cell.
The function of the citric acid cycle is to?
Cells must synthesize new organic compounds?
In the ETS,________accepts electrons from one molecule and transfers them to another?
Poisons like cyanide bind to _______and prevent electron transfer?
Cells perform catabolism to generate ATP, which can be used for?
The major job of coenzymes in oxidative phosphorylation include all of the following, except?
In oxidative phosphorylation, energy for the synthesis of ATP is directly obtained from?
Catabolism of all the following is fairly common for energy production, except?
Although other nutrients can feed into the citric acid cycle, ________ yields energy the quickest?
The largest lipoproteins, ________ are produced by intestinal epithelial cells from the fats in food?
_______carry excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver?
The lipoproteins that carry absorbed lipids from the intestinal tract to the bloodstream are the?
In the human body, cholesterol is important because it?
A drug that blocks the action of lipoprotein lipase would?
All of the following are true of beta-oxidations, except that?
Lipogenesis generally begins with?
Linoleic acid and linolenic acid are examples of?
The essential fatty acids are?
The nutrients that yield the most energy per gram when metabolized are?
In transamination, the amino group of an amino acid is, _______ yielding a different amino acid?
The conversion of ammonia into a less toxic substance produces?
Urea is formed in the?
For children there are ______essential amino acids?
During the absorptive state?
All of the following occur during the postabsorptive state, except that?
Glucocorticoids have which of the following effects on general peripheral tissues?
When the body is relying on internal energy reserves to continue meeting its energy demands, it is in the?
Which of the following complements the actions of glucocorticoids?
Wally decides to go on a hunger strike to further one of his favorite causes. After many days with nothing but water you would expect to observe?
The vitamin that plays a role in maintaining epithelia and is required for the synthesis of visual pigments is?
The vitamin that is required for proper bone growth and for calcium absorption and retention is?
The vitamin that prevents breakdown of vitamin A and fatty acids is?
The vitamin that is part of coenzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle is?
A deficiency in vitamin D would result in which of the following disorders?
A vitamin obtained from meat that is a coenzyme in amino acid and lipid metabolism is?
Deficiency in this vitamin can result in a condition called scurvy?
The vitamin that is a coenzyme in amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism is?
The vitamin that is essential for the production of several clotting factors is?
The vitamin whose deficiency causes beriberi is?
A disorder caused by the ingestion of excessive quantities of a fat-soluble vitamin is known as?
The food pyramid recommends many servings a day of dark-green and orange vegetables. Which vitamin is particularly abundant in this food group?
Inadequate exposure to sunlight could result in decreased amounts of vitamin_____in the body?
Impaired fat absorption in the intestine would interfere with the absorption of?
A balanced diet should?
A high uric acid level (above 7.4mg/dl) can lead to the painful condition known as?
Obesity is defined as a body weight more than _______ percent above the ideal body weight for an individual?
On a tour of African countries, Don contracts a bad case of traveler's diarrhea. Because he cant eat very much, his body starts to use energy sources other than carbohydrates. This would result in?