16 notecards = 4 pages (4 cards per page)
C) Transport leaked plasma proteins and fluids to the cardiovascular system
The sac-like initial portion of the thoracic duct that receives lymph from the legs and the intestinal tract is the:
C) cisterna chyli
Entry of lymph into the lymphatic capillaries is promoted by what?
A) one-way minivalves formed by overlapping endothelial cells
The structural framework of lymphoid organs is
C) Reticular tissue
Lymph nodes are densely clustered in all of the following body areas except
A) The brain
The germinal center in lymph nodes are largely sites of
The red pulp area of the spleen are sites of
A) Splenic sinusoids
The lymphoid organ that functions primarily during youth and then begins to atrophy is what?
guard mucosal surfaces include all of the following except.
D) the thymus
Compare and contrast blood, interstitial fluid, and lymph.
Blood, the carrier of nutrients, wastes, and gases, circulates within blood vessels through the body, exchanging materials with the interstitial fluid.
Compare the structure and functions of a lymph node to those of the spleen.
Lymph nodes are very small bean-shaped structures consisting of both a medulla and a cortex, which act as filters to cleanse lymph before it is allowed to reenter the blood. Each node is surrounded by a dense fibrous capsule from which connective tissue strands called trabeculae extend inward to divide the node into a number of compartments. The basic internal framework or stroma is an open network of reticular fibers that physically support lymphocytes and macrophages. The outer cortex contains densely packed spherical collections of lymphocytes called follicles, which frequently have lighter-staining centers called germinal centers. Cordlike extensions of the cortex, called medullary cords, invade the medulla. Macrophages are located throughout the node but are particularly abundant lining the sinuses of the medulla. (pp. 756–757)
(a) Which anatomical characteristic ensures that the flow of lymph through lymph node is slow?
a. The anatomical characteristic that ensures slow passage of lymph through a lymph node is the fact that there are fewer efferent vessels draining the node than afferent vessels feeding it. (p. 757)
There are no lymphatic arteries. Why isn’t this a problem?
Lymph is generated in the body tissues and only flows back toward the heart, so there is no need for arteries to carry lymph away from the heart. (p. 754)
(a). After Mrs. Jacksons radical mastectomy, an infection to set up causing inflammation.
The swollen glands are the lymph nodes in her neck, which is detecting the infection from the cut on the friend neck. The lymph nodes are becoming overwhelmed with trying to fight the infection and its causing them to become swollen and painful (pg. 757 in Marieb).
These lymphoid organs are preserved because surgeons have discovered that if left alone, these organs can often repair itself (pg. 758 in Marieb).