Pediatrics Test 1

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Long Term Athletic Development Parts 1 and 2, AND CH 1, 3....
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1

Long-Term Athletic Development- Part 1: A Pathway for all Youth

...

2

Who are the two main authors of this journal?

Rhodri S. Lloyd

Jon L. Oliver

3

What journal published this article?

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research

4

What does part 1 of this 2-part commentary provide?

a critical review of existing models of practice for long-term athletic development

introduces a composite youth development model that includes the integration of talent, psychosocial and physical development across maturation

5

Why should long-term athletic development be viewed as a pathway that could enhance the health, fitness, and performance of all children and adolescents?

the majority of youth play sport only at a recreational level, and do not accumulate the daily physical activity guidelines recommended by leading health authorities

6

Someone referred to as a "youth" or "young athlete" will generally be between what age range?

girls: up to 11 years old

boys: up to 13 years old

7

Someone referred to as an "adolescent" will be between what age range?

girls: 12-18

boys: 14-18

8

What does the term athletic development refer to?

physical development of youth that encompasses the training of health, skill, and performance related components of fitness

9

Who does the term practitioner denote?

an individual responsible for the athletic development of youth and includes youth sport coaches, sports administrators, strength and conditioning coaches, physical education teachers, athletic trainers, physiotherapists, and other health care providers

10

What is resistance training?

a specialized method of conditioning, whereby an individual is working against a wide range of resistive load to enhance health, fitness, and performance

11

What are some forms of resistance training?

- use of body weight

- weight machines

- free weights

- elastic bands/medicine balls

12

What is physical literacy?

the ability of an individual to use cognitive processes such as anticipation, memory, and decision-making to help move with poise, economy, and confidence in a range of physically demanding environments

13

What are fundamental movement skills?

locomotive skills (catching, throwing, grasping, striking)

stabilization skills (balance, rotation, antirotation, bracing)

14

What benefits are attained from youth engaging in daily physical activity from an early age?

develop cardiorespiratory and metabolic fitness, muscle and bone strength, movement coordination and control

- reducing symptoms of psychosocial ill health

15

True or False. The number of youth displaying substandard levels of physical fitness, muscular strength, and motor skill competency is increasing globally

TRUE

this is correlated to the increase in the number of youth experiencing sports and physical activity related injuries, overtraining, burnout, dropout from sport

16

This review describes prominent models from what two domains?

talent and athletic development

17

What are the 4 Talent Development Models?

1. Participant Model of Sport Development

2. Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT)

3. Model of Talent Development in Physical Education

4. The Developmental Model of Sports Participation (DMSP)

18

Which talent model is a pyramidal continuum for developing talent?

Participant Model of Sport Development

19

Participant Model of Sport Development is characterized by large participation rates in what?

large participation rates in foundation activities

20

The Participant Model of Sport Development dictates that physical education should serve as the foundation where basic fundamental movement skills are initially taught. Although there is a clear pathway for talent development, what are its down sides?

- too simple; does not account for individual differences in growth and maturation, rate of learning

- fails to acknowledge those who drop out of sports or those who start late in adolescence

- assumes everyone will follow the same sequential path to elite performance

21

Which talent development model outlines a clear distinction between naturally untrained abilities (gifts) and systematically developed abilities (talent)?

Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (DMGT)

22

What is the central philosophy of the Differential model of giftedness and talent? (DGMT)

Systematic learning integral to translate gift into talent

23

What are the benefits of the Differentiated model of giftedness and talent? (DMGT)

focused on developing a multitude of aptitudes

24

What are the disadvantages of the Differentiated model of giftedness and talent? (DMGT)

does not provide guidance on exercise prescription to practitioners

25

What is the central philosophy of the Model of talent development in physical education?

combination of deliberate practice and generic learning required to develop talent

26

What are the benefits of the model of talent development in physical education?

multidimensional approach to talent development (psychomotor, interpersonal, interpersonal, cognitive, and creative abilities)

27

What are the disadvantages of the Model of talent development in physical education?

does not provide guidance on exercise prescription to practitioners

28

What is the central philosophy of the Developmental model of sports participation? (DMSP)

Youth should sample a range of different sports before specializing and investing in later years

(focuses on deliberate play during sampling years)

29

What are the 3 stages and corresponding age groups that are identified by the DMSP?

1. the sampling years (6-12)

2. the specializing years (13-15)

3. the investment years (16+)

30

What are the benefits of the developmental model of sports participation (DMSP)?

supports the notion of late specialization and youth experiencing a range of sports early in life

31

What are the disadvantages of the developmental model of sports participation?

although a participant development model, its is based on interviews with elite athletes. doesn't provide guidance on exercise prescription

32

What 3 things do the talent development models have in common?

1. youth development should be grounded in the learning process as opposed to short-term outcomes.

2. children should be exposed to a variety of sports and activities geared towards deliberate play during the early stages of childhood

3. models acknowledge the role of deliberate practice

33

What are the 2 Athletic Development Models

1. The Long-Term Athlete Development model (LTAD)

2. Youth Physical Development model (YPD)

34

What is the central philosophy of the Long-term athlete development model?

early engagement in physical activity; take advantage of "windows of opportunity"

35

What are the advantages of the Long-term athlete development model?

attempts to base exercise prescription on biological maturation as opposed to chronological age

36

what are the disadvantages of the Long-term athlete development model?

- due to its title, the model seems to be focused on developing athletes.

-its guidance on exercise prescription to practitioners is limited and lacks validity

- believes in the 10,000 hour rule

37

What is the central philosophy of the Youth Physical Development?

all fitness components are trainable at all stages of development and importance of early exposure to age appropriate training

38

What are the benefits of the Youth Physical Development?

- Provides rationale for exercise prescription based on available literature.

- Highlights importance of muscle strength and motor skill development.

- Stresses importance of biological maturation and training age for prescription.

39

What are the disadvantages of Youth Physical Development?

Focuses solely on the development of physical athleticism.

40

What 3 things do the athletic development models have in common?

1. athletic development programs should be grounded in developing movement competency and muscular strength

2. athletic development programs should be be designed in accordance with windows of adaptation

3. athletic development programs should not be designed to primarily accumulate 10,000 hours of deliberate practice

41

True or False. Developmental Models should be viewed as gold standard blueprints that can be superimposed on all athletes.

False

they should be viewed as flexible blue prints

42

What model merges talent and athletic development?

The Composite Youth Development (CYD)

43

The composite youth development model (CYD) examines what three stages of development from childhood to the onset of adulthood?

1. Early Childhood (investment years)

2. Middle Childhood (sampling years)

3. Adolescence (recreation years)

44

According to the CYD, during early childhood children should be introduced to movement and play in order to:

develop fundamental movement skills (masked with fun activities that require then to manage body weight) and primal levels of muscular strength

45

According to the CYD, during early childhood what should the main emphasis of any program be?

On promoting fun and social interaction to help young children enjoy the learning of new skills and to encourage the interaction process with their peers

46

According to the CYD, during middle childhood, children enter what stage? What is the focus of this stage

- sampling years

- they are encouraged to experience a breadth of sporting activities and to avoid specializing early in a single sport

47

T/F. According to the CYD, even though children in early childhood may not take place in conditioning facilities, children in middle childhood should wherever possible be comfortable with all components of a strength training facility.

TRUE

48

T/F According to the CYD, children in middle childhood should be empowered wherever possible to ensure they begin to take responsibility for their own learning experience.

TRUE

49

According to the CYD, adolescence marks the beginning of the specializing years. This means that:

either they will get sport-specific psychological skill or they will opt out of competitive sport and continue to participate in recreational activity. If they do, they should do the daily moderate-to-vigorous recommended activity.

50

T/F Practitioners must ensure that youth are provided with individualized programs that enable development commensurate with the specific needs of each participant and that motivate all youth for lifetime engagement with sports and physical activity

TRUE

51

Long-Term Athletic Development, Part 2: Barriers to Success and Potential Solutions

...

52

What does the second part of this commentary talk about?

  • Common issues the are likely to impede the success of long-term athletic development programs
  • solutions that will address the negative impact of such issues
53

What are the 5 issues that negatively impact long-term athletic development programs

1. inactive lifestyles of youth

2. prevalence of obese and overweight youth

3. early sport specialization and associated injury risk

4. high workloads of young athletes

5. limitations of existing education curricula

54

Problem 1: physical inactivity

It can be observed from longitudinal data that fitness levels of youth have deteriorated over the past: (blank) years

20-30 years

55

Problem 1: physical inactivity

At what age does physical activity levels appear to peak?

6 years of age

56

Problem 1: Physical inactivity

What are some causes for the decline in physical activity in youth?

  • increases in tv/ video games
  • less recess
  • less physical education classes in school
  • youth don't walk to school
  • poor diet
  • lack of sleep
57

Problem 1: physical inactivity

According to the UK

1) how many children cannot support their own body weight on a wall bar?

2) What rate is seen in arm strength decline between 1998 and 2008

3) What rate is seen in hand grip decline between 1998 and 2008

1) 1 in 10 children

2) 26% decline in arm strength

3) 7% decline in hand grip

58

Problem 1: physical inactivity

What are some solutions to this program

1. starting early in life boys and girls should accumulate 60 minutes

2. youth should do muscular strength and fundamental movement skill

59

Problem 1: physical inactivity

The WHO suggested that aerobic exercise should be the main exercise for what age group?

5-17 year olds

60

Problem 1: physical inactivity

Neuromuscular training can reduce injury to where?

lower limb

61

Problem 2: overweight & obese youth

What are the odds of an overweight or obese youth of getting injured compared to normal weight youth

obese kids are twice as likely to have injuries during sports or general physical activity

62

Problem 2: overweight & obese youth

What are potential mechanisms that increase injury risk within this population?

  • low fatigue resistance
  • lack of postural and neuromuscular control
  • inadequate strength levels
  • reduced motor control development
63

Problem 2: overweight & obese youth

T/F engagement in organized sports guarantees youth attain recommended daily physical activity guidelines

FALSE

64

Problem 2: overweight & obese youth

Training interventions inclusive of motor skill training, strength and power training, and sprint training have all shown relatively high adherence rates in training intervention ranging from how many weeks?

8 to 52 weeks in duration

65

Problem 2: overweight & obese youth

What two negative effects can exposing overweight individuals to aerobic exercise cause?

1) increased risk of injury

2) reduced self esteem

66

Problem 2: overweight & obese youth

T/F Deforche et al. showed that overweight youth performed better than normal weight youth in activities requiring muscular strength

true

67

Problem 2: overweight & obese youth

What is a possible solution to this problem?

develop opportunities for normal weight and obese youth to exercise together in a supportive environment in which all of them can have a chance to experience success and feel good about their accomplishments

68

Problem 3: Early Sport Specialization

Why does early sport specialization cause injury, burnout, and overtraining?

  • they are only training with one sport
  • child's exposure to a breadth of sport in activities is limited
  • no diversity in motor skill development
  • muscle strength is not enhanced in some areas of the body
69

Problem 3: Early Sport Specialization

Iga et al showed that the muscle-loading patterns associated with youth soccer can lead to alterations in what body part?

Who will have greater quadriceps dominance- untrained young soccer players or those who have done formalized resistance training

  • in functional hamstrings to quadriceps strength rations about the knee
  • untrained young soccer players
70

Problem 3: Early Sport Specialization

What is an overuse injury?

an injury caused by repetitive sub maximal loading of the musculoskeletal system with inadequate recovery time for subsequent adaptation

71

Problem 3: Early Sport Specialization

What are some common overuse injuries seen in children subject to repetitive sports training?

  • patellofemoral pain
  • osgood-Schlatter disease
  • calcanea apophysitis
  • little league elbow
  • little league shoulder
  • spondylolysis
  • osteochondritis dissecans
72

Problem 3: Early Sport Specialization

what are four solutions to this problem?

  1. participate in a variety of sports during growing years
  2. don't follow 10,000 hour rule
  3. those who do 16h of special sport a week should be monitored for injury or burnout
  4. INT should be sensibly integrated into an annual plan
73

Problem 4: Training Workloads of Youth

Data on youth from the UK shows that what percent of young athletes reported experiencing overtraining or nonfunctional overreaching at least once?

29% of 376 young athletes

74

Problem 4: Training Workloads of Youth

By the time the child reaches adulthood (about 20 years old) how much time will they spend in training and how much in competition?

25-35% in training

65-75% in competition

75

Problem 4: Training Workloads of Youth

Out of a 12-month time frame, how many months should a young baseball pitcher be encouraged to pitch for?

no more than 8 months

76

Problem 4: Training Workloads of Youth

What are the most prevalent physical symptoms associated with nonfunctional overreaching and overtraining in youth sports?

  • loss of appetite
  • predisposition to injury
  • frequent tiredness
  • inability to cope with training loads
  • frequent respiratory infections
  • heavy muscles
  • sleep problems
77

Problem 4: Training Workloads of Youth

What are the most prevalent psychological symptoms associated with nonfunctional overreaching and overtraining in youth sports?

  • apathy
  • feeling intimidated by opponents
  • bad mood
  • feeling sad
  • lack of confidence
78

Problem 4: Training Workloads of Youth

What are 4 solutions to this problem?

  1. preparatory conditioning and fun based activities should be the focus more than competitive fixtures
  2. mesocycles should be used to facilitate recovery
  3. physical limitations should be addressed during preparation and transition mesocycles
  4. training workloads should be monitored holistically
79

Problem 5: Current Physical Education Provision

Children (6-8 years and 10-12) years have a neuromuscular system that is highly plastic. This is why daily primary school physical education is a critical time frame to:

  1. develop athleticism
  2. promote psychosocial development
  3. instill motivation for lifelong engagement in regular physical activity
80

Problem 5: Current Physical Education Provision

What percent of states in the US allow kids to earn required physical education credits through online computer-based courses?

59% of states

81

Problem 5: Current Physical Education Provision

As a solution to this problem, within each school year practitioners can organize mesocyles an microcycles lasting how long?

mesocyles: 4-8 weeks

microcycles: 5-7 days

82

Problem 5: Current Physical Education Provision

What are 4 solutions to this problem?

1. targeted integrative neuromuscular training

2. "athletic development" shouldn't just be for aspiring athletes

3. long term periodized approaches in school PE

4. Youth should be given opportunities to develop motor skills, enhance muscular strength and improve physical literacy

83

Why is there a need for an internationally recognized youth training certification?

to help ensure the provision of safe and effective exercise prescriptions for children and adolescents

84

An internationally recognized youth training certification would require a practitioner to be assessed for:

  • knowledge of pediatric exercise science
  • ability to design, coach, and modify training programs
  • pedagogical skills to ensure scientific principles can be translated into practice in a child-focused approach

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