Ch13: Fluid & Electrolytes: Balance and Disturbance (Definitions)

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an acid–base imbalance characterized by an increase in H+ concentration (decreased blood pH) (A low arterial pH due to reduced bicarbonate concentration is called metabolic acidosis; a low arterial pH due to increased PCO2 is called respiratory acidosis.)



a type of edema in which fluid accumulates in the peritoneal cavity


Active Transport

physiologic pump that moves fluid from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration; active transport requires adenosine triphosphate for energy



an acid–base imbalance characterized by a reduction in H+ concentration (increased blood pH) (A high arterial pH with increased bicarbonate concentration is called metabolic alkalosis; a high arterial pH due to reduced PCO2 is called respiratory alkalosis.)



the process by which solutes move from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration; does not require expenditure of energy



maintenance of a constant internal equilibrium in a biologic system that involves positive and negative feedback mechanisms


Hydrostatic pressure

the pressure created by the weight of fluid against the wall that contains it. In the body, hydrostatic pressure in blood vessels results from the weight of fluid itself and the force resulting from cardiac contraction.


Hypertonic solution

a solution with an osmolality higher than that of serum


Hypotonic solution

a solution with an osmolality lower than that of serum


Isotonic solutions

a solution with the same osmolality as serum and other body fluids



the number of milliosmoles (the standard unit of osmotic pressure) per kilogram of solvent; expressed as milliosmoles per kilogram (mOsm/kg). (The term osmolality is used more often than osmolarity to evaluate serum and urine.)



the number of milliosmoles (the standard unit of osmotic pressure) per liter of solution; expressed as milliosmoles per liter (mOsm/L); describes the concentration of solutes or dissolved particles



the process by which fluid moves across a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration; the process continues until the solute concentrations are equal on both sides of the membrane



fluid tension or the effect that osmotic pressure of a solution with impermeable solutes exerts on cell size because of water movement across the cell membrane

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