Ch13: Fluid & Electrolytes: Balance and Disturbance (Definitions)

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1

Acidosis

an acid–base imbalance characterized by an increase in H+ concentration (decreased blood pH) (A low arterial pH due to reduced bicarbonate concentration is called metabolic acidosis; a low arterial pH due to increased PCO2 is called respiratory acidosis.)

2

Ascites

a type of edema in which fluid accumulates in the peritoneal cavity

3

Active Transport

physiologic pump that moves fluid from an area of lower concentration to one of higher concentration; active transport requires adenosine triphosphate for energy

4

Alkalosis

an acid–base imbalance characterized by a reduction in H+ concentration (increased blood pH) (A high arterial pH with increased bicarbonate concentration is called metabolic alkalosis; a high arterial pH due to reduced PCO2 is called respiratory alkalosis.)

5

Diffusion

the process by which solutes move from an area of higher concentration to one of lower concentration; does not require expenditure of energy

6

Homeostasis

maintenance of a constant internal equilibrium in a biologic system that involves positive and negative feedback mechanisms

7

Hydrostatic pressure

the pressure created by the weight of fluid against the wall that contains it. In the body, hydrostatic pressure in blood vessels results from the weight of fluid itself and the force resulting from cardiac contraction.

8

Hypertonic solution

a solution with an osmolality higher than that of serum

9

Hypotonic solution

a solution with an osmolality lower than that of serum

10

Isotonic solutions

a solution with the same osmolality as serum and other body fluids

11

Osmolality

the number of milliosmoles (the standard unit of osmotic pressure) per kilogram of solvent; expressed as milliosmoles per kilogram (mOsm/kg). (The term osmolality is used more often than osmolarity to evaluate serum and urine.)

12

Osmolarity

the number of milliosmoles (the standard unit of osmotic pressure) per liter of solution; expressed as milliosmoles per liter (mOsm/L); describes the concentration of solutes or dissolved particles

13

Osmosis

the process by which fluid moves across a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration; the process continues until the solute concentrations are equal on both sides of the membrane

14

Tonicity

fluid tension or the effect that osmotic pressure of a solution with impermeable solutes exerts on cell size because of water movement across the cell membrane


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