Exercise 10: The Axial Skeleton

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created 6 years ago by jncanf
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pg. 139 - pg. 144
updated 6 years ago by jncanf
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1

Frontal

Forehead bone

2

Zygomatic

Cheekbone

3

Mandible

Lower jaw bone

4

Nasals

Bridge of nose

5

Palatines

Posterior part of hard plate

6

Parietals

Much of the lateral and superior cranium

7

Occipital

Most posterior part of cranium

8

Sphenoid

Single, irregular, bat- shaped bone, forming part of the cranial floor

9

Lacrimals

Tiny bones, bearing tear ducts

10

Maxillae

Anterior part of hard plate

11

Ethmoid

Superior and middle nasal conchae formed from its projections

12

Temporals

Site of mastoid process

13

Sphenoid

Site of sella turcica

14

Ethmoid

Site of cribriform plate

15

Mandible

Site of mental foremen

16

Temporals

Site of styloid process

17

Ethmoid, Frontal, Maxillae, Sphenoid

Four bones, containing paranasal sinuses

18

Occipital

condyles articulate with the atlas

19

Occipital

Foramen magnum contained here

20

hyoid

small U-shaped bone in neck, where many tongue muscles attach

21

Temporals

Middle ear found here

22

Vomer

Nasal septum

23

Ethmoid

Bears an upward protrusion, the " cock's comb", or crista galli

24

mandible, maxilla

contain alveoli bearing teeth

25
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27
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29

Define suture

All but one of the bones of the skull are joined by interlocking joints.

30

With one exception, the skull bones are joined by sutures. Name the exception.

With the exception of 2 paired bones (the parietal and temporal), are all single bones.

31

What bones are connected by the lambdoid suture?

connects the parietal and temporal bones with the occipital bone

32

What bones are connected by the squamous suture?

temporal and parietal bones on each side of the skull.

33

Name the eight bones composing the cranium.

frontal bone, 2 parietal bones, 2 temporal bones, occipital bone, sphenoid, ethmoid

34

Give two possible functions of the sinuses:

They lighten the facial bones and act as resonance chambers for speech.

35

What is the orbit?

Eye Socket

36

What bones contribute to the formation of the orbit?

Frontal bone, maxilla, lacrimal, ethnoid, sphenoid, palatine, zygomatic.

37

Why can the sphenoid bone be called the keystone of the cranial floor?

Since it is in contact with all of the other cranial bones.

38

cervical vertebra - typical

vertebral type containing foramina in the transverse processes, through which the vertebral arteries ascend to reach the brain

39

axis

dens here provides a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebra (C1)

40

thoracic vertebra

transverse processes faceted for articulation with ribs, spinous process pointing sharply downward

41

sacrum

composite bone, articulates with the hip bone laterally

42

lumbar vertebra

massive vertebrae, weight sustaining

43

coccyx

"tail bone:; vestigial fused vertebrae

44

atlas

supports the head; allows a rocking motion in the conjunction with the occipital condyles

45

vertebral foramen

cavity enclosing the spinal cord

46

body

weight bearing portion of the vertebra

47

spinous process & transverse process

provide levers against which muscles pull

48

body & transverse process

provides an articulation point for the ribs

49

intervertebral foramina

openings providing for exit of spinal nerves

50

body & vertebral arch

structures that form an enclosure for the spinal cord

51
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A. INTERVERTEBRAL FORAMINA
B. LAMINA
C. PEDICLE
D. SPINOUS PROCESS
E. TRANSVERSE PROCESS
F. SUPERIOR ARTICULAR FACET
G. VERTEBRAL FORAMEN
H. BODY

52

Describe how a spinal nerve exits from the vertebral column.

Spinal nerves ( motor axons) exit the vertebral column via the ventral root (where they synapse on motor neuron ganglia ) then the ventral horn. Sensory nerves enter the spinal cord via the dorsal horn, synapse on the dorsal ganglia and enter the spinal cord.

53

name two factors/structures that permit flexibility of the vertebral column

discs and the S-shaped of the vertebral column prevent shock to the head in walking and running and provide flexibility to the body trunk

54

What kind of tissue compose the intervertebral discs?

fibrocartilage

55

What is a herniated disc? What problems might it cause?

a disc in which the nucleus puposus herniates through the annulus;

the nucleus pulposus compresses on the spinal cord leading to pain/possible paralysis

56

Which two spinal curvatures are observed at birth?

The two primary curvatures that we're born with are the concave forward curvatures in the thoracic and sacral spines.

57

Under what conditions do the secondary curvatures develop?

The "secondary" curvatures, the compensatory curvatures, occur with normal development. (Normal development is the condition under which they occur) These are the cervical curvature, which develops first with infant head lifting and the lumbar curvature, which develops next sitting up. These curvatures prepare the spine for ambulation.

58
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A. ATLAS
B. AXIS
C. VERTEBRA PROMINENS
D. TWO THORACIC VERTEBRAE
E. INTERVERTEBRAL DISC

59
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A. TWO LUMBAR VERTEBRAE
B. SACRUM

60

The major bony components of the thorax (excluding the vertebral column) are the ___________ and the _______________.

ribs and sternum

61

Differentiate between a true rib and a false rib.

a true rib is attached to cartilage that directly articulates with the sternum

62

Is a floating rib a true or false rib?

A free floating rib is neither a true or false rib. Ribs 1-7 are considered "true" ribs because they are directly attached to the sternum by individual coastal cartilages. Ribs 8-10 are considered "false" ribs because they are indirectly attached to the sternum by a common coastal cartilage. Ribs 11 and 12 are considered "free floating" because they are neither directly or indirectly attached to the sternum. Instead, they end in posterior abdominal musculature. They are still capped with cartilage though

63

What is the general shape of the thoracic cage?

cone-shaped

64
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A. COSTAL CARTILAGE
B. TRUE RIBS
C. XIPHISTERNAL JOINT
D. FALSE RIBS
E. FLOATING RIBS

65
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A. JUGULAR NOTCH
B. CLAVICULAR NOTCH
C. STERNAL ANGLE
D. MANUBRIUM
E. STERNUM
F. BODY
G. XIPHOID PROCESS


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