Exercise 19: Gross Anatomy of the Brain and Cranial Nerves

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HUMAN BRAIN- RIGHT LATERAL VIEW -(A - E)

A = POSTCENTRAL GYRUS
B = PARIETAL LOBE
C = PARIETO-OCCIPITAL SULCUS
D = OCCIPITAL LOBE
E = CEREBELLUM

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HUMAN BRAIN- RIGHT LATERAL VIEW -(F - L)

F = PRECENTRAL GYRUS
G = CENTRAL SULCUS
H = FRONTAL LOBE
I = LATERAL SULCUS
J = TEMPORAL LOBE
K = PONS
L = MEDULLA

3

IN WHICH OF THE CEREBRAL LOBES ARE THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONAL AREAS FOUND?

AUDITORY CORTEX

TEMPORAL LOBE

4

IN WHICH OF THE CEREBRAL LOBES ARE THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONAL AREAS FOUND?

PRIMARY MOTOR CORTEX

FRONTAL LOBE

5

IN WHICH OF THE CEREBRAL LOBES ARE THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONAL AREAS FOUND?

PRIMARY SENSORY CORTEX

PARIETAL LOBE

6

IN WHICH OF THE CEREBRAL LOBES ARE THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONAL AREAS FOUND?

OLFACTORY CORTEX

TEMPORAL LOBE

7

IN WHICH OF THE CEREBRAL LOBES ARE THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONAL AREAS FOUND?

VISUAL CORTEX

OCCIPITAL LOBE

8

IN WHICH OF THE CEREBRAL LOBES ARE THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONAL AREAS FOUND?

BROCA'S AREA

FRONTAL LOBE

9

WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING STRUCTURES ARE NOT PART OF THE BRAIN STEM?

CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, PONS, MIDBRAIN, CEREBELLUM, MEDULLA, DIENCEPHALON

CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, CEREBELLUM, DIENCEPHALON

10

AN _______ IS A ELEVATED RIDGE OF CEREBRAL TISSUE.

GYRUS

11

THE CONVOLUTIONS SEEN IN THE CEREBRUM ARE IMPORTANT BECAUSE THEY INCREASE THE _______.

SURFACE AREA

12

GRAY MATTER IS COMPOSED OF ______.

NEURON CELL BODIES

13

WHITE MATTER IS COMPOSED OF ______.

AXONS

14

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15

A FIBER TRACT THAT PROVIDES FOR COMMUNICATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE SAME CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE IS CALLED A(N)______, WHEREAS ONE THAT CARRIES IMPULSES FROM THE CEREBRUM TO LOWER CNS AREAS IS CALLED A(N) __________ TRACT.

ASSOCIATION TRACT; PROJECTION TRACT

16

THE LENTIFORM NUCLEUS ALONE WITH THE CAUDATE NUCLEI ARE COLLECTIVELY CALLED THE _______.

BASAL NUCLEI

17
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(1-9) SAGITTAL VIEW OF THE HUMAN BRAIN STEM AND DIENCEPHALON

1. (SMALL PART OF) CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE
2. CORPUS CALLOSUM
3. SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM
4. FORNIX
5. INTERMEDIATE MASS
6. HYPOTHALAMUS
7. OPTIC CHIASMA
8. MAMMILLARY BODIES
9. PITUITARY GLAND

18
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(10-19) SAGITTAL VIEW OF THE HUMAN BRAIN STEM AND DIENCEPHALON

10. CHOROID PLEXUS
11. THALAMUS
12. PINEAL GLAND
13. CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA
14. CEREBRAL PEDUNCLE
15. CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT
16. FOURTH VENTRICLE
17. PONS
18. CEREBELLUM
19. MEDULLA OBLONGATA

19

SITE OF REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE AND WATER BALANCE; MOST IMPORTANT AUTONOMIC CENTER

HYPOTHALAMUS

20

CONSCIOUSNESS DEPENDS ON THE FUNCTION OF THIS PART OF THE BRAIN

CHOROID PLEXUS

21

LOCATED IN THE MIDBRAIN; CONTAINS REFLEX CONTERS FOR VISION AND AUDITION

CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA

22

RESPONSIBLE FOR REGULATION OF POSTURE AND COORDINATION OF COMPLEX MUSCULAR MOVEMENTS

CEREBELLUM

23

IMPORTANT SYNAPSE SITE FOR AFFERENT FIBERS TRAVELING TO THE SENSORY CORTEX

THALAMUS

24

CONTAINS AUTONOMIC CENTERS REGULATING BLOOD PRESSURE, HEART RATE, AND RESPIRATORY RHYTHM, AS WELL AS COUGHING, SNEEZING, AND SWALLOWING CENTERS

MEDULLA OBLONGATA

25

LARGE COMMISSURE CONNECTING THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES

CORPUS CALLOSUM

26

FIBER TRACT INVOLVED WITH OLFACTION

FORNIX

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CONNECTS THE THRID AND FOURTH VENTRICLES

CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT

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ENCLOSES THE THIRD VENTRICLE

THALAMUS

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EMBRYOLOGICALLY, THE BRAIN ARISES FROM THE ROSTRAL END OF A TUBELIKE STRUCTURE THAT QUICKLY BECOMES DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR REGIONS. GROUP OF STRUCTURES THAT DEVELOP FROM THE EMBRYONIC BRAIN ARE LISTED BELOW. DESIGNATE THE EMBRYONIC ORIGIN:

THE DIENCEPHALON, INCLUDING THE THALAMUS, OPTIC CHIASMA, AND HYPOTHALAMUS

FORBRAIN

30

EMBRYOLOGICALLY, THE BRAIN ARISES FROM THE ROSTRAL END OF A TUBELIKE STRUCTURE THAT QUICKLY BECOMES DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR REGIONS. GROUP OF STRUCTURES THAT DEVELOP FROM THE EMBRYONIC BRAIN ARE LISTED BELOW. DESIGNATE THE EMBRYONIC ORIGIN:

THE MEDULLA, PONS, AND CEREBELLUM

HINDBRAIN

31

EMBRYOLOGICALLY, THE BRAIN ARISES FROM THE ROSTRAL END OF A TUBELIKE STRUCTURE THAT QUICKLY BECOMES DIVIDED INTO THREE MAJOR REGIONS. GROUP OF STRUCTURES THAT DEVELOP FROM THE EMBRYONIC BRAIN ARE LISTED BELOW. DESIGNATE THE EMBRYONIC ORIGIN:

THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES

FOREBRAIN

32

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE BASAL GANGLIA?

CONTROLLING VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS AND ESTABLISHING POSTURES.

33

WHAT IS THE CORPUS STRIATUM, AND HOW IS IT RELATED TO THE FIBERS OF THE INTERNAL CAPSULE?

FIBERS OF THE INTERNAL CAPSULE PASS THROUGH THE DIENCEPHALON AND BASAL NUCLEI, GIVES THEM STRIPED APPEARANCE. THEREFORE, THEY ARE RELATED AND REFFERED TO AS CORPUS STRIATUM (STRIPED BODY).

34

A BRAIN HEMORRHAGE WITHIN THE REGION OF THE RIGHT INTERNAL CAPSULE RESULTS IN PARALYSIS OF THE LEFT SIDE OF THE BODY. EXPLAIN WHY THE LEFT SIDE (RATHER THEN THE RIGHT SIDE) IS AFFECTED.

FIBERS CROSS TO THE OPPOSITE SIDE OF THE BRAIN THROUGH THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA.

35

EXPLAIN WHY TRAUMA TO THE BASE OF THE BRAIN IS OFTEN MUCH MORE DANGEROUS THEN TRAUMA TO THE FRONTAL LOBE. (HINT: THINK ABOUT THE RELATIVE FUNCTIONING OF THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES AND THE BRAIN STEM STRUCTURES. WHICH CONTAIN CENTERS MORE VITAL TO LIFE?)

THE BASE OF THE BRAIN IS MORE DANGEROUS THEN TRAUMA TO FRONTAL LOBES BECAUSE IT CONTAINS THE CENTERS MORE VITAL TO LIFE SUCH AS, RESPIRATORY, CARDIAC, AND VASOMOTOR CENTERS.

36

IN "SPLIT BRAIN" EXPERIMENTS, THE MAIN COMMISSURE CONNECTING THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES IS CUT. FIRST, NAME THE COMMISSURE.

CORPUS CALLOSUM

37

DESCRIBE WHAT RESULTS (IN TERMS OF BEHAVIOR) CAN BE ANTICIPATED IN SUCH EXPERIMENTS. "SPLIT BRAIN"

PERSON WILL BE UNABLE TO VOCALLY NAME WHAT THEY ARE/HAVE SEEN. A PERSON'S MEMORY IS GENERALLY LOWER THEN NORMAL. CONTROL AND MEMORY CAN BE AFFECTED BY THE SPLIT BRAIN EXAMPLES: MATHEMATICS AND SPEECH CAN BE AFFECTED, LOSS OF DREAMS, CAN BECOME MUTE, AND CANT CONTROL LEFT SIDE OF BODY.

38

OUTERMOST MENINX COVERING THE BRAIN; COMPOSED OF TOUGH FIBEROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE

DURA MATER

39

INNERMOST MENINX COVERING THE BRAIN; DELICATE AND HIGHLY VASCULAR

PIA MATER

40

STRUCTURES INSTRUMENTAL IN RETURNING CEREBROSPINAL FLUID TO THE VENOUS BLOOD IN THE DURAL SINUSES

ARACHNOID VILLI

41

STRUCTURE THAT FORMS THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

CHOROID PLEXUS

42

MIDDLE MENINX; LIKE A COBWEB IN STRUCTURE

ARACHNOID MATER

43

ITS OUTER LAYER FORMS THE PERIOSTEUM OF THE SKULL

DURA MATER

44

A DURAL FOLD THAT ATTACHES THE CEREBRUM TO THE CRISTA GALLI OF THE SKULL

FALX CEREBRI

45
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LABEL THE STRUCTURES INVOLVED WITH CIRCULATION OF CEREBROSPINAL FLUID ON THE ACCOMPANYING DIAGRAM.

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46

A DURAL FOLD SEPARATING THE CEREBRUM FROM THE CEREBELLUM

TENTORIUM CEREBELLI

47
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CORRECTLY IDENTIFY ALL STRUCTURES INDICATED BY LEADER LINES ON THE DIAGRAM

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48

CEREBROSPINAL FLUID FLOWS FROM THE FOURTH VENTRICLE INTO THE CENTRAL CANAL OF THE SPINAL CORD AND THE ____1____ SPACE SURROUNDING THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD. FROM THIS SPACE IT DRAINS THROUGH THE ___2___ INTO THE ___3___.

1. SUBARACHNOID SPACE
2. ARACHNOID VILLI
3. DURAL SINUSES

49

ROTATING THE HEAD

CRANIAL NERVE XI (ACCESORY)

50

SMELLING A FLOWER

CRANIAL NERVE I (OLFACTORY)

51

RAISING THE EYELIDS; PUPILLARY CONSTRICTION

CRANIAL NERVES III (OCULOMOTOR) AND X (VAGUS)

52

SLOWING THE HEART, INCREASING MOTILITY OF THE DIGESTIVE TRACT

CRANIAL NERVE X (VAGUS)

53

INVOLVED IN BELL'S PALSY (FACIAL PARALYSIS)

CRANIAL NERVE VII (FACIAL)

54

CHEWING FOOD

CRANIAL NERVE V (TRIGEMINAL)

55

LISTENING TO MUSIC; SEASICKNESS

CRANIAL NERVE VIII (VESTIBULOCOHLEAR)

56

SECRETION OF SALIVA; TASTING WELL-SEASONED FOOD

CRANIAL NERVE VII (FACIAL)

57

INVOLVED IN "ROLLING" THE EYES (THREE NERVES PROVIDE NUMBERS ONLY)

CRANIAL NERVES III, IV, VI

58

FEELING A TOOTHACHE

CRANIAL NERVE V (TRIGEMINAL)

59

READING THE NEWSPAPER

CRANIAL NERVE II (OPTIC)

60

PURELY SENSORY IN FUNCTION (THREE NERVES, NUMBERS ONLY)

CRANIAL NERVES I, II, VIII


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