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Ch. 31 Male Reproductive System

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Discuss the structure of the male reproductive system.

1. Essential Organs: Gonads (Testes: Male Gonads)
2. Accessory Organs
a.Genital Ducts
1.Epididymides (Epididymis)
2.Vasa Deferentia (Vas Deferens)
3.Ejaculatory Ducts
b.Accessory Glands
1.Seminal Vesicles
2.Prostate Gland
3.Bulbourethral Glands
c.Supporting Structures
1. External (External Genitals)a.Scrotum b.Penis
2. Internal: Spermatic Cords
3. Perineum


Discuss the primary functions of the male reproductive system.

1. of Reproductive System: Survival of the Species
2. of Male Reproductive System:
a. Produce Mature Sperm
b. Transfer and Introduce Mature Sperm into the
Female Reproductive Tract (for Fertilization)


Discuss the location of the male reproductive system

- Located in Scrotum
- Held in Position by Spermatic Cords


Discuss the structure of the make reproductive system

- Internally, Each Testis Composed of Lobules(Approx. 200 Lobules/Testis)
- Lobules: Cone-Shaped Regions, Created by Inward Extensions of Capsule that Encloses Each Testis
- Each Lobule Contains 2 Structures
a.Seminiferous Tubules
- Tiny Coiled Tubes (1-3/Lobule, Continous)
b.Interstitial Cells
- Cells that Surround Seminiferous Tubules


List the 2 functions of the testes

spermatogenesis and spermatozoa


Discuss sprematogenesis

- Production of Sperm Cells (Spermatozoa)
- Type of Meiosis
a.Occurs Within Seminiferous Tubules
- Sperm Develop Within the Wall of the Sem. Tubules,Once Developed, Released into the Lumen (of ST)(Note: At This Point, Sperm are Developed, but Not Mature, Maturation Occurs as They Pass Through Genital Ducts)
- The Reason that Testes are Located in the Scrotum
Rather than in a Body Cavity is that Body Temp.
Inhibits Spermatogenesis; Temp. in Testes is Lower
Which is Required for Sperm Production


Discuss spermatozoa

- Sperm Cell Composed of 3 Parts
1) Head: Contains
a) Acrosome (Covered by Acrosome Cap)
-Houses Enzymes Released During Capacitation
b) Nucleus: Contains DNA
2)Midpiece: Contains Mitochondria (Large Number Needed to Provide Energy for Motility)
3) Tail: Elongated to Provide Motility for Cell
2.Maturation- Sperm Mature as They Pass Through the Genital Ducts (Esp. Epididymides & Vasa Deferentia)


spermatozoa (conti)

3.Capacitation- Process that Occurs After Sperm are Introduced into the Female Reproductive Tract (Requires Several Hours)
- Involves Release of Enzymes from Acrosome
- Enzymes
1) Break Down Cervical Mucous, Allows
Sperm to Enter the Uterus
2) Break Down the Outer Covering of the Ovum, Allows One Sperm to Penetrate Ovum
*Note:In Order for Capacitation Enzymes to
Properly Carry Out Their Functions, Enzymes
Are Needed from Millions of Sperm; Reason
That High Sperm Count is Required for Fertility


Name the cells that secrete testosterone and discuss the functions of testtosterone

By Interstitial Cells- Interstitial Cells Secrete Testosterone
b.Functions of Testosterone
1.Promotes Development and Maintenance of Male Secondary Sex Characteristics, Accessory Organs, and Adult Male Sexual Behavior
2.Stimulates Protein Anabolism
3.Stimulates Reabsorption of Sodium and Water by Kidney Tubules (Mild) (Like Aldosterone, but Milder)
4.Inhibits FSH and LH- Through Negative Feedback


List the 4 kinds of genital ducts in the make reproductive system

Epididymides, Vas Deferens, Ejaculatory Ducts, Urethra


Discuss the structure location and 3 functions od epididymides

- Single Tightly Coiled Tube Encased in Fibrous Envelop
- Lies Along the Top and Behind Each Testis
a.Duct- First of the Genital Ducts
b.Secretes Part of Seminal Fluid (Unusual)
- Unusual Because Usually Glands (Not Ducts) Add
Secretions to Seminal Fluid
c.Contributes to the Maturation of Sperm- Sperm Spend from 1-3 Weeks in Epididymides,Become Capable of Motility


Discuss the structure location and 2 functions of the vasa deferentia

- Muscular Tubes that Lie Within Spermatic Cords
- Extend from Epididymides to Ejaculatory Ducts
(Passes into the Abd. Cavity, Over the Ureters, Behind the Bladder)
a.Duct- Second of the Genital Ducts
b. Stores/Matures Sperm- Sperm Can Remain in Vasa Deferentia for Up to 1 Month Where They are Further Matured
*Note: Vasectomy is Severing of Vasa Deferentia;
Interrupts the Pathway of Sperm


Disucss the structure location and function of the ejaculatory ducts

- Short Tubes that Lie Between Vasa D. And Urethra
- Pass Through Prostate
Function: Duct
- Third of the Genital Ducts


Discuss the urethra

- Fourth of the Genital Ducts
- Passes Through Prostate


List the 3 kinds of accessory glands in the male reproductive system

Seminal Vesicles, Prostate Gland, Bulbourethral Glands


Discuss the structure, location, and function of the seminal vesicles

- Pouch Shaped Glands that Lie Behind the Bladder
2.Function: Secretes the Nutrient Portion of Seminal Fluid (Thick/Alkaline) (60%)
- Nutrient = Fructose; Sperm Use to Meet Energy Needs
- Secretion is Alkaline to Protect Sperm from Acidity Encountered in Male Urethra and Female Vagina (Acidity Inhibits/Kills Sperm)
- Constitutes the Majority of Seminal Fluid (60%)


Discuss the structure, location, and function of the prostate glands.

- Donut Shaped Gland Located Below the Bladder
- Urethra Passes Through Center of Prostate
*Note: Enlargement of Prostate May Occur as Part of Aging,Enlarged Prostate Squeezes Urethra Shut, Causes Difficulty Voiding
2.Function: Adds An Alkaline Secretion to Seminal
Fluid (31%)


Discuss the structure, location, and function of the bulbourethral glands

- Pea Shaped Glands that Lie Below the Prostate
2.Function: Add An Alkaline Secretion to Seminal
Fluid (5%)


List the 2 kinds of suppporting structures in the male reproductive system

External (External Genitals) and Internal: Spermatic Cords


Discuss the external supporting structures(scrotum and penis)

Scrotum- Skin Covered Pouch Suspended from the Perineum- Internally Contains Testes, Epididymides, First Partof Spermatic Cords
- Composed of 3 Cylinders of Cavernous Tissue
- Cavernous Tissue Contains Numerous Spaces that
Fill with Blood to Produce Erection
- Functions of Penis are the Functions of the Urethra1)Duct for Expelling Urine 2) Terminal Genital Duct, Deposits Seminal Fluid into Female Vagina


Discuss the internal supporting structure (spermatic cords)

Fibrous Cords that House Vasa D., Blood Vessels,
and Nerves
- Holds Testes in Place
- Provides Blood and Nerve Supply to Testes


Discuss the course and compostion of seminal fluid

- Consists of Sperm and Secretions from Accessory Glands and Epididymides
- Seminal Fluid Travels From Testes Through Genital Ducts


Discuss male fertility

Ability of Male to Reproduce
- Complex, Relates to Many Factors, Esp. Number, Size, Shape, and Motility of Sperm

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