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1

Umansky, Ellen M. "Judaism." Contemporary American Religion. Vol. 1. Ed. Wade Clark Roof. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 1999. 360-366. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 11 11 2012.

Judaism is the world's oldest monotheistic faith and traces its historical beginnings to the convenant established by God with the biblical Abraham, Sarah, and their descendants almost four thousand years ago.

2

Jacobs., Louis. "Judaism." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 11. Ed. Michael Berenbaum. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 511-520. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

The term Judaism is first found among the Greek-speaking Jews of the first century C.E. Its Hebrew equivalent, Yahadut, found only occasionally in medieval literature, but used frequently in modern times, has parallels neither in the Bible nor in the rabbinic literature.

3

Bellenir, Karen, ed. "Judaism." Religious Holidays and Calendars: An Encyclopedic Handbook. 3rd. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 2004. 41-57. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

Judaism is one of the oldest, continuously observed religions in the world.

4

Bellenir, Karen, ed. "Judaism." Religious Holidays and Calendars: An Encyclopedic Handbook. 3rd. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 2004. 41-57. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

According to Jewish belief, the law given to the Jewish people by God contained everything they needed to live a holy life, including the ability to be reinterpreted in new historical situations.

5

Katz, Nathan. "Encyclopedia of Religion." Judaism: Judaism in Asia. 2nd. Vol. 7. Ed. Lindsay Jones. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 5004-5011. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

For as long as two millennia, perhaps even longer, there have been Jewish communities scattered throughout South, East, central, and Southeast Asia.

6

Idel, Moshe. "Judaism to 1800." New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Vol. 3. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 1171-1174. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 11 2012.

As a religion developing over three millennia, Judaism changed, diversified, and acculturated to many cultural and spiritual environments, while maintaining at the same time some basic characteristics.

7

Idel, Moshe. "Judaism to 1800." New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Vol. 3. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 1171-1174. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 11 2012.

during the second millennium C.E., philosophical and mystical forms of Judaism emerged.

8

Gerber, Jane S. "Judaism: Judaism in the Middle East and North Africa since 1492." Encyclopedia of Religion. 2nd. Vol. 7. Ed. Lindsay Jones. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 4995-5002. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 08 11 2012.

The year 1492 marks a turning point in the history of the Jewish people. The expulsion of the Jews from Spain closes a brilliant and complex chapter in Jewish history, releasing a massive group of talented and despondent refugees upon the shores of the Mediterranean.

9

Fierstien, Robert E. "Rabbinate: The Rabbinate in Modern Judaism." Encyclopedia of Religion. 2nd. Vol. 11. Ed. Lindsay Jones. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 7581-7583. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 11 2012.

The modern rabbinate is a product of the Enlightenment and of the political emancipation of the Jews in western and central Europe.

10

Weil, Shalva. "Judaism - South Asia." Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Vol. 3. Ed. Karen christensen and David Levinson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. 284-286. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

Judaism, a monotheistic religion with a belief in a transcendent creator of the world, is essentially different from the predominantly polytheistic, iconocentric religions of South Asia.

11

Clavin, Patricia. "Hitler, Adolf." Encyclopedia of the Great Depression. Vol. 1. Ed. Robert S. McElvaine. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 444-447. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889–April 30, 1945) was a founding member and leader of the National Socialist Party of Germany (NSDAP, Nazi Party) from 1922.

12

Darity, William A., ed. "Hitler, Adolf." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2nd. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 208. 486-488. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

As the leader of Germany’s Third Reich in the 1930s and 1940s, Adolf Hitler developed a totalitarian fascist state dedicated to imperialist expansion of a pure German race.

13

Lehman, Shirelle Phelps and Jeffrey, ed. "Hitler, Adolf." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2nd. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 263-264. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

Adolf Hitler ruled Germany as a dictator from 1933 to 1945.

14

Lehman, Shirelle Phelps and Jeffrey, ed. "Hitler, Adolf." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2nd. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 263-264. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

In 1913 he moved to Munich.

15

Lehman, Shirelle Phelps and Jeffrey, ed. "Hitler, Adolf." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2nd. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 263-264. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

Hitler was born in Braunauam Inn, Austria, on April 20, 1889, the son of a minor government official and a peasant woman.

16

Lehman, Shirelle Phelps and Jeffrey, ed. "Hitler, Adolf." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2nd. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 263-264. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

He gave up his Austrian citizenship and enlisted in the German army when WORLD WAR I began in 1914.

17

Lehman, Shirelle Phelps and Jeffrey, ed. "Hitler, Adolf." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2nd. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 263-264. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

While in prison Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (My Struggle), a rambling book that was both an autobiography and a declaration of his political beliefs.

18

Lehman, Shirelle Phelps and Jeffrey, ed. "Hitler, Adolf." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2nd. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 263-264. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

Hitler served only nine months in prison, as political pressure forced the Bavarian government to commute his sentence. He was set free in December 1924.

19

Lehman, Shirelle Phelps and Jeffrey, ed. "Hitler, Adolf." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2nd. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 263-264. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

From 1924 to 1928, Hitler and the Nazis had little political success.

20

Lehman, Shirelle Phelps and Jeffrey, ed. "Hitler, Adolf." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2nd. Vol. 5. Detroit: Gale, 2005. 263-264. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 14 11 2012.

As the economy declined, Hitler railed against the Versailles treaty and a conspiracy of Jews and Communists who were destroying Germany.

21

Frank, Anne (lies Marie) (1929-1945). Major 21st-Century Writers. Vol. 2. Ed. Tracey Matthews and Tracey Watson. Detroit: Gale, 2005. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 11 2012.

Born June 12, 1929, in Frankfurt on the Main, Germany

22

Frank, Anne (lies Marie) (1929-1945). Major 21st-Century Writers. Vol. 2. Ed. Tracey Matthews and Tracey Watson. Detroit: Gale, 2005. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 11 2012.

died of typhoid fever and malnutrition, March, 1945, in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp near Belgen, Germany

23

DiMauro, Laurie. "Anne Franke: The Diary of a Young Girl." St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Vol. 1. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. St. James Press, 2000. 95-96. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

No single individual has come to represent the six million Jewish victims of the Holocaust more than the Dutch schoolgirl Anne Frank.

24

Dekker, Rudolf M. "Frank, Anne (1929-1945)." Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society. Vol. 2. Ed. Paula S. Fass. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 367-368. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 11 2012.

She fled from her country of birth to the Netherlands in 1934, following her father, mother, and sister.

25

Dekker, Rudolf M. "Frank, Anne (1929-1945)." Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society. Vol. 2. Ed. Paula S. Fass. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 367-368. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 11 2012.

In March 1944 Anne heard a radio announcement by the Dutch government in exile that after the war diaries would be collected to document the German occupation.

26

Dekker, Rudolf M. "Frank, Anne (1929-1945)." Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society. Vol. 2. Ed. Paula S. Fass. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 367-368. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 11 2012.

in August 1944, when Anne and the others were betrayed, arrested, and deported.

27

Dekker, Rudolf M. "Frank, Anne (1929-1945)." Encyclopedia of Children and Childhood: In History and Society. Vol. 2. Ed. Paula S. Fass. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 367-368. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 15 11 2012.

Anne died in Bergen-Belsen in February or early March 1945.

28

Winter, John Merriman and Jay, ed. "Frank, Anne (1929-1945)." Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2006. 1133-1136. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

Anne Frank was born in Frankfurt am Rhein, Germany, on 12 June 1929.

29

Winter, John Merriman and Jay, ed. "Frank, Anne (1929-1945)." Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2006. 1133-1136. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

Her ancestors had lived in that city for centuries, achieving a modest position of wealth and prestige in the world of commerce and banking.

30

"Anne Frank." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2nd. Vol. 6. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 54-56. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

her death from typhus in March 1945 in the Nazi concentration camp Bergen-Belsen

31

"Anne Frank." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2nd. Vol. 6. Detroit: Gale, 2004. 54-56. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

Although Africa did not play a significant role in World War II, the wars had a major impact on the continent.

32

Kearl, Michael C. "War." Macmillan Encyclopedia of Death and Dying. Vol. 2. Ed. Robert Kastenbaum. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 924-927. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 11 11 2012.

Most murders within the human species have been committed by soldiers in war.

33

Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. "World War II." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Vol. 8. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 1720-1726. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

World War II started in September 1939 when German troops invaded Poland.

34

Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. "World War II." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Vol. 8. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 1720-1726. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

It evolved into an international conflict involving sixty-one countries.

35

Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. "World War II." U*X*L Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Vol. 8. Ed. Lawrence W. Baker and Sarah Hermsen. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 1720-1726. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

Despite Americans' desire to remain uninvolved in world currents, the United States was drawn into World War II in 1941.

36

Aquila, Marie L. "Music, world War II." Americans at War. Vols. Vol. 3: 1901-1945. Ed. John P. Resch. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 126-128. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

During World War II, the music industry made significant contributions to the U.S. war effort.

37

Aquila, Marie L. "Music, world War II." Americans at War. Vols. Vol. 3: 1901-1945. Ed. John P. Resch. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 126-128. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

Making women soldiers was the most radical experiment ever undertaken in American gender roles.

38

Aquila, Marie L. "Music, world War II." Americans at War. Vols. Vol. 3: 1901-1945. Ed. John P. Resch. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 126-128. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

In total, 400,000 Americans died during the war.

39

Panchyk, Richard, and Caren Prommersberger. "Monuments, Cemeteries, World War II." Americans at War. Vols. Vol. 3: 1901-1945. Ed. John P. Resch. Detroit: macmillan Reference USA, 2005. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

World War II began in 1939 and lasted until 1945.

40

Grant, Barry Keith, ed. "World War II." Schirmer Encyclopedia of Film. Vol. 4. New York: Schirmer Reference, 2007. 385-396. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 11 2012.

Dividing the world between the Axis Powers—Germany, Italy and Japan—and the Allies, led by the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, it was fought over numerous theaters in Western and Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, Africa and the Middle East, and the South Pacific and Southeast Asia.

41

"Nazi Germany." Gale Encyclopedia of World History. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

The government of Nazi Germany, the Third Reich, was an absolute dictatorship, with supreme authority in the hands of the F¨uhrer (leader), Adolf Hitler (1889–1945).

42

"Nazi Germany." Gale Encyclopedia of World History. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

Nazi Party members bowed to Hitler’s will in all things.

43

"Nazi Germany." Gale Encyclopedia of World History. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

Hitler’s government also rewrote judicial law to carry out its racial, political, and military agenda unconditionally.

44

"Nazi Germany." Gale Encyclopedia of World History. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

The Nazi Party began in 1919 as the German Workers’ Party in Munich.

45

"Nazi Germany." Gale Encyclopedia of World History. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

As the bankruptcy, suicide, and crime rates rose dramatically, both the Nazi Party and the Communist Party seized on the chaos, positioning themselves to take over when the Weimar Republic finally collapsed in early 1933.

46

"Nazi Germany." Gale Encyclopedia of World History. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

One of the first acts toward establishing the single-party Nazi government was Hindenburg’s issuance of the Reichstag Fire Decree in February 1933, which abolished the civil rights that had been granted to German citizens by the constitution of the Weimar Republic.

47

"Nazi Germany." Gale Encyclopedia of World History. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

The election was held on March 15, 1933. While the Nazi Party did receive more votes than any other party, it won by a slim margin, leaving Hitler with a weak hold on his leadership.

48

"Nazi Germany." Gale Encyclopedia of World History. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

By the middle of 1933 the Nazi Party was the only legal political party operating in Germany.

49

"Nazi Germany." Gale Encyclopedia of World History. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

The Allies outlawed the Nazi Party and its symbols throughout Germany and Austria.

50

Bywerk, Randall L. "Streicher, Julius." Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Vol. 2. Ed. Dinah L. Shelton. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 1001-1002. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

Nazi Party's primary anti-Semitic propagandist Julius Streicher was the most visible and prolific anti-Semitic propagandist for the Nazi Party.

51

Krakowski, Stefan, and Michael Berenbaum. "Stutthof." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 19. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 277-278. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

STUTTHOF (Pol. Sztutowo), German concentration camp established in a secluded area 22½ mi. (36 km.) E. of Danzig, which existed from Sept. 2, 1939, until May 9, 1945. Surrounded by water on three sides, the land was wet and almost at sea level.

52

Krakowski, Stefan, and Michael Berenbaum. "Stutthof." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 19. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 277-278. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

Until 1943 only small numbers of Jews from Warsaw, Bialystok, and some other places were deported to Stutthof.

53

Krakowski, Stefan, and Michael Berenbaum. "Stutthof." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 19. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 277-278. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

Besides the central camp 105 subcamps were built, notably in Stolp, Heiligenbeil, Gerdauen, Jesau, Schippenbeil, Seerappen, Praust, Burggraben, Thorn, and Elbing.

54

Krakowski, Stefan, and Michael Berenbaum. "Stutthof." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 19. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 277-278. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

In spring 1944 several thousand Jews from concentration camps in Ostland (in Latvia and Lithuania) were deported to Stutthof, and in the early summer thousands of Jewish women arrived from Hungary.

55

Krakowski, Stefan, and Michael Berenbaum. "Stutthof." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 19. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 277-278. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

When the camp was liberated on May 9 there were some 100 prisoners still alive at Stutthof.

56

Dombrowska, Danuta, and Michael Berenbaum. "Sobibor." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 18. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 700-701. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

SOBIBOR (Sobibór), one of the six Nazi death camps situated in German-occupied Poland, three miles west of the Bug River and five miles south of Wlodawa in the General Gouvernment. It was situated in a wooded area near a small village by the same name in the Lublin District.

57

Dombrowska, Danuta, and Michael Berenbaum. "Sobibor." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 18. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 700-701. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

n March 1942 the Germans began construction work on the camp in preparation for the mass murder of Polish and other Jews.

58

Dombrowska, Danuta, and Michael Berenbaum. "Sobibor." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 18. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 700-701. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

The camp was divided into three sections. Sector I was for administrative functions. Sector II, or the Reception area, was where Jews, who would arrive by train, were received; it was there that their valuables were confiscated, their hair shorn, and their clothes removed. Sector III was the killing center in the northwest area of the camp, equipped with gas chambers and mass graves.

59

Dombrowska, Danuta, and Michael Berenbaum. "Sobibor." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 18. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 700-701. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

Victims were marched naked from one camp to the other.

60

Dombrowska, Danuta, and Michael Berenbaum. "Sobibor." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 18. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 700-701. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 10 11 2012.

The gas chambers were powered by a 200 horsepower engine which produced carbon monoxide.

61

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai, and Michael Berenbaum. "Wittenberg, Yizhak." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 21. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 125-126. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 11 2012.

WITTENBERG, YIẒHAK (Itzig; 1907–1943), first commander of the Jewish fighters' organization in the Vilna ghetto (Fareynegte Partizaner Organizatsye, United Partisan Organization, FPO).

62

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai, and Michael Berenbaum. "Wittenberg, Yizhak." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 21. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 125-126. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 11 2012.

The fighters' organization was established in the ghetto after the Nazis systematically murdered more than 40,000 Vilna Jews, after transporting them to the site of the massacre at *Ponary .

63

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai, and Michael Berenbaum. "Wittenberg, Yizhak." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 21. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 125-126. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 11 2012.

After the organization was established, Wittenberg was chosen commander. He headed the training program and was an outstanding officer

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Ansbacher, B. Mordechai, and Michael Berenbaum. "Wittenberg, Yizhak." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 21. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 125-126. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 11 2012.

On July 15, 1943, one of Wittenberg's contacts was caught by the Nazis outside the ghetto, who were apparently unaware of the existence of the FPO. On the evening of the same day, the leaders of the fighters' organization were ordered to appear before Jacob Gens, the chief of the Jewish police in the ghetto, to provide an explanation.

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Ansbacher, B. Mordechai, and Michael Berenbaum. "Wittenberg, Yizhak." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 21. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 125-126. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 11 2012.

The ghetto fighters attacked the SS men and in an exchange of fire succeeded in freeing Wittenberg. Instead of attacking the ghetto and destroying it with Wittenberg inside, the SS handed Gens an ultimatum that he must turn Wittenberg over to them before 3:00 A.M. or they would destroy the ghetto and all its inhabitants.

66

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai, and Michael Berenbaum. "Wittenberg, Yizhak." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 21. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 125-126. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 11 2012.

Two camps quickly emerged: representatives of the fighters, who believed that under no circumstances was Wittenberg to be given over to the Nazis; and those who supported Gens and demanded that it was necessary to spare the ghetto and hand Wittenberg over to the Germans at the appointed hour, so as not to endanger the entire ghetto for the sake of one man

67

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai, and Michael Berenbaum. "Wittenberg, Yizhak." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 21. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 125-126. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 11 2012.

The fighters opened up negotiations with the chief of police with the intention of offering a volunteer to deceive the Germans or to claim that Wittenberg had escaped.

68

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai, and Michael Berenbaum. "Wittenberg, Yizhak." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 21. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 125-126. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 11 2012.

The fighters were close to despair, seeing all their preparations for the fateful day collapsing because of one incident, and they demanded that Wittenberg give the order to fight.

69

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai, and Michael Berenbaum. "Wittenberg, Yizhak." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 21. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 125-126. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 13 11 2012.

But Wittenberg was not prepared to allow Jew to fight Jew until his fighters reached their real enemy. Full of confidence, he walked out into the deserted street, approached the ghetto gate, and turned himself over to the Germans.

70

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai,Michael Berenbaum. "Lubetkin, Zivia." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 13. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 240-241. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 11 2012.

LUBETKIN, ZIVIA (1914–1978), founder of Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB), fighter in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Born in Beten, near Slonim, Zivia Lubetkin was a member of the Zionist labor youth movement Deror and a representative of *He-Ḥalutz on the National Jewish Council.

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Otto Frank was born in Frankfurt. He was the second son of Michael Frank and Alice Stern Frank.

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His siblings were Robert Frank, Helene (Leni) Frank, and Herbert Frank.

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Otto was a cousin of the well known furniture designer Jean-Michel Frank, and a grandson of Zacharias Frank.

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Frank served in the German army as an officer during the First World War. He worked in the bank his family ran until it collapsed in the early 1930s.

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He married Edith Holländer—an heiress to a scrap-metal and industrial-supply business—on 12 May 1925 in Frankfurt, and their first daughter, Margot Betti, was born on 16 February 1926, followed by Anne (Annelies Marie) on 12 June 1929.

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As the tide of Nazism rose in Germany and anti-Jewish decrees encouraged attacks on Jewish individuals and families, Frank decided to evacuate his family to the safer western nations of Europe. In August 1933 he moved his family to Aachen, where his wife's mother resided, in preparation for a subsequent and final move to Amsterdam in the Netherlands.

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There he started a company, Opekta, that sold spices and pectin for use in the manufacture of jam. After Germany invaded Holland in May 1940, Otto made his business look "Aryan" by transferring control to non-Jews.

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In 1938 and 1941, Frank attempted to obtain visas for his family to emigrate to the United States or Cuba

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He was granted a single visa for himself to Cuba on 1 December 1941, but no one knows if it ever reached him.

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Ten days later, when Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy declared war on the United States, the visa was canceled by Havana.

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Born Hermine Santruschitz in Vienna, (later spelled as Santrouschitz in the Netherlands), she was transported to Leiden from Vienna in December 1920 to escape the food shortages prevailing in Austria after World War I. The Nieuwenburg family took her as their foster daughter, and called her by the diminutive Miep by which she became known.

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In 1922, she moved with her foster family to Amsterdam. In 1933, she met Otto Frank when she applied for the post of temporary secretary in his company, Opekta.

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She initially ran the complaints and information desk in Opekta, and was eventually promoted to a more general administrative role. She became a close friend of the Frank family, as did Jan Gies, her long-time fiancé.

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After refusing to join a Nazi women's association, her passport was invalidated and she was ordered to be deported within ninety days back to Austria (by then a part of Germany, and by default she was a German Citizen).

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The couple were married as quickly as possible on 16 July 1941 so that she could obtain Dutch citizenship, and thus evade deportation.

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Her knowledge of Dutch and German helped the Frank family assimilate into Dutch society, and she and her husband became regular guests at the Franks' home.

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With her husband Jan Gies, and the other Opekta employees, Victor Kugler, Johannes Kleiman, and Bep Voskuijl, Miep Gies helped hide Otto and Edith Frank, their daughters Margot and Anne, Hermann and Auguste van Pels, their son Peter, and Fritz Pfeffer in several upstairs rooms in the company's office building on Amsterdam's Prinsengracht from 6 July 1942 to August 4, 1944.[11] In an interview, Miep said she was glad to help the families hide because she was extremely concerned about them seeing what was happening to the Jews in Amsterdam.

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Every day, she saw trucks loaded with Jews heading to the railway station from where the trains left for concentration camps. She did not tell anyone, not even her own parents, about the people in hiding whom she was assisting.

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When purchasing food for the people in hiding, Miep avoided suspicion in many ways, for example by visiting several different suppliers a day.

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She never carried more than what one shopping bag could hold or what she could hide under her coat She kept the workers at Opekta from being suspicious by trying not to enter the hiding place during office hours.

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Ansbacher, B. Mordechai,Michael Berenbaum. "Lubetkin, Zivia." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 13. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 240-241. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 11 2012.

Five hundred jews were saved

92

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai,Michael Berenbaum. "Lubetkin, Zivia." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 13. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 240-241. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 11 2012.

the term holocaust with origins in the greek transtation of hebrew bible, translates the hebrew expression olah as holokausten meaning "a burnt sacrifice

93

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai,Michael Berenbaum. "Lubetkin, Zivia." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 13. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 240-241. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 11 2012.

the meaning of holocaust is itself fraught with great controversy

94

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai,Michael Berenbaum. "Lubetkin, Zivia." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 13. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 240-241. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 11 2012.

the nazi's destroyed two thirds of europe's jews and one third of the worlds jewish poulation

95

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai,Michael Berenbaum. "Lubetkin, Zivia." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 13. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 240-241. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 11 2012.

if nazi intentions had fully prevailed, all jewish life and tradition whould have been annihilated globally

96

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai,Michael Berenbaum. "Lubetkin, Zivia." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 13. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 240-241. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 11 2012.

the holocaust has more than one name it's perpetratorstook part in what the nazis eventaully called the "final soulation"

97

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai,Michael Berenbaum. "Lubetkin, Zivia." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 13. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 240-241. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 11 2012.

at the end of the war, alleid armies found seven to nine million displaced people living in countreis not their own. more than six million people returned to their native lands

98

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai,Michael Berenbaum. "Lubetkin, Zivia." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 13. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 240-241. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 11 2012.

many jews lived in displaced persons camp at first among their killers, because the allies did not differentiatebon the basis of religion, but by nationaltiy

99

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai,Michael Berenbaum. "Lubetkin, Zivia." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 13. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 240-241. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 11 2012.

perhaps the most pro found response of the surivoirs could not be appreciated at the time .in the aftermath of death, they chose life and to bring children into the world

100

Ansbacher, B. Mordechai,Michael Berenbaum. "Lubetkin, Zivia." Encyclopaedia Judaica. 2nd. Vol. 13. Ed. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 240-241. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 16 11 2012.

much attention has been paid to the non-jews, around 20,000


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