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Platinum Natural Science: Atoms

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created 4 months ago by Colleen_McK
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updated 4 months ago by Colleen_McK

Grade levels:
8th grade

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1
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What is this?

An atom

2

What is "Matter"?

Anything that takes up space and has mass.

3

All matter is made up of tiny particles called __________.

Atoms

4

True or false: Elements can be broken down into simpler substances.

False! Elements cannot be broken down into simpler substances.

5

How many different types of atoms are elements made up of?

Only 1 type

6

Who was Dmitri Mendeleev?

A Russian scientist who arranged the elements into a pattern called the Periodic Table of Elements.

7

How many rows are there on the PToE?

7 horizontal rows

8

How many columns are there on the PToE?

18 vertical columns

9

What are the three main groups that elements are arranged into on the PToE?

Give an example of each.

  • Metals (copper)
  • Non-metals (hydrogen)
  • Semi-metals (silicon)
10

Define the term 'element'.

An element is a pure substance that consists of only 1 type of atom that cannot be split into simpler substances.

11

True or false: The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all the other elements.

True

12

How many elements are there on the PToE?

118

13

Atoms are made up of smaller _________ particles.

subatomic

14

What is the centre region of the atom called?

The nucleus

15

What is the nucleus of an atom made up of?

  • Neutrons
  • Protons
16

What type of charge does neutron have?

A neutral charge

17

What type of charge does an proton have?

A positive charge

18

What are the particles that spin around the nucleus of an atom called?

Electrons

19

What type of charge do electrons have?

A negative charge

20

Are atoms positive / negative / neutrally charged? Why?

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Neutral.

The number of electrons (-) is equal to the number of protons (+).

21
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On the PToE, what does the atomic number tell us?

The number of protons and the number of electrons the element has.

22
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On the PToE, what does the mass number tell us?

The number of particles in the nucleus.

23

How do you work out how many neutrons are in an element?

Mass number - atomic number = number of neutrons

24
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What is the Atomic number of Potassium?

19

25
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What is the Mass number of Potassium?

39

26
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Identify this Element.

Nitrogen (7 protons, 7 electrons, 7 neutrons)

27
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Identify this Element.

Beryllium (4 protons, 4 electrons, 5 neutrons)

28

Matter can be classified into 2 groups. Name them.

  • Pure substances
  • Mixed substances
29

What is a mixture?

Two or more substances mixed together.

30

Elements are pure substances because __________________________.

all the atoms of a specific element are identical.

31

Compounds are pure substances because ____________________________.

all the molecules of a specific substances are identical.

32

How can you separate pure substances?

Only with a chemical reaction!

(Not by a physical means!!)

33

How can you separate a mixture?

By physical means.

34
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Is this a pure substance or not?

Pure - all the pieces of gold are identical.

35
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Is this a pure substance or not?

Pure - all the particles in a glass of water are identical.

36
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Is this a pure substance or not?

Pure - the same particles are arranged the same way in a spoon of table salt.

37
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Is this a pure substance or not?

Pure - all the carbon dioxide particles are identical.

38
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Are iron nails a pure substances or not?

A pure substance made from the element iron.

39
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Are mixed herbs a pure substance or not?

A mixed of many types of herbs - not pure.

40
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Are sugar cubes a pure substance or not?

A pure substance which is a compound - made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

41
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Is the helium inside the balloons a pure substance or not?

Pure substance - consisting of the element helium

42
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Is the copper sulphate a pure substance or not?

It is a pure substance, which is a compound of copper, sulphur and oxygen.

43

True or false: Elements and compounds are pure substances.

True. They consist of 1 type of particle only.

44

What is a molecule?

Two or more atoms that are chemically bonded together.

45

What is a diatomic molecule?

A molecule that consists of exactly 2 atoms

46

Give 5 examples of diatomic molecules.

  • Nitrogen - N2
  • Hydrogen - H2
  • Oxygen - O2
  • Fluorine - F2
  • Chlorine - Cl2
  • Bromine - Br2
  • Iodine - I2
47

True or false: There are millions of different compounds.

True

48

What does water consist of?

What is its formula?

hydrogen and oxygen

H2O

49

What does carbon dioxide consist of?

What is its formula?

carbon and oxygen

CO2

50

What does salt consist of?

What is its formula?

sodium and chlorine

NaCl

51
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What compound is this a model of?

Water (H2O)

52
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What compound is this a model of?

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

53
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What compound is this a model of?

Salt (NaCl)

54

True or false: All the elements know to man are listed on the Periodic Table.

True

55

True or false: Some elements are not made from single elements. They are made up of molecules.

True

56

What is a Compound?

A pure substance formed by a chemical reaction between two or more different elements.

A substance made from atoms of two or more different elements.

57

How many atoms of each element is in one molecule of hydrogen chloride (HCl)?

  • 1 hydrogen
  • 1 chlorine
58

How many atoms of each element is in one molecule of sulphur dioxide (SO2)?

  • 1 sulphur
  • 2 oxygen
59

How many atoms of each element is in one molecule of ammonia (NH3)?

  • 1 nitrogen
  • 3 hydrogen
60

How many atoms of each element is in one molecule of carbon monoxide (CO)?

  • 1 carbon
  • 1 oxygen
61
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What compound is this?

Ammonia

62
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What compound is this?

Hydrogen chloride

63
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What compound is this?

Carbon monoxide

64
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What compound is this?

Sulphur dioxide

65

What is a decomposition reaction?

A chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler compounds or elements.

66

What is electrolysis?

A chemical reaction in which an electrical current is used to decompose a compound.

67

What are atoms in a molecule held together by?

Chemical bonds

68

What is a chemical bond?

A strong force of attraction that holds atoms together.

69
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What does this picture demonstrate?

The decomposition of water

70
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In this experiment (the decomposition of water) bubbles form at the ends of the pencils. What type of bubbles are formed on the pencil connected to the negative side of the battery?

Hydrogen bubbles (more bubbles)

71
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In this experiment (the decomposition of water) bubbles form at the ends of the pencils. What type of bubbles are formed on the pencil connected to the positive side of the battery?

Oxygen bubbles (less bubbles)

72
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What does this picture demonstrate?

Electrolysis of copper chloride

73
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In this experiment (the electrolysis of copper chloride) what element forms on the negative side of the electrode?

Copper (reddish brown substance)

74
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In this experiment (the electrolysis of copper chloride) what element forms on the positive side of the electrode?

Chlorine gas (bubbles)

75

What is thermal decomposition?

A chemical reaction in which heat is used to decompose a compound.

76

Name two ways to separate compounds.

  • Electrolysis
  • Heating
77

Name 7 ways to separate a mixture.

  • Hand sorting
  • Sieving
  • Magnet
  • Filtration
  • Evaporation
  • Distillation
  • Chromatography
78

True or false: Substances that are mixed keep most of their own properties.

True

79

True or false: When we mix elements or compounds together, the particles of the substances move in between each other.

True (e.g. peanuts and raisins)

80

True or false: When we mix elements or compounds together, there is no chemical reaction and we can mix them in any ratio.

True (e.g. peanuts and raisins)

81

Fill in the missing word:

One element _________ be changed into another element by a chemical reaction.

One element cannot be changed into another element by a chemical reaction.

82

Fill in the missing word:

Some elements, such as Oxygen, do not exist as single atoms; they are made up of ______.

Some elements, such as Oxygen, do not exist as single atoms; they are made up of diatomic molecules.

83

Fill in the missing word:

The atoms in a compound are always combined in a _________ ratio.

The atoms in a compound are always combined in a fixed ratio.

84

Is magnesium oxide an element, a compound or a mixture?

compound

85

Is air an element, a compound or a mixture?

mixture

86

Is hydrogen gas an element, a compound or a mixture?

element

87

The boiling point of pure water is 100oC at sea level. If a sample of water only boils at 101,5oC what do you know about the sample. Give a reason for your answer.

The sample is not pure.

Pure substances have specific boiling points.


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