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Test 4

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created 9 months ago by SemperFiMoM
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1
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Match the labeled strucures to the terms

Glomerulus

C.

2
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Afferent arteriole

A

3
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Collecting Duct

B

4
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Loop of Henle

E

5
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Peritubular Capillaries

D

6

A) Site at which most of the tubular re-absorption occurs.
B) Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.
C) Site of filtrate formation.
D) Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.

Proximal convoluted tubule

A) Site at which most of the tubular re-absorption occurs.

7

A) Site at which most of the tubular re-absorption occurs.
B) Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.
C) Site of filtrate formation.
D) Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.

Glomerulus

C) Site of filtrate formation.

8

A) Site at which most of the tubular re-absorption occurs.
B) Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.
C) Site of filtrate formation.
D) Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.

Peritubular capillaries

B) Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.

9

A) Site at which most of the tubular re-absorption occurs.
B) Blood supply that directly receives substances from the tubular cells.
C) Site of filtrate formation.
D) Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.

Collecting duct

D) Site that drains the distal convoluted tubule.

10

True or False. True = a, False =b

If the GFR is too low, needed substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules that they are not absorbed and instead are lost in the urine

B. False

11

The ureter transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder

A. True

12

The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retro-peritoneal

A. True

13

Urine is 95% water by volume

A. True

14

Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process

B. False

15

The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct

B. False

16

Incontinence is the inability to control voluntary micturition

A. True

17

Urea is reabsorbed in the loop of Henle

B. False

18

Blood pressure in the renal glomerulus is lower than in most parts of the body in order to conserve body water

B. False

19

Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate

A. True

20

The trigone is so named because of the shape of the urinary bladder

A. True

21

Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer

A. True

22

Multiple Choice. Select the best answer

The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.

A) loop of Henle
B) glomerular filtration membrane
C) collecting duct
D) distal convoluted tubule

A) loop of Henle

23

Urine passes through the ________.

A) renal hilum to the bladder to the ureter
B) pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra
C) glomerulus to ureter to renal tubule
D) hilum to urethra to bladder

B) pelvis of the kidney to ureter to bladder to urethra

24

Which of the following is not associated with the renal corpuscle?

A) a podocyte
B) a vasa recta
C) a fenestrated capillary
D) an efferent arteriole

B) a vasa recta

25

An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.
A) decrease in the production of ADH
B) increase in the production of ADH
C) increase in the production of aldosterone
D) decrease in the concentration of the blood plasma

B) increase in the production of ADH

26

The urinary bladder is composed of ________ epithelium.
A) transitional
B) simple squamous
C) stratified squamous
D) pseudostratified columnar

A) transitional

27

Which of the choices below is not a function of the urinary system?

A) helps maintain homeostasis by controlling the composition, volume, and pressure of blood
B) regulates blood glucose levels and produces hormones
C) maintains blood osmolarity
D) eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

D) eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat

28

Which gland sits atop each kidney?
A) adrenal
B) thymus
C) pituitary
D) pancreas

A) adrenal

29

The ________ artery lies on the boundary between the cortex and medulla of the kidney.
A) lobar
B) arcuate
C) interlobar
D) cortical radiate

B) arcuate

30

The glomerulus differs from other capillaries in the body in that it ________.
A) has a basement membrane
B) is impermeable to most substances
C) is drained by an efferent arteriole
D) has a blood pressure much lower than other organ systems

C) is drained by an efferent arteriole

31

The descending limb of the loop of Henle ________.
A) is not permeable to water
B) is freely permeable to sodium and urea
C) pulls water by osmosis into the lumen of the tubule
D) contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

D) contains fluid that becomes more concentrated as it moves down into the medulla

32

The fatty tissue surrounding the kidneys is important because it ________.
A) ensures adequate energy for the adrenal glands to operate efficiently
B) stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position
C) is necessary as a barrier between the adrenal glands and kidneys
D) produces vitamin D

B) stabilizes the position of the kidneys by holding them in their normal position

33

The renal corpuscle is made up of ________.
A) Bowman's capsule and glomerulus
B) the descending loop of Henle
C) the renal pyramid
D) the renal papilla

A) Bowman's capsule and glomerulus

34

The functional and structural unit of the kidneys is the ________.
A) nephron
B) loop of Henle
C) glomerular capsule
D) basement membrane of the capillaries

A) nephron

35

The chief force pushing water and solutes out of the blood across the filtration membrane is ________.
A) the design and size of the podocytes
B) the thickness of the capillary endothelium
C) glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)
D) the size of the pores in the basement membrane of the capillaries

C) glomerular hydrostatic pressure (glomerular blood pressure)

36

Which of the following statements describes the histology of the ureters?
A) They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).
B) They are actually an extension of the visceral peritoneum.
C) They are made up of several layers of endothelium.
D) They are made up entirely of muscle tissue because they need to contract in order to transport urine efficiently.

A) They are trilayered (mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia).

37

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement?
A) The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.
B) The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems but at different times.
C) The male urethra is longer than the female urethra.
D) The male urethra is a passageway for both urine and semen.

A) The male urethra serves both the urinary and reproductive systems at the same time.

38

Which of the following is not reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
A) Na+
B) K+
C) glucose
D) creatinine

D) creatinine

39

The mechanism of water reabsorption by the renal tubules is ________.
A) active transport
B) osmosis
C) solvent drag
D) cotransport with sodium ions

B) osmosis

40

The function of angiotensin II is to ________.
A) constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure
B) decrease the production of aldosterone
C) decrease arterial blood pressure
D) decrease water absorption

A) constrict arterioles and increase blood pressure

41

Which of the following acts as the trigger for the initiation of micturition (voiding)?
A) the stretching of the bladder wall
B) motor neurons
C) the pressure of the fluid in the bladder
D) the sympathetic efferents

A) the stretching of the bladder wall

42

The filtration membrane includes all except ________.
A) glomerular endothelium
B) podocytes
C) renal fascia
D) basement membrane

C) renal fascia

43

An important characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.
A) 1.041-1.073
B) 1.001-1.035
C) 1.030-1.040
D) 1.000-1.015

B) 1.001-1.035

44

Alcohol acts as a diuretic because it ________.
A) is not reabsorbed by the tubule cells
B) increases the rate of glomerular filtration
C) increases secretion of ADH
D) inhibits the release of ADH

D) inhibits the release of ADH

45

Which of the following is not a part of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
A) granular cells
B) macula densa
C) podocyte cells
D) mesangial cells

C) podocyte cells

46

If one says that the clearance value of glucose is zero, what does this mean?
A) The glucose molecule is too large to be filtered out of the blood.
B) Most of the glucose is filtered out of the blood and is not reabsorbed in the convoluted tubules.
C) Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.
D) The clearance value of glucose is relatively high in a healthy adult.

C) Normally all the glucose is reabsorbed.

47

Match the following

A) Intracellular
B) Interstitial
C) Nonelectrolytes
D) Extracellular
E) Electrolytes

Dissociate in water.

E) Electrolytes

48

A) Intracellular
B) Interstitial
C) Nonelectrolytes
D) Extracellular
E) Electrolytes

Do not dissociate

C) Nonelectrolytes

49

A) Intracellular
B) Interstitial
C) Nonelectrolytes
D) Extracellular
E) Electrolytes.

The fluid compartments located outside the cell

D) Extracellular

50

A) Intracellular
B) Interstitial
C) Nonelectrolytes
D) Extracellular
E) Electrolytes

Fluid compartments located within the cell.

A) Intracellular

51

A) Intracellular
B) Interstitial
C) Nonelectrolytes
D) Extracellular
E) Electrolytes

Spaces between the cell.

B) Interstitial

52

True or False. True = a, False =b

Adipose tissue is one of the most hydrated of all tissues in the human body

B. False

53

The most abundant cation in intracellular fluid is sodium.

B. False

54

The thirst center in the brain is located in the hypothalamus

A. True

55

It is impossible to over-hydrate because people need as much water as they can drink to carry out ordinary body functions.

B. False

56

The two hormones responsible for the regulation of calcium are pituitary hormone and calcitonin.

B. False

57

The normal pH of blood is 7.35-7.45.

A. True

58

Weak acids are able to act as chemical buffering systems for the body because they partially dissociate.

A. True

59

The three main ways in which the body maintains its proper pH is by buffering systems, the respiratory system, and the urinary system

A. True

60

Prolonged hyperventilation can cause alkalosis.

A. True

61

The most important buffering system in the body is the bicarbonate buffering system

A. True

62

Harry eats dinner at 8:00 pm, watches television for a couple of hours and then goes to bed. He sleeps undisturbed all night, and arises at 6:30 am and immediately urinates. He notes that his urine is unusually dark yellow-orange and has a rather strong odor. Normally, during the day, his urine is a clear yellow with little or no odor. What has happened to Harry to cause this change?

Harry's body produced ADH. The ADH made it possible for his body to reabsorb fluid through out the night. Because the fluid was filtered several times it became highly concentrated, thus causing it to be a darker-yellow orange with a stronger odor.


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