Mitosis and Meiosis

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1

Mitosis Function

  • Cell division for growth and maintenance
  • Development of organism
  • growth of all tissues and organs
  • replacement of cells that die
  • repair of damaged tissue
2

First function of Mitosis

Cell division for growth and maintenance

3

Second function of Mitosis

Development of organism

4

Third function of function of Mitosis

growth of all tissues and organs

5

Fourth function of Mitosis

replacement of cells that die

6

Fifth function of Mitosis

repair of damaged tissue

7

Meiosis function

cell division for production of eggs and sperm

8

Mitosis

One mitotic cell division produces

2 genetically identical daughter cells with 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs

9

5 phases

Interphase

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase Telophase

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Interphase

normal life cycle of the cell

11

Nucleus if well defined, DNA is in its chromatin form and are not visible in the nucleus

Interphase

12

In the cytoplasm there are two

centrosomes (Interphase)

13

As cell gets close to prophase, chromatin

duplicates to form 2 copies and microtubules extend from the centrosomes (Interphase)

14

Prophase

prepared

15

chromatin condenses into compact rods called

chromosomes (Prophase)

16

Chromosomes structure

x-shaped composed of two identical chromatids

17

Chromosomes pair up so that both copies of chromosome 1 are together, both copies of

chromosomes 2 are together and so on (Prophase)

18

Nuclear membrane dissolves and release

chromosomes into cytoplasm (Prophase)

19

Microtubules from the centrosomes for the

mitotic spindle which extends across the cell as the centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell (Prophase)

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Metaphase

Middle

21

Metaphase

Chromosomes lined up along the center of the cell

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Spindle fibers attach to each of

sister chromatids (Metaphase)

23

Anaphase

away

24

Sister chromatids

are pulled apart to opposite end of cells along spindle fibers (Anaphase)

25

Telophase

Tear

26

Telophase

Nuclear membrane forms around each cluster of chromosomes

27

Cytoplasm and cell membrane pinch along the equator

Telophase

28

Cytokinesis

cytoplasm and organelles which had duplicated earlier separate into 2 new cells

29

End result of Telophase

two identical daughter cells

30

Meiosis

One cycle of meiosis produces

4 genetically different daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell

31

Diploid

cells with 46 chromosomes 23 pairs

32

Haploid

half (cells with 23 chromosomes unpaired) sperm & egg

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2 series of cell divisions

Meiosis I

Meiosis II

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Stages of Meiosis I

Prophase I

Metaphase I

Anaphase I

Telophase I

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Propose I

  • Tetrads homologous chromosomes pair up to form tetrads
  • One chromosome is from the individual's father and one is from the individual's mother
  • Crossing-over=homologous chromosomes line up and exchange segments of DNA - this creates genetic diversity and ensures that daughter cells are genetically different from parent cells and each other
36

Tetrads

homologous chromosomes pair up to form it.

37

Crossing-over=

homologous chromosomes line up and exchange segments of DNA - this creates genetic diversity and ensures that daughter cells are genetically different from parent cells and each other

38

Anaphase I

unlike in mitosis, centromeres do not divide and chromatids do not separate; rather each homologous chromosome from its twin

39

Telophase

at the conclusion of meiosis I, each daughter cell has become haploid

40

at the conclusion of meiosis I, each daughter cell has become

haploid

41

Meiosis II

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

42

Centromeres do divide and chromatids do separate; each chromatid is now referred to as a

daughter chromosome (Anaphase II)

43

At the end of meiosis II

there are 4 haploid daughter cell (Telophase II)

44

Mitosis

1 cell division

45

Meiosis

2 cell division

46

Produces 2 daughter cells

Mitosis

47

Produces 4 daughter cells

Meiosis

48

Daughter cells are diploid (46 chromosomes)

Mitosis

49

Daughter cells are haploid 23 unpaired

Meiosis

50

daughter cells are genetically identical

Mitosis

51

Crossing-over occurs which ensures genetic diversity

Meiosis

52

produces cells for growth and repair

Mitosis

53

To make cell for producing gametes (sperm or ova)

Meiosis


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