The vertebral column protects what and allows what to branch out from where through openings between adjacent vertebrae?
What is the anulus fibrosus shaped like and what is made out of?
The anulus fibrosus stabilizes what and contains what?
What 3 things happen to the discs as a person ages (i.e. disc thickness, water content, compressibility)?
What 5 things predispose an older person to a having a ruptured disc?
In a herniated disc, with the rupturing of the anulus fibrosus, what happens to the nucleus pulposus resultantly?
Why is a herniated disc painful?
What are the thoracic and sacral curvatures considered primary curvatures?
When does the cervical curvature become more prominent?
When the fibrous disc is properly positioned, are the spinal cord or peripheral nerves impaired in any way?
Remove the intervertebral disc, and put the two vertebrae back together. What happens to the nerve?
What would happen to the spinal nerves in areas of malpositioned, or "slipped," discs?
What are the 5 regions in a vertebral column?
All vertebrae have what 7 features in common?
The superior and inferior articular processes enable articulation with what?
Each processes (superior and inferior) has an articular surface that is covered with what cartilage type?
The intervertebral foramina allow what to leave what between adjacent vertebrae?
The large concave depressions in the lateral or transverse process receive what condyles from where?
The axis, acting as a pivot, allows what 2 things to happen?
Cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) are distinguished from the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae by what 4 features (i.e. size and weight, shape of vertebral foramen, length of spinous process, and shape of spinous process)?
Of cervical vertebrae C3-C7, which one has a substantially longer and unbranched spinous process?
Why is C7 commonly called the vertebra prominens?
Transverse foramina in C3-C7 allow what to pass to which body part?
What 5 features separate the thoracic vertebrae from the cervical vertebrae (i.e. size of the body, shape of the body, costal facets presence-yes or no, shape of vertebral foramen, spinous process shape)?
The superior and inferior costal facets of the thoracic vertebrae connect to what part of the ribs?
Articular facets on the transverse processes of the thoracic vertebrae articulate with what of the ribs?
The thoracic vertebrae form what 2 parts of the body?
What are the 2 defining features of the lumbar vertebrae that set them apart from the other two sets (i.e. shape of body, shape of spinous process)?
Which structural features reduce the mobility of the lumbar vertebrae?
Why are the lumbar vertebrae the sturdiest?
Even though the spinal cord ends at the L2 vertebra, what particular feature of the spinal cord still extends past that vertebra?
The outer covering of the cord that extends passed the L2 vertebrae is filled with what?
Between which 2 sets of vertebrae is the lumbar puncture adminstered?
Between which 2 sets of vertebrae is the "saddle block" anesthesia for childbirth adminstered?
Why is the lumbar puncture or "saddle block" anesthesia administered between vertebrae L3 and L4 or L4 and L5?
Superiorly, the sacrum articulates with what specific vertebra, and inferiorly, what does it connect with?
The median sacral crest is a remnant of what processes?
The sacral canal (aka vertebral canal) terminates at which particular feature in the coccyx?
Describe the human tailbone in regards to other vertebrates?