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Functional anatomy of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

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created 9 months ago by babyruby
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updated 9 months ago by babyruby

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1

Which of the following statement is incorrect regarding prokaryotic cells

they lack a plasma membrane

2

Each of the following statements concerning the gram-positive cell wall is true except

it protects the cell in a hypertonic environment

3

Which of the following statements best describes what happens when a bacterial cell is placed in a solution containing 5% NaCl

water will move out of the cell

4

A gram-positive bacterium suddenly acquires resistance to the antibiotic methicillin. this trait most likely occurred due to acquisition of new genetic information through

conjugation

5

by which of the following mechanisms can a cell transport a substance from a lower to a higher concentration

active transport

6

which of the following is not a typical characteristic of most bacterial plasma membranes

contains cholesterol

7

which one of the following organisms has a cell wall

fungi

8

which of the following statements is true

endospores allow a cell to survive environmental changes by producing a dormant period with no growth

9

which of the following pairs is mismatched

centrosomes - food storage

10

which of the following organelles most likely resembles a prokaryotic cell

mitochondrion

11

Which of the drawing is a tetrad

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B

12

which drawing in figure 4.1 posseses an axial filament

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A

13

which drawing in figure in 4.1 is streptococci

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D

14

antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis ultimately cause bacterial cell death as a result of

osmotic lysis

15

bacteria are commonly used organism for studies of genetic material in the research laboratory. The nucleic acids must first be isolated from the cells for these studies. which of the following would most likely be used to lyse gram-positive bacterial cells for nucleic acid isolation

lysozyme

16

which of the following statements about gram-negative cell walls is false

they are sensitive to penicillin

17

which of the following structures is not found in some prokayotic cells

cilium

18

functions of the glycocalyx include all of the following except

binary fission

19

which acts like an invisibility cloak and protects bacteria from being phagocytized

capsule

20

which of the following is not part of the passive transport process

ATP

21

which of the following terms best describes the cell in figure 4.2

lophotrichous flagella

22

in bacteria, photosynthetic pigments are found in

chromatophores

23

the difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion is that facilitated diffusion

requires transporter proteins

24

the term "run" and "tumble" are generally associated with

taxic movements of the cell in response to attractants or repellents

25

You have isolated a motile, gram-positive cell with no visible nucleus. you can safely assume that the cell

has a cell wall

26

Fimbriae and pili differ in that

pili are used to transfer DNA and motility

27

Which diagram of a cell wall is gram-negative cell wall

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B

28

which diagram of a cell wall possesses lipid A/endotoxin responsible for symptoms associated with infection

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B

29

which diagram of a cell wall has a structure that protects against osmotic lysis

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both A and B

30

which diagram of a cell wall is decolorized by alcohol

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B

31

which diagram of a cell wall is resistant to many antibiotics

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B

32

which diagram of a cell wall contains teichoic acids

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A

33

which diagram of a cell wall contains porins

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A

34

where are phospholipids most likely found in a prokaryotic cell

the plasma membrane

35

where are phospholipids most likely found in a eukaryotic cell

the plasma membrane, around organelles, and surrounding flagella

36

which of the following is not found or observed to occur in both mitochondria and prokaryotes

cell wall

37

which of the following statements is correct about passive diffusion

it involves movement of molecules down a concentration gradient and may require a transport protein

38

oxygen crosses a plasma membrane

thorugh simple diffusion

39

in a hypertonic solution, a bacterial cell will typically

plasmolyze

40

what will happen if a bacteriacel is pretreated with a lysozyme solution, then placed in distilled water

the cell will undergo osmotic lysis

41

how do spirochetes and spirilla differ

spirilla have an external flagella but spirochetes have axial filaments

42

which one of the following pairs is mismatched

ribosomes - carbon storage

43

which of the following are not energy reseves

carboxysomes

44

Which of the following is not a functionally analogous pair

cilia - pilia

45

the DNA found in most bacterial cells

is circular in structure

46

the cell walls of bacteria are responsible for the shape of the bacteria and the difference in the gram stain reaction

true

47

antibiotics that target the cell wall are an effective treatment against many pathogenic bacteria

true

48

cells placed in a hypotonic solution tend to lose water due to osmotic pressure

false

49

small, hydrophobic molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily by diffusion

true

50

spheroplasts, protoplasts, and mycoplasms are bacterial cells without cell walls

true

51

endospores are a reproductive structure

false

52

the internal structure of eukaryotic cilia and flagella are the same

true

53

many enzymes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized within organelles

false

54

the number of organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and rough endoplasmic reticulum is the same in all eukaryotic cells

true

55

if you observe rod-shaped red cells after the gram stain, you can assume their cell walls contain endotoxin

true

56

characteristics of a typical prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell

prokaryotic cells' DNA is not enclosed within a membrane and is usually single.they usually lack organelles and their cell walls contain peptidoglycan. Eukaryotic cells' DNA is found in the cell's nucleus, they have a number os membrane-enclosed organelles and their cell walls are chemically simple

57

compare and contrast gram-positive and gram-negative cell walls

the application of alcohol dehydrates the peptidoglycan of gram positve to make it more impermeable to crystals violet iodine. in gram negative, alcohol dissolves the outer membrane and leaves small holes in the thin peptidoglycan layer through which crystal violet-iodine diffuse. Gram-positive cell walls consist of peptidoglycan while gram-negative contains a few layers of peptidoglycan and anouter membrane

58

What is a biofilm and what role does biofilm play in disease

a complex aggregation of microbes. microorganisms exists as single cells that float or swim independently on a liquid or attach to each other and some solid surface. it can cause infections and its bacteria are often resistant to antibiot

59

dipploccoci

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remains in pairs after dividing

60

streptococci

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divides and remain attached in chain-like patterns

61

spiral bacteria

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vibrios - curved rods

spirillum - helical shape

spirochete - helical and flexible

62

the structure of a prokaryotic cell

capsule

fimbriae

chromosome

pilus

flagella

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63

arrangements of bacterial flagella

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64

gram positive bacterium

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2 basal body

65

gram negative bacterium

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4 basal bodies

66

gram positive cell wall

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67

gram negative cell wall

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68

prokaryotes

DNA is not enclosed withing a membrane, it is inside the cell

DNA is not associated with histones

Lack organelles

cell walls contain peptidoglycan

divide by binary fission

69

eukaryotes

DNA found in cell's nucleus

DNA consistently associated with histones and non histones

Have membrane -enclosed organelles

cell walls are chemically simple

cell division involves mitosis

70

arrangement of cells

cocci - round shape

bacilli -rod-like

spiral

71

monomorphic

maintains a single shape

72

pleomorphic

can have many shapes

73

glycocalyx

viscous, gelatinous sugar

74

extracellular polymeric substance

a glycocalyx that helps cells in a biofilm attach to their target environment and to each other

75

what is the difference between capsule and slime

capsule is neatly organized and firmly attached while slime is unorganized and loose

76

axial filament/endoflagella

bundles of fibrils that arise at the ends of the cell.

77

spirochete move by the means of

axial filaments

78

fimbriae

helps bacterias attach to the wall

can occur at the poles of the bacterial cell or can be evenly distributed over the entire surface of the cell

79

pili

longer than fimbriae and only one or two per cell. use to transfer plasmid

80

crystal violet

primary stain. Stains both gram positive/negative purple

81

Iodine

forms large crystals with the dye that are too large to escape through the cell wall

82

what happens to gram positive when alcohol is applied

it makes gram positive more impermeable to crystal violet-iodine

83

what happens to gram negative when alcohol is applied

alcohol dissolves the outermembrane and leaves holes for crystal violet to diffuse

84

what color does gram positive turn when safranin is applied

purple

85

what color does gram negative turn when safranin is applied

red

86

atypical cell walls

plasma membrane have sterols (lipids). protects them from lysis (rupture)

87

acid- fast cell walls

used to identify mycobacterium and norcardia

bacteria contain mycolic acid in their cell wall

can be stained with carbolfuchsin

88

protoplast

wall-less cell

89

spheroplast

remaining outer wall layer

90

Nucleoid

contains bacterial chromosome

the cell's genetic information which carries all the information required for the cell's structures and functions.

91

plasmid

double stranded DNA molecules. replicate independently of chromosomal DNA

92

ribosomes

protein synthesis take place

prokaryotic ribosome - 70s ribosomes

eukaryotic ribosome - 80s

50s, 30s


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