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Chapter 8 & 9 Female Reproductive System

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created 5 years ago by tnlnc
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Terms for chapters 8 and 9.

updated 3 years ago by tnlnc

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1

Ovaries

pair of almond-shaped organs located in the pelvic cavity. Egg cells are formed and stored in the ovaries

2

Ovum(pl.ova)

female egg cell

3

graafian follicles

100,000 microscopic sacs that make up a large portion of the ovaries. Each foollicle contains an immature ovum. Normally one graafian follicle develops to maturity monthly between puberty and menopause. It moves to the surface of the ovary and releases the ovum, which passes into the uterine tube.

4

uterine, fallopian, tubes

pair of 5-inch (12-cm) tubes, attached to the uterus, that proviede a passageway for the ovum to move from the ovary to the uterus

5

fimbria (pl. fimbriae)

finger-like projection at the free nd of the uterine tube

6

uterus

pear-size and pear-shaped muscular organ that lies in the pelvic cavity, except during pregnancy when it enlarges and extends up into the abdominal cavity, . Its functions are menstruation, pregnancy, and labor.

7

endometrium

inner lining of the uterus

8

myometrium

muscular middle layer of the uterus

9

perimetruim

outer thin layer that covers the surface of the uterus

10

corpus, or body

large central portion of the uterus

11

fundus

rounded upper portion of the uterus

12

cervix (Cx)

narrow lower portion of the uterus

13

vagina

a 3-inch (7-8 cm) tube that connects the uterus to the outside of the body

14

hymen

fold of membrane found near the opening of the vagina

15

rectouterine pouch

pouch between the posterior wall of the uterus and the anterior wall of the rectum (also called Douglass cal-de-sac)

16

Bartholin glands

pair of mucus-producing glands located on each side of the vagina and just above the vaginal opening

17

mammary glands, or breast

milk-producing glands of the female. Each breast consists of 15 to 20 divisions, or lobes

18

mammary papilla

breast nipple

19

areola

pigmented area around the breast nipple

20

vulva, or external genitals

two pairs of lips (labia major and labia minora) that surround the vagina

21

clitoris

highly erogenous erectile body located anterior to the urethra

22

perineum

pelvic floor in both the male and female. In females it usually refers to the area between the vaginal opening and the anus.

23

arche/o

first, beginning

24

cervic/o, trachel/o

cervix

25

colp/o, vagin/o

vagina

26

culd/o

cul-de-sac

27

episi/o, vulv/o

vulva

28

gynec/o, gyn/o

woman

29

hymen/o

hymen

30

hyster/o, metr/o, metr/i, uter/o

uterus

31

mamm/o, mast/o

breast

32

men/o

menstruation

33

oophor/o

ovary

34

perine/o

perineum

35

salping/o

uterine tube (fallopian tube)

36

peri-

surrounding (outer)

37

-atresia

absence of a normal body opening; occlusion; closure

38

-ail

pertaining to

39

-salpinx

uterine tube (fallopian tube)

40

amenorrhea

absence of menstrual discharge

41

Bartholin adenitis

inflammation of a Bartholin gland

42

cervicitis

inflammation of the vagina

43

colpitis, vaginitis

inflammation of the vagina

44

dysmenorrhea

painful menstrual discharge

45

endocervicitis

inflammation of the inner (lining) of the cervix

46

endometritis

inflammation of the inner (lining) of the uterus (endometrium)

47

hematosalpinx

blood in the uterine tube

48

hydrosalpinx

water in the uterine tube

49

hysteratresia

closure of the uterus (uterine cavity)

50

mastitis

inflammation of the breast

51

menometrorrhagia

rapid flow of blood from the uterus at menstruation ( and between menstrual cycles; increased amount)

52

menorrhagia

rapid flow of blood at menstruation (increased amount)

53

metrorrhagia

rapid flow of blood from the uterus (between menstual cycles)

54

myometritis

inflammation of the uterine muscle (myometrium)

55

oligmenorrhea

scanty menstrual flow (less often)

56

oophoritis

inflammation of the ovary

57

perimetritis

inflammation surrounding the uterus (perimetrium)

58

psosalpinx

pus in the uterine tube

59

salpingitis

inflammation of the uterine tube

60

vulvoginitis

inflammation of the vulva and vagina

61

adenomyosis

growth of endometrium into the muscular portion of the uterus

62

breast cancer

malignant tumor of the breast

63

cervical cancer

malignant tumor of the cervix, which progresses from cellular dysplasia to carcinoma

64

endometrial cancer

malignant tumor of the endometrium

65

endometriosis

abnormal condition in which endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus in various areas in the pelvic cavity, including ovaries, uterine tubes, intestines, and uterus

66

fibrocystic breast cancer

a disorder characterized by one or more benign cyst in the breast

67

fibroid tumor

benign fibroid tumor of the uterine muscle

68

ovarian cancer

malignant tumor of the ovary

69

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

inflammation of the female pelvic organs that can be caused by many different pathogens. If untreated, the infection may spread upward from the vagina, involving the uterus, uterine tubes, ovaries and other pelvic organs. As ascending infection may result in infertility and, in acute cases, fatal septicemia

70

prolapsed uterus

downward displacement of the uterus into the vagina

71

toxic shock syndrome (TSS)

a severe illness characterized by high fever, rash, vomiting, diarrhea, and myalgia, followed by hypotension and, in severe cases, shock and death; usually affects menstruating women using tampons; caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

72

vesicovaginal fistula

abnormal opening between the bladder and the vagina

73

cervicectomy

excision of the cervix

74

colpoperineorrhaphy

suture of the vagina and perineum

75

calpoplasty

surgical repair of the vagina

76

colporrhaphy

suture of the vagina (wall of the vagina)

77

episioperineoplasty

surgical repair of the vulva and perineum

78

episiorrhaphy

suture of (a tear in) the vulva

79

hymenectomy

excision of the hymen

80

hyenotomy

incision of the hymen

81

hysterectomy

excision of the uterus

82

hysteropexy

surgical fixation of the uterus

83

hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy

excision of the uterus, uterine tubes, and ovaries

84

mammoplasty

surgical repair of the breast (performed to enlarge or reduce in size, to lift, or to reconstruct after removal of a tumor)

85

mastectomy

surgical removal of a breast

86

oophorectomy

excision of an ovary

87

perineorrhaphy

suture of (a tear in) the perineum

88

salpingectomy

excision of a uterine tube

89

salpingo-oophorectomy

excision of the uterine tube and ovary

90

salpingostomy

creation of an artificial opening in a uterine tube

91

trachelectomy

excision of the cervix

92

trachelorrhaphy

suture of the cervix

93

vulvectomy

excision of the uterus

94

anterior and posterior colporrhaphy (A&P repair)

when a weakened vaginal wall results in a cystocele (protrusion of the bladder against the anterior wall of the vagina) and a rectocele (protrusion of the rectum against the posterior wall of the vagina), an A&P repair corrects the condition

95

conization

the surgical removal of a cone-shape area of the cervix; used in the treatment for noninvasive cervical cancer

96

dilation and curettage (D&C)

dilation (widening) of the cervix and scraping of the endometrium with an instrument called a currette. It is performed to diagnose disease, to correct bleeding, and to empty uterine contents

97

endometrial ablation

a procedure to destroy or remove the endometrium by use of laser or thermal energy; used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding

98

laparoscopy or laparoscopic surgery

visual examination of the abdominal cavity, accomplished by inserting a laparoscope through a tiny incision near the umbilicus. It is used for surgical procedures such as tubal sterilization (closure of the uterine tubes), hysterectomy, oophorectomy, or biopsy of the ovaries. It may also be used to diagnose endometriosis

99

myomectomy

excision of a fibroid tumor (myoma)from the uterus

100

sentinel lymph node biopsy

an injection of blue dye and/or radioactive isotope is used to identify the sentinel lymph nodes(s), the first in the axillary chain and most likely to contain metastases of breast cancer. The nodes are removed and microscopically examined. If negative, no more nodes are removed

101

stereotactic breast biopsy

a technique that combines mammography and computer-assisted biopsy to obtain tissue from a breast lesion

102

tubal ligation

closure of the uterine tubes for sterilization by cutting, tying, or cauterizing

103

uterine artery embolization (UAE)

minimally invasive procedure used to treat fibroids of the uterus by blocking arteries that supply blood to the fibroids. First, an arteriogram is used to identify the vessels. Once identified, tiny gelatin beads, about the size of grains of sand, are inserted into the vessels to create a blockage. The blockage stops the blood supply to the fibroids causing them to shrink

104

hyserosalpingogram

radiographic image of the uterus and uterine tubes (after an injection of a contrast agent)

105

mammogram

radiographic image of the breast

106

mammography

radiographic imaging of the breast

107

sonohysterography (SHG)

process of recording the uterus by use of sound (an ultrasound procedure)

108

colposcope

instrument used for visual examination of the vagina (and cervix)

109

colposcopy

visual examination (with a magnified view) of the vagina (and cervix)

110

culdoscope

instrument used for visual examination of Douglas cul-de-sac (rectouterine pouch)

111

culdoscopy

visual examination of Douglas cul-de-sac (rectouterine pouch)

112

hysteroscope

instrument used for visual examination of the uterus (uterine cavity)

113

hysteroscopy

visual examination of the uterus (uterine cavity)

114

culdocentesis

surgical puncture to remove fluid from Douglas cul-de-sac (rectouterine pouch)

115

transvaginal sonography

an ultrasound procedure that uses a transducer placed in the vagina to obtain images of the ovaries, uterus, cervix, uterine tubes, and surrounding structures; used to diagnose masses such as ovarian cysts or tumors, to monitor pregnancy, and to evaluate ovulation for the treatment of infertility

116

CA-125 (cancer antigen 125 tumor marker)

a blood test used in the detection of ovarian cancer

117

Pap smear

a cytological study of cervical and vaginal secretions used to determine the presence of abnormal or cancerous cells; most commonly used to detect cancers of the cervix

118

gynecologist

a physician who studies and treats disease of women (female reproductive system)

119

gynecology

study of women (a branch of medicine dealing with disease of the female reproductive system)

120

gynopathic

pertaining to disease of women

121

leukorrhea

white discharge (from the vagina)

122

mastalgia

pain in the breast

123

mastoptosis

sagging breast

124

menarche

beginning of menstruation (usually occurring between the ages of 11 and 16)

125

vaginal

pertaining to the vagina

126

vulvovaginal

pertaining to the vulva and vagina


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