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AP Psychology Sem. 1 Final

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Alston AP Psych Sem. 1, 2016

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1

Scientific Methodology

Good luck!

2

A questioning attitude regarding psychologists' assumptions and hidden values best illustrates

Critical thinking

3

When the observed difference between the means of an experimental group and control group are not likely due to chance, researchers conclude that this difference is

Statistically significant

4

A researcher who gathers and analyzes data from student essay test responses without talking with the students about the study violates which ethical principle of human experimentation?

Informed consent

5

In the hypothesis “Students who study a list of terms in the morning, just after waking up, will recall more terms than students who study the list just before falling asleep,” what is the dependent variable?

Number of terms remembered

6

Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representative of a larger population?

Random sampling

7

In an experiment designed to study the effectiveness of a new drug, research participants who receive a placebo are participating in the ________ condition.

Control

8

Which of the following defines ethical principles that should guide human experimentation?

Informed consent, protection from harm, confidentiality, debriefing

9

Six different high school students spent $10, $13, $2, $12, $13, and $4, respectively, on entertainment. The mode of this group's entertainment expenditures is

$13

10

During the past month, Henri and Sylvia each ate 10 candy bars, while Jerry ate 8, Tricia ate 6, and Tahli ate only 1. The mean number of candy bars eaten by these individuals was

7

11

If college graduates typically earn more money than high school graduates, this would indicate that level of education and income are

Positively correlated

12

Which of the following statements is most correct about the relationship between correlation and causation?

Correlation indicates the possibility of a causal relationship, but it does not prove causation.

13

Critical thinkers can best be described as

Questioning

14

Which of the following is true for those assigned to the experimental group in an experiment?

The experimental group receives the experimental treatment

15

Psychologists' personal values and goals

can bias their observations and interpretations.

16

If psychologists discovered that wealthy people are less satisfied with their marriages than poor people are, this would indicate that wealth and marital satisfaction are

negatively correlated.

17

Participants in an experiment are said to be blind if they are uninformed about

which experimental treatment, if any, they are receiving.

18

Megan was certain that she would never live far away from her family. However, in order to further her career, she decided to move. Megan's experience best illustrates

Overconfidence

19

The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to

exaggerate their ability to have foreseen the outcome of past events.

20

According to Emily's grandfather, Adolf Hitler's obvious emotional instability made it clear from the beginning days of his international conflicts that Germany would inevitably lose World War II. The grandfather's claim best illustrates

the hindsight bias.

21

Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to those who are good-looking, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The professor's prediction regarding employment success is an example of

a hypothesis

22

Which measure of variation is most affected by extreme scores?

range

23

In the hypothesis “Students who study a list of terms in the morning, just after waking up, will recall more terms than students who study the list just before falling asleep,” what is the independent variable?

time of day

24

To graphically represent the correlation between two variables, researchers often construct a

scatterplot

25

Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?

The experimental treatment is absent.

26

To assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Ariana sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all currently enrolled students. Ariana employed the technique of

random sampling

27

To assess the effect of televised violence on aggression, researchers plan to expose one group of children to violent movie scenes and another group to nonviolent scenes. To reduce the chance that the children in one group have more aggressive personalities than those in the other group, the researchers should make use of

random assignment.

28

In order to learn about the political attitudes of all students enrolled at Arizona State University, Professor Marlow randomly selected 800 of these students to complete a questionnaire. In this instance, all the students enrolled at Arizona State University are considered to be a(n)

population

29

Basing decisions or conclusions on observable evidence describes which of the following?

empirical approach

30

A researcher interested in proving a causal relationship between two variables should choose which research method?

experiment

31

Surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support “welfare” than “aid to the needy.” These somewhat paradoxical survey results best illustrate the importance of

wording effects

32

If scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) are normally distributed, with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what percentage of scores will fall between 85 and 115?

68

33

The relief of pain following the ingestion of an inert substance that is presumed to have medicinal benefits illustrates

the placebo effect.

34

Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as

naturalistic observation.

35

A researcher interested in investigating the attitudes or opinions of a large sample of people is most likely to use which research method?

survey

36

Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes. His idea is best described as a(n)

theory

37

Thinking that she had outperformed most of her classmates, Glenda was surprised to receive just an average grade on her psychology test. Glenda's experience best illustrates

overconfidence

38

Correlational research is most useful for purposes of

prediction

39

Variation is to central tendency as ________ is to ________.

range; median

40

Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between

causes and effects.

41

What technique do researchers use to reduce the impact of confounding variables?

random assignment

42

To understand the unusual behavior of an adult client, a clinical psychologist carefully investigates the client's current life situation and his physical, social-cultural, and educational history. Which research method has the psychologist used?

the case study

43

A researcher who deceives participants about the goals of the research needs to fully inform them of the true nature of the study later, according to which ethical principle of human experimentation?

debriefing

44

Professor Ober carefully observes and records the behaviors of children in their classrooms in order to track the development of their social and intellectual skills. Professor Ober is most clearly engaged in

naturalistic observation.

45

Which of the following is the best definition of illusory correlation?

a perceived but nonexistent correlation

46

In a drug treatment study, participants given a pill containing no actual drug are receiving a(n)

placebo

47

Mr. and Mrs. Berry have five children aged 2, 3, 7, 9, and 9. The median age of the Berry children is

7

48

Abdul has volunteered to participate in an experiment evaluating the effectiveness of aspirin. Neither he nor the experimenters know whether the pills he takes during the experiment contain aspirin or are merely placebos. The investigators are apparently making use of

the double-blind procedure.

49

Why is replication important to science?

Repeated research with similar results increases confidence in the reliability of the original findings.

50

During the last Central High School basketball game, the starting five players scored 11, 7, 21, 14, and 7 points, respectively. For this distribution of scores, the range is

14

51

Historical Psychology

Good luck!

52

A theoretical perspective in psychology can be like a two-dimensional view of a three-dimensional object because each perspective is

limited in its scope.

53

A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a(n) ________ perspective.

psychodynamic

54

The psychologist who would be least likely to participate in devising ways to improve teaching and learning in a classroom would be a(n) _______ psychologist.

experimental

55

Which perspective is most directly concerned with how the physical properties of the brain influence behaviors and mental states?

biological

56

Which perspective would suggest that the facial expressions associated with the emotions of lust and rage are inherited?

evolutionary

57

Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory?

biological

58

Which perspective would focus on the extent to which different styles of parenting are encouraged among various ethnic communities?

social-cultural

59

The survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as

natural selection.

60

Akira believes that her son has become a good student because she always praises his learning efforts. Her belief best illustrates a ________ perspective.

behavioral

61

Which perspective highlights the reproductive advantages of inherited psychological traits?

evolutionary

62

Research participants were asked to monitor and report their own immediate sensory reactions to differently colored objects. This research involved a technique known as

introspection.

63

Humanistic psychologists focused on the importance of

healthy growth potential.

64

The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a(n)

psychiatrist.

65

The self-reflective observation of one's own sensations and feelings is called

introspection.

66

When a professional golfer continued to struggle with her swing, she consulted Dr. Ozak, who helped her learn new strategies to help her improve her performance. Dr. Ozak is a(n) _______ psychologist.

sports

67

Which perspective most clearly focuses on how we learn observable responses?

behavioral

68

Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding

nature versus nurture.

69

According to the text, the SQ3R study method is effective because it

utilizes active processing of the text information.

70

Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the

adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions.

71

Which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative contributions of heredity and experience to personality development?

biopsychosocial

72

Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the survival of our ancestors' genes. This viewpoint best illustrates the ________ perspective.

evolutionary

73

Professor Reed attempts to assess the relative contributions of heredity and home environment on children's susceptibility to depression. Her research best illustrates the concerns of the ________ approach.

biopsychosocial

74

Which psychological perspective highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieve information?

cognitive

75

Dr. Santaniello conducts basic research on how children's moral thinking changes as they grow older. It is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is a(n) ________ psychologist.

developmental

76

Clinical psychologists specialize in

providing therapy to troubled people.

77

Which perspective is most concerned with the unique ways in which individuals interpret their own life experiences?

cognitive

78

Dr. Wilcox conducts basic research on the behavioral differences between shy and outgoing people. Dr. Wilcox is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.

personality

79

Robert wants to pursue a degree in a field in which he could help people learn how to change their lives, such as determining what career best suits them. The subfield that is most applicable in this area is

counseling psychology.

80

The psychologist most likely to help an attorney make selections of jury members is a(n) ____ psychologist.

forensic

81

The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how

people encode, process, store, and retrieve information.

82

Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?

cognitive

83

Mark believes that people are genetically predisposed to dislike bitter-tasting foods because this has enhanced human survival. His belief best illustrates the ________ perspective.

evolutionary

84

Dr. Karima conducts basic research on the relative effectiveness of massed practice and spaced practice on a person's ability to remember information. Dr. Karima is most likely a ________ psychologist.

cognitive

85

Nature vs. Nurture

Good luck!

86

Evolutionary psychologists would be the most likely to attribute gender differences in attitudes towards casual sex to the fact that men have_________than do women

greater reproductive potential

87

Which of the following is most likely to be the most similar in genetic makeup?

a brother and sister

88

All the cells in the human body have 23 pairs of chromosomes EXCEPT

the sex cells.

89

Women are more likely than men to:

engage in intimate conversations with others

90

When teased by his older sister, nine year old Waldo does not cry because he has learned that boys are not expected to. Waldo's behavior best illustrates the importance of:

gender roles

91

Which of the following statements is true of a child with blue eyes?

The mother could have had blue eyes and the father could have had brown eyes.

The father could have had blue eyes and the mother could have has brown eyes.

Both parents could have has brown eyes.

92

The question of whether behavior is largely learned or largely inherited is part of which psychological issue?

the nature-nurture issue

93

The human genome is the complete:

sequence of nucleotides organized as coiled chains of DNA

94

Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelly is usually quiet and easy going. The two children

temperament

95

At age 12, Sean is happy, self-reliant, and has a positive self-image. It is most likely that Sean's parents are:

authoritative

96

The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ________ than on their __________.

religious beliefs; personality traits

97

If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates:

natural selection

98

Women are more likely than men to:

engage in intimate conversations with others

99

One reason that psychologist are interested in genetics determination of physical characteristics is because they care about

the physical aspects of growth and development.

100

According to evolutionary psychologists, men judge women as especially attractive if they appear ________ and women judge men especially attractive if they appear _________.

youthful; mature

101

Environmental influence on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing________ and ___________

identical twins raised together; identical twins raised apart

102

Ten-year-old Brittany insists on wearing very feminine-looking clothes because she wants to appear ladylike. This best illustrates the impact of:

gender typing

103

Following conception, the single cell that is made up of 23 chromosomes from the mother and 23 chromosomes from the father is called the

zygote

104

In order to prevent teens from smoking, intervention programs for youth should first pay attention to the impact of _______on teen smoking habits

peer influence

105

A good explanation for the relationship between heredity and environment is that

a favorable environment allows genetic input to reach its full potential.

106

Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelly is usually quiet and easy going. The two children

temperament

107

Sensation & Perception

Good luck!

108

Your new love interest has big beautiful brown eyes. You are admiring his or her

iris.

109

The function of the lens is to:

focus an image on the retina.

110

Olfactory cells are the receptors for what senses?

Smell

111

Which of the following occupations relies heavily on kinesthetic and vestibular senses?

Gymnast

112

The receptors for the sense of smell are

hair cells inside the nasal cavity

113

The basic experience of the stimulation of the body's senses is called:

Sensation

114

The reason that we have trouble seeing for five or ten minutes after entering a darkened theater on a sunny afternoon is that it takes time for

the optic nerve to adapt to the sudden change from light to dark.

115

Which of the following pain control techniques is emphasized in the Lamaze method of childbirth training?

distraction

116

Of all of our senses, the one that has the most direct pathway to the cortex, that is lateralized or the one that does not involve the thalamus is

olfaction

117

If you had an inner ear infection, which sensory system might you expect to be affected?

vestibular

118

Taste: 1 gram of table salt in 500 liters of water; smell: 1 drop of perfume diffused throughout a three-room apartment; touch: the wing of a bee falling on your check from a height of 1 centimeter away. These are all examples.

the absolute threshold of our senses.

119

As you munch a chocolate bar, which general part of the tongue tells your brain that it is sweet?

front of the tongue

120

Deaf culture advocates are most likely to object to the use of cochlear implants for:

children who have been deaf from birth.

121

Hearing is based on

vibrations

122

If Jalen wants to get maximum "sweetness" value from her lollipop, she should

lick the lollipop with tip of her tongue.

123

Rods are to cones as ____________.

black and whites is to color

124

The greatest density of cones exists in which part of the eye?

Fovea

125

The gate-control theory is an attempt to explain

pain.

126

A decibel is a measure of

loudness.

127

The auditory cortex is located within the:

temporal lobes.

128

What behavior would be difficult without our vestibular sense?

walking a straight line with our eyes closed

129

Which of the following NOT a primary taste quality?

oily

130

Which of the following would play a role in quickly alerting you to a gas leak in your home?

olfactory receptors

131

Sound waves cause vibrations of the

eardrum.

132

Which process allows more light to reach the periphery of the retina?

dilation of the pupils

133

When the molecules of a skunk's spray enter your nose, the molecules are transformed into electrical signals, or impulses, that are interpreted by the brain as an unpleasant odor. This is an example of:

Transduction

134

The sensation of hot occurs when

a pattern of both warm and cold are stimulated.

135

The final step required to convert vibrations into sound sensations takes place in which parts of the ear?

Ossicles

136

The cochlea is to the ear as the ________ is to the eye.

retina

137

Of all of the senses listed, which has the greatest number of known, specialized receptors cells?

skin

138

Parapsychology refers to the:

study of phenemena such as telepathy or clairvoyance.

139

Eight-year old Claudia is trying to draw a house with a tree behind it. The problem is that she draws the tree too large if it is truly behind the house. Claudia has not yet developed the artist's ability to portray distance by

relative size

140

Patients' negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure can increase their postoperative experience of pain. This best illustrates the importance of

top-down processing.

141

Trichromats can mix which three colors to perceive virtually any hue?

red, green, and blue

142

An exhausted forest ranger may notice the faintest scent of a forest fire, whereas much stronger but less importance odors such as a skunk spray fail to catch her attention. This fact would be of greatest relevance to:

signal detection theory.

143

If John cannot tell the difference between Mary's two favorite perfumes, then for John, the two scents must be less then apart.

a difference threshold

144

As the farmer looked across her field, the parallel rows of young corn plants appeared to converge in the distance. This provided her with a distance cue known as:

linear perspective.

145

The greatest difficulty facing contemporary parapsychologist is the:

inability to subject claims of ESP to scientific testing.

146

Guilio's bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jim's. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jim's bag to feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Guilio's bag feel heavier. This best illustrates:

Weber's law.

147

If you go into a darkened room and it takes you a few minutes to see anything,

dark adaptation is taking place.

148

According to the Young-Helmholtz theory:

the retina contains three kinds of color receptors.

149

The perception of Bugs Bunny running away from Elmer Fudd is best illustrated:

stroboscopic movement.

150

Figure is to ground as ______ is to _______.

moon; sky

151

A person who is blind in one eye cannot use which cue to depth?

retinal disparity.

152

Andre claims that he can male a broken watch begin to run again simply by entering a state of intense mental concentration.

psychokinesis

153

A bank teller was so distracted by the sight of a bank robber's weapon that she failed to perceive important features of the criminal's physical appearance. This best illustrates:

selective attention.

154

Jamal claims that his special psychic powers enable him to perceive exactly where the body of a recent murder victim is secretly buried. Jamal is claiming to posses the power of:

clairvoyance

155

Which Gestalt principle of organization is demonstrated in the following pattern?

XX XX XX XX XX XX

proximity

156

Telepathy refers to the:

extrasensory transmission of thoughts from one mind to another.

157

In the perceptual process, after we select the stimuli to be perceived, we then _________ the sensations into a meaningful Gestalt.

organize

158

An afterimage can best be defined as:

Sense experience that occurs after a visual stimulus has been removed.

159

Berdine has developed cataracts in both eyes, preventing her from being able to identify even her mother's face. The best illustrated the importance of

bottom-up processing.

160

Charlies and Sharon live near an airport. However, they are not longer awakened by the sound of planes flying low overhead. The best explanation for this is

sensory adaptation.

161

The cover of a book appears to be a rectangle regardless of the angle from which it is viewed. The phenomenon is known as

shape constancy.

162

News about the supposed effects of briefly presented messages on moviegoers' consumption of popcorn and Coca-Cola involved false claims regarding:

subliminal stimulation.

163

The ability to simultaneously recognize the color, shape, size, and speed of an oncoming automobile best illustrates:

parallel processing.

164

You see two trees, which in reality are of equal height. One is 50 feet away from you and the other is 200 feet away. The image that you receive from the farther tree will be _______ than the image from the closer tree. According to the principle of size constancy, you will perceive the two trees as _______ in size.

smaller; the same

165

The perception of the letter "t" as two intersecting lines rather than as four non-intersecting lines illustrates the principles of:

continuity.

166

As you drive by a construction site at night, you notice that a number of stationary, flashing warning lights appear to be moving back and forth. You are experiencing

the phi phenomenon.

167

Infants who were previously exposed to the visual cliff:

refused to cross over the "deep" side to their mothers.

168

Because the two teams wore different-colored uniforms, Cheri perceived the ten basketball players as two distinct groups. This best illustrates the principle of:

similarity.

169

Memory

Good luck!

170

Deja vu refers to the:

eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation or events.

171

Short-term memory is _______ permanent and _______ limited then long-term memory.

less; more

172

The cerebellum is associated with which of the following types of memory?

procedural memory for conditioned responses`

173

When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, which test of memory is being utilized?

reconstruction

174

The three stages of information processing memory model are ______________.

sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory

175

We speak primarily of _______ and ______ when we speak of sensory memory.

vision; auditory

176

The portion of the limbic system which seems to be responsible for the formation of new memories is:

the hippocampus

177

According to the information-processing model of memory, acquisition is to retention as is to

encoding; storage

178

Judy is embarrassed because she suddenly cannot remember a friend’s name. Judy’s poor memory most likely results from a failure in:

retrieval challenges

179

Automatic processing occurs without:

conscious awareness.

180

On the first day of a study, an individual is conditioned to blink at the sound of a buzzer. On day two of the study, that same individual is somewhat slower to acquire the blink response at the sound of a bell. This “blocking” effect is an example of:

proactive interference

181

Ebbinghaus' forgetting curve demonstrates that memory _______.

decline rapidly and then levels off

182

A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in ___________ memory.

explicit.

183

If you have to make a conscious effort to recall information about your grandmother's famous cookies recipe, that information is said to be _______.

explicit

184

Doug wrote a grocery list of 10 times, but leaves it at home. The list included in order: peas, corn, squash, onions, apples, pears, bananas, flour, milk, and eggs. If the law of primacy holds, which of the following is Doug most likely to remember when he gets to the store?

peas, corn, squash

185

Tim, a third grader, learns the sentence “George Eats Gray Rats and Paints Houses Yellow” to help him remember the spelling of “geography.” Tim is using:

a mnemonic device.

186

After his last drinking spree, Fakim hid a half-empty liquor bottle. He couldn't remember where he hid it until he started drinking again. Fakim's pattern of recall best illustrates:

state-dependent memory.

187

Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection best illustrates ________ memory.

implicit

188

When 80 year-old Ida looked at her old wedding pictures, she was flooded with vivid memories of her parents, her husband, and the early years of her marriage. The pictures served as a powerful:

retrieval cues.

189

An example of episodic memory is ___________.

remembering the events surrounding the day you got a puppy for your seventh birthday

190

In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros", Samantha writes the word 30 times. She is using a technique known as:

maintenance rehearsal.

191

In order to remember a list of the school supplies she needs, Marcy mentally visualizes each item at a certain location in her house. Marcy’s tactic best illustrates the use of:

the method of loci.

192

After a stressful day at the office, Arthur has five or six drinks at a local bar before going home for dinner. Research suggests that Arthur's heavy drinking will have the most adverse effect on his ability to remember:

the next day the names of the people he talked to and what he said while drinking

193

Which of the following is the best example of context dependent memory?

students who learn a vocabulary list while in a particular classroom does better at recalling the words when in that same environment

194

Dividing a 10 digit number like 2133067508 into several parts, such as 213-306-75-08, to make it easier to remember is an example of

chunking.

195

The process of getting information out of memory storage is called:

retrieval.

196

Most people can store ________ digits or numbers in their short-term memory.

5 to 9

197

Which of the following examples best illustrates episodic memory?

remembering the events about the clowns that were at your fifth birthday party

198

The process of encoding refers to:

getting information into memory.

199

A mnemonic device is a:

memory aid.

200

Thinking & Language

Good luck!

201

Which psychological specialty is most directly concerned with the systematic study of problem solving, decision-making, concept formation, and forming judgments?

cognitive psychology

202

Morphemes are:

the smallest speech units that carry meaning

203

The rock musician was hit with a rotten egg while performing his latest hit song. The fact that you can recognize two difference meanings for the word "hit" in the preceding sentence demonstrates the importance of:

semantic

204

Koko, the ape, was taught to communicate by means of:

sign language.

205

A European visitor to the United States asked a taxi driver, “Can you please a ride to the airport me give?” This visitor has apparently not yet mastered the of the English language

Syntax

206

When Mariah’s mother drops her off at preschool, Mariah says only one word, “Mama.” This is an example of

One-word stage

207

In the words “lightly,” “neatly,” and “shortly,” the “ly” ending is a(n):

morpheme.

208

The smallest distinctive sound unit of language is a:

phoneme

209

Noam Chomsky has emphasized that the acquisition of language by children is facilitated by:

as inborn readiness to learn language rules

210

Two-year-old Dirk’s sentences – “Dad come,” “Mom laugh,” and “Truck gone” – are examples of:

telegraphic speech.

211

When we use the word "automobile" to refer to a category of transport vechicles, we are using this word as a(n)

concept

212

Prototype is to concept as ______ is to _____-

rose; flower

213

Myron didn't know whether the boy's locker room was located down the hallway to his right or the one to his left. Crossing his fingers, he decided to try the left hallway. Myron's strategy for finding the locker room best illustrates the use of:

trial and error

214

On her way to London, Janet was invited into the cockpit to meet the pilot, Alex. She was surprised to see that Alex was a woman. This is an example of:

representative heuristic.

215

Some people are unable to arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a three-dimensional arrangement. This best illustrates the hazards of:

fixations.

216

A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by mean of:

an algorithm

217

Algorithms and heuristics are both

problem-solving strategies.

218

Marlene forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. Unfortunately, she never thought of using her down-filled jacket as a pillow. Marlene's oversight best illustrates:

functional fixedness.

219

People are likely to take less time to recognize a woman as a nurse than a man as a nurse because a woman more closely resembles their _____ of a nurse.

mental set

220

On Monday, the meteorologist forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday, he reported an 80 percent chance that it would not rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella at home. Sheryl's behavior illustrates:

the framing effect.

221

Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as "75 percent lean" than to ground beef described as "25 percent fat." This illustrates that consumer reactions are influenced by:

framing effect

222

The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to:

save time in arriving at solutions to problems.

223

Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs Gale, a second-grade teacher, watches boys more closely than she watches girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs Gale surveillance strategy best illustrates:

confirmation bias

224

Which of the following illustrates an application of artificial intelligence?

A computer that enables apes to communicate with humans

A computer-controlled system that stimulates the sound of human voices

A computer programmed to play chess

225

After spending two hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira's experience best illustrates:

insight

226

As he attempted to spell the word "receive," Tim reminded himself "i before e except after c." Tim's self-reminder best illustrates the use of:

a heuristic.

227

Biological Bases of Behavior

Good luck!

228

One function of the glial cells is to

provide nutrients to neurons.

229

Within a single neuron the action potential

travels in one direction toward the axon terminals.

230

Molecules that are similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor sites on a dendrite and block that neurotransmitter's effects are called what?

antagonists

231

Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce people's ability to

speak fluently.

232

In a recent car accident, Tamiko sustained damage to his right cerebral hemisphere. This injury is most likely to reduce Tamiko's ability to

facially express emotions.

233

An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to

depression.

234

Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the processing of new memories?

hippocampus

235

The reticular formation is located in the

brainstem.

236

Someone trying to figure out an optical illusion is probably experiencing increased brain waves and bloodflow to which brain structure?

right hemisphere

237

With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which

dendrites transmit more electrical signals to axons.

238

Your life would be most immediately threatened if you suffered destruction of the

medulla.

239

The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in

children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.

240

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the

action potential.

241

The knee-jerk reflex is controlled by interneurons in the

spinal cord.

242

Some opiate drugs have molecular structures so similar to endorphins that they mimic endorphin's euphoric effects in the brain, making these opiate drugs which kind of molecule?

agonists

243

The function of dendrites is to

receive incoming signals from other neurons.

244

Prozac, a drug commonly prescribed to treat depression, prevents the sending neuron from taking in excess serotonin. Which process does this drug prevent from taking place?

reuptake

245

Information is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by the

corpus callosum.

246

Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the

axon.

247

The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the

endocrine system.

248

Migraine headaches are most closely linked with an

oversupply of glutamate.

249

The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.

seeing; hearing

250

While you are hiking in the mountains, a rattlesnake slithers across your trail. Which of the following triggers the “fight-or-flight” response, increasing your heart rate and blood pressure, as you run away?

sympathetic nervous system

251

After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he began to experience unusual difficulty figuring out how to find his way to various locations in his neighborhood. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his

association areas.

252

While relaxing in a lawn chair enjoying a cool drink, which of the following triggers the “rest-and-digest” response, as your heart rate slows and digestion begins?

parasympathetic nervous system

253

Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter

dopamine.

254

The nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called

phrenology.

255

A PET scan of a patient looking at a photograph of a painting would most likely indicate high levels of activity in which brain structure?

occipital lobes

256

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the

adrenal glands.

257

The strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of

neural networks.

258

The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of

visual perception.

259

The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionarily oldest to newest is

brainstem; limbic system; cerebral cortex.

260

The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the

threshold.

261

Which endocrine gland regulates body growth?

pituitary

262

The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the

myelin sheath.

263

If a blind person uses one finger to read Braille, the brain area dedicated to that finger expands as the sense of touch invades the visual cortex. This is an example of

brain plasticity.

264

Which brain area is primarily involved with understanding and producing meaningful speech?

Wernicke's area

265

Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter known as

acetylcholine.

266

The spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron to another are called

synapses.

267

When Mr. Valdez thought his 1-year-old daughter had fallen down the stairs, his heartbeat accelerated, his blood pressure rose, and he began to perspire heavily. Mr. Valdez's state of arousal was activated by his ________ nervous system.

sympathetic

268

Resting potential is to action potential as ________ is to ________.

polarization; depolarization

269

Which region of the brain will a fMRI show as active when a person is looking at a photo?

occipital lobes

270

The somatic nervous system is a component of the ________ nervous system.

peripheral

271

The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called

neurotransmitters.

272

Sleep researchers who are interested in brain wave activity are likely to use which kind of brain scan?

EEG

273

Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?

parietal

274

Information travels from the spinal cord to the brain via

interneurons.

275

In 1861, Paul Broca studied a stroke patient he called “Tan.” He was called this because as a result of brain damage it was the only word he could pronounce. Based on Broca's early work, which of the following brain regions is involved in speech production?

left frontal lobe

276

The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of

touch.

277

The association areas are located in the

cerebral cortex.

278

The tremors of Parkinson's disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter

dopamine.

279

For you to be able to run, ________ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your leg muscles.

motor neurons

280

The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n)

MRI.

281

Which part of your brain receives information that you are moving your legs?

sensory cortex

282

The medulla is to the control of ________ as the cerebellum is to the control of ________.

breathing; walking

283

Which brain structure might be most active when answering the question “What do the following words have in common: plane, butter, insect?”

right hemisphere

284

An axon is

the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.

285

Hormones are the chemical messengers of the

endocrine system.

286

To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n)

fMRI.

287

For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.

sensory neurons

288

The neural system located at the border between the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres is known as the

limbic system.

289

Neuropsychology

Good luck!

290

The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of

visual perception.

291

The knee-jerk reflex is controlled by interneurons in the

spinal cord.

292

After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he began to experience unusual difficulty figuring out how to find his way to various locations in his neighborhood. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his

association areas.

293

An axon is

the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.

294

Someone trying to figure out an optical illusion is probably experiencing increased brain waves and blood flow to which brain structure?

right hemisphere

295

When Mr. Valdez thought his 1-year-old daughter had fallen down the stairs, his heartbeat accelerated, his blood pressure rose, and he began to perspire heavily. Mr. Valdez's state of arousal was activated by his ________ nervous system.

sympathetic

296

The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in

children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.

297

For you to be able to run, ________ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your leg muscles.

motor neurons

298

Hormones are the chemical messengers of the

endocrine system.

299

A PET scan of a patient looking at a photograph of a painting would most likely indicate high levels of activity in which brain structure?

occipital lobes

300

In a recent car accident, Tamiko sustained damage to his right cerebral hemisphere. This injury is most likely to reduce Tamiko's ability to

facially express emotions.

301

Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the

axon.

302

The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the

threshold.

303

The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called

neurotransmitters.

304

The neural system located at the border between the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres is known as the

limbic system.

305

Which brain area is primarily involved with understanding and producing meaningful speech?

Wernicke's area

306

Information is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by the

corpus callosum.

307

Transferring messages from a motor neuron to a leg muscle requires the neurotransmitter known as

acetylcholine.

308

Resting potential is to action potential as ________ is to ________.

polarization; depolarization

309

In 1861, Paul Broca studied a stroke patient he called “Tan.” He was called this because as a result of brain damage it was the only word he could pronounce. Based on Broca's early work, which of the following brain regions is involved in speech production?

left frontal lobe

310

While relaxing in a lawn chair enjoying a cool drink, which of the following triggers the “rest-and-digest” response, as your heart rate slows and digestion begins?

parasympathetic nervous system

311

Damage to the left cerebral hemisphere is most likely to reduce people's ability to

speak fluently.

312

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the

action potential.

313

The strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of

neural networks.

314

The somatic nervous system is a component of the ________ nervous system.

peripheral

315

Which brain structure might be most active when answering the question “What do the following words have in common: plane, butter, insect?”

right hemisphere

316

The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.

seeing; hearing

317

Migraine headaches are most closely linked with an

oversupply of glutamate.

318

Within a single neuron the action potential

travels in one direction toward the axon terminals.

319

The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the

myelin sheath.

320

The spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron to another are called

synapses.

321

Which region of the brain will a fMRI show as active when a person is looking at a photo?

occipital lobes

322

The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n)

MRI.

323

Some opiate drugs have molecular structures so similar to endorphins that they mimic endorphin's euphoric effects in the brain, making these opiate drugs which kind of molecule?

agonists

324

With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which

dendrites transmit more electrical signals to axons.

325

Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter

dopamine.

326

The function of dendrites is to

receive incoming signals from other neurons.

327

Information travels from the spinal cord to the brain via

interneurons.

328

Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the

adrenal glands.

329

Your life would be most immediately threatened if you suffered destruction of the

medulla.

330

Which endocrine gland regulates body growth?

pituitary

331

Which part of your brain receives information that you are moving your legs?

sensory cortex

332

The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the

endocrine system.

333

Sleep researchers who are interested in brain wave activity are likely to use which kind of brain scan?

EEG

334

Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?

parietal

335

The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionarily oldest to newest is

brainstem; limbic system; cerebral cortex.

336

To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n)

fMRI.

337

While you are hiking in the mountains, a rattlesnake slithers across your trail. Which of the following triggers the “fight-or-flight” response, increasing your heart rate and blood pressure, as you run away?

sympathetic nervous system

338

One function of the glial cells is to

provide nutrients to neurons.

339

Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the processing of new memories?

hippocampus

340

The reticular formation is located in the

brainstem.

341

The association areas are located in the

cerebral cortex.

342

An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to

depression.

343

The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of

touch.

344

The tremors of Parkinson's disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter

dopamine.

345

Molecules that are similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor sites on a dendrite and block that neurotransmitter's effects are called what?

antagonists

346

The medulla is to the control of ________ as the cerebellum is to the control of ________.

breathing; walking

347

For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay messages from your ankle to your central nervous system.

sensory neurons

348

Prozac, a drug commonly prescribed to treat depression, prevents the sending neuron from taking in excess serotonin. Which process does this drug prevent from taking place?

reuptake


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