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Chapter 18: Cardiovascular System(Mastering)

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1

What is the function of the coronary circulation?

Provide a blood supply to the aortic arch

Provide a blood supply to the heart

Provide a blood supply to the pericardium

Provide a blood supply to the lungs

Provide a blood supply to the heart

2

What is the ligamentum arteriosum?

A remnant of the ductus arteriosus

A ligament attaching the aorta to the superior vena cava

A ligament securing the aorta

A remnant of the foramen ovale

A remnant of the ductus arteriosus

3

Which chamber of the heart exits into the pulmonary trunk?

Right ventricle

Left atrium

Left ventricle

Right atrium

Right ventricle

4

Identify the ear like flaps that are attached to the top chambers of the heart.

Pectinate muscles

Atrium

Auricle

Coronary sinus

Auricle

5

The first branch off the arch of the aorta is the brachiocephalic artery in both the sheep and the human.

True

False

True

6

The base of the heart is located at the bottom of the heart.

True

False

False

7

Identify the most muscular chamber.

Left ventricle

Right atrium

Left atrium

Right ventricle

Left ventricle

8

Name the inner lining of the heart.

Endocardium

Pericardium

Myocardium

Epicardium

Endocardium

9

Identify the valve found between the left atrium and left ventricle.

Aortic valve

Tricuspid valve

Bicuspid (mitral) valve

Pulmonary valve

Bicuspid (mitral) valve

10

What heart chamber pushes blood through the aortic semilunar valve?

Left ventricle

Left atrium

Right atrium

Right ventricle

Left ventricle

11

Name the needle like ridges of muscle lining the ventricles.

Papillary muscles

Trabeculae carneae

Chordae tendineae

Pectinate muscles

Trabeculae carneae

12

What fibrous structure functions to anchor the atrioventricular valves in a closed position?

Chordae tendineae

Trabeculae carneae

Moderator band

Papillary muscle

Chordae tendineae

13

Blood on the right never mixes with blood on the left, once the heart is fully developed.

True

False

True

14

Name the ridged bundles of muscle found projecting inside the right atrium.

Intercalated discs

Trabeculae carneae

Papillary muscles

Pectinate muscles

Pectinate muscles

15

Identify the right atrioventricular valve.

Aortic semilunar valve

Tricuspid valve

Bicuspid valve

Pulmonary valve

Tricuspid valve

16

Identfiy the valve located at the exit of the right ventricle.

Aortic semilunar valve

Tricuspid valve

Bicuspid valve

Pulmonary semilunar valve

Pulmonary semilunar valve

17

The moderator band is found on both the right and left side of the heart.

True

False

False

18

Oxygenated blood flows through the right side of the heart.

False

True

False

19

Action potentials generated by the autorhythmic cells spread to the contractile cells through what structures in the membrane?

intercalated discs

desmosomes

gap junctions

tight junctions

gap junctions

20

One of the changes that occurs in the pacemaker potential (unstable resting membrane potential) in the SA node (an autorhythmic cell) is a decreased efflux of what ion?

potassium

sodium

calcium

potassium

21

When threshold is reached at the SA node (an autorhythmic cell), what channels open causing further depolarization of the membrane?

fast sodium

fast calcium

slow calcium

potassium

fast calcium

22

Repolarization of an autorhythmic cell is due to the opening of which channels?

voltage-gated sodium channels

Chemically gated potassium channels

voltage-gated potassium channels

chemically gated calcium channels

voltage-gated potassium channels

23

In order to cause cardiac muscle contraction, the contractile cells must also depolarize. What causes the depolarization of the contractile cells?

the flow of negative ions from adjacent cells

an unstable resting membrane potential in the contractile cells

the flow of positive ions from adjacent cells

the flow of positive ions from adjacent cells

24

Which part of the conduction system initiates the depolarizing impulse, which spreads throughout the heart?

SA node

AV node

Purkinje fibers

AV bundle (bundle of His)

SA node

25

What does the ECG wave tracing represent?

contraction of the heart

electrical activity in the heart

electrical activity in the heart

26

What does the QRS complex represent in the ECG wave tracing?

atrial depolarization v

entricular depolarization

ventricular repolarization

atrial repolarization

ventricular depolarization

27

Contraction of the atria results from which wave of depolarization on the ECG tracing?

P wave

QRS complex

T wave

P wave

28

Which part of the intrinsic conduction system delays the impulse briefly before it moves on to the ventricles?

Purkinje fibers

SA node

bundle branches

AV bundle (bundle of His)

AV node

AV node

29

Isovolumetric relaxation and ventricular filling (two phases of the cardiac cycle) take place during __________.

ventricular systole

ventricular diastole

ventricular diastole

30

Which of the following is correct about the filling of the ventricles?

The majority of ventricular filling is caused by contraction of the atria.

Most blood flows passively into the ventricles through open AV valves.

Most blood flows passively into the ventricles through open AV valves.

31

Describe the pressures in the atria and ventricles that would cause the opening of the AV valves.

Pressure in the atria would be greater than the pressure in the ventricles.

Pressure in the ventricles would be greater than in the atria.

Pressures in the atria and ventricles would be equal.

Pressure in the atria would be greater than the pressure in the ventricles.

32

What causes the aortic semilunar valve to close?

higher ventricular pressure than aortic pressure

equal ventricular and aortic pressures

greater pressure in the aorta than in the left ventricle

greater pressure in the aorta than in the left ventricle

33

Put the phases of the cardiac cycle in the correct order, starting after ventricular filling.

isovolumetric contraction, ventricular ejection, isovolumetric relaxation

isovolumetric relaxation, ventricular ejection, isovolumetric contraction

ventricular ejection, isovolumetric contraction, isovolumetric relaxation

ventricular ejection, ventricular relaxation, isovolumetric contraction

isovolumetric contraction, ventricular ejection, isovolumetric relaxation

34

Increased pressure in the ventricles would close what valve(s)?

both semilunar and AV valves

AV valves only

semilunar valves only

AV valves only

35

Which of the following would increase cardiac output?

decreased calcium during contraction

parasympathetic stimulation

epinephrine

high blood pressure

epinephrine

36

Which of the following is NOT a factor that increases stroke volume?

increasing sympathetic

stimulation increasing afterload

increasing contractility

increasing preload

increasing afterload

37

Calculate the stroke volume if the end diastolic volume (EDV) is 135 mL and the end systolic volume (ESV) is 60 mL.

60 mL
75 mL
205 mL
8100 mL

75 mL

38

What structures connect the individual heart muscle cells?

intercalated discs

chordae tendineae

trabaculae carneae

anastomoses

intercalated discs

39

Which statement regarding cardiac muscle structure is accurate?

Myofibrils of cardiac muscle tissue vary in diameter and branch extensively.

Cardiac muscle cells are independent of one another both structurally and functionally.

Cardiac cells are long, cylindrical, and multinucleate.

Cardiac cells possess few mitochondria.

Myofibrils of cardiac muscle tissue vary in diameter and branch extensively.

40

The _________ carries oxygen-poor venous blood from above the diaphragm from areas of the upper body and extremities into the right atrium.

Superior Vena Cava

41

The _________ carries oxygen-poor venous blood of the coronary circulation into the right atrium.

coronary sinus

42

The ________ carries oxygen-poor venous blood from below the diaphragm from the areas of the lower body and extremities into the right atrium.

inferior vena cava

43

Art-based

Right-Sided Anatomical Features

Drag and drop the correct identification label to the box with a leader line. Answers may be used once or not at all.

card image

See photo

44

Flow through the Right Side of the Heart

Assume that blood is flowing from the coronary sinus to the lung capillaries. Place the anatomical labels in order of flow in the target boxes. Not all labels are used.

Coronary Sinus > Right Atrium > Tricuspid Valve > Right Ventricle > Pulmonary Semilunar Valve > Pulmonary Trunk > Pulmonary Arteries > Capillaries of Lungs

45

Part D - Oxygen-Rich Blood Returning to the Heart

Drag and drop the terms to arrange them, from left to right, in order of blood flow of oxygen-rich blood into the heart.

Lungs > Lung Capillaries > Pulmonary Veins > Left Atrium > Mitral/Bicuspid Valve > Left Ventricle > Aortic/semilunar Valve > Aorta

46

The structure that prevents backflow of blood into the left atrium is the _________

mitral (bicuspid) valve

47

The vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood to tissues is the _______

aorta

48

The capillaries receiving blood flow from the left side of the heart are the _________

systemic capillaries

49

The structure that is located anatomically between the aorta and the left ventricle is the ___________

aortic semilunar valve

50

Art-based Question

Part F - Conclusion: Valves in Blood Flow through the Heart

Drag and drop valve names to their correct location in the image.

card image

See Photo

51

Sort the terms into the appropriate category of either oxygen-poor or oxygen-rich.

Oxygen Poor: Superior Vena Cava, Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Pulmonary Arteries

Oxygen Rich: Aorta, Left Ventricle, Left Atrium Pulmonary Veins

52

Select the correct partial path. This path is part of the complete blood flow pathway. You should be able to trace flow starting in any location.

pulmonary artery into left atrium through mitral valve to left ventricle

systemic veins returning to the left atrium and forward through the mitral valve

pulmonary trunk to pulmonary arteries to pulmonary capillaries to pulmonary veins returning to the right atrium

aorta to smaller systemic arteries to systemic capillaries to systemic veins to right atrium through the tricuspid valve

aorta to smaller systemic arteries to systemic capillaries to systemic veins to right atrium through the tricuspid valve


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