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Medical Terminology Chapter 6

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1

3 functions of the Lymphatic system

1. absorb fats and fat soluble vitamins

2. remove waste products from the tissues

3. return filtered lymph

2

Lacteals

specialized structures of the lymphatic system that absorb fats that can not be transported by the bloodstream

3

interstitial fluid

intercellular fluid/tissue fluid is plasma from arterial blood that flows out of the arterioles and into the capillaries and the spaces between the cells of the tissues

4

Lymph

A clear watery fluid containing electrolytes and proteins. made up of the remaining 10% of the returning interstitial fluid.

5

Lymph functions

collects the protein molecules

enters very small capillaries in one direction

immune system to protect the body against invading microrganisms and diseases

6

lymphatic circulatory system

works closely with the blood circulatory system

secondary circulatory system

flows in only one direction

7

lymphatic capillaries

microscopic, blind-ended tubes located near the surface of the body, only one cell in thckness

8

lymphatic vessels

located deeper within the tissues, have valves to prevent backward flow

9

lymph node

contains specialized lymphocytes that are capable of destroying pathogens

10

cervical lymph nodes

located along the side of the neck

11

axillary lymph nodes

located under the arms in the armpits

12

inguinal lymph nodes

located in the groin

13

lymphocytes

leukocytes that are formed in bone marrow as stem cells

14

Lymphocyte types

1. natural killer cells

2. b cells

3 t cells

15

natural killer cells

play an important role in the killing of cancer cells and cells infected by viruses

16

b cells

specialized lymphocytes that produce antibodies

17

plasm cells

develope from b cells and secrete a large volume of antibodies coded to destroy specific antigens

18

t cells

cell mediated immunity

19

lymphoid

pertaining to the lymphatic system or resembling lymph

20

tonsils

three masses of lymphoid tissue that form a protective ring around the back of the nose and upper throat

21

adenoids

located in the nasopharynx.

22

palatine tonsils

located on the left and right side of the throat visible at the back of the mouth

23

palatine

describes the hard and soft palates that from the roof of the mouth

24

lingual tonsils

located at the base of the tongue

25

lingual

pertaining to the tongue

26

thymus

mass of lymphoid tissue located above the heart, reaches greatest size at puberty then becomes smaller with age

27

vermiform appendix / appendix

hangs from the lower portion of the cecum

28

cecum

first section of the large intestine

29

spleen

sac like mass of lymphoid tissue located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen inferior to the diaphragm and posterior tot he stomach

30

hemolytic

function of destroying worn out erythrocytes

31

pathogen

disease producing microorganisms

32

allergens

substances that produce allergic reactions

33

toxins

poisonous or harmful substances

34

malignant cells

potentially life threatening cancer cells

35

intact skin

wraps the body in a physical barrier to prevent invading organisms from entering the body

36

intact

no cuts, scrapes or tears or open sores or breaks in the skin

37

acid mantle

in hospital environment for most bacteria

38

respiratory system

traps breathed in foreign matter with nose hairs and the moist mucous membrane lining

39

digestive system

uses the acids and enzymes produced by the stomach to destroy invaders that are swallowed or consumed with food

40

lymphatic system

works in specific ways to attack and destroy pathogens that have succeeded in entering the body

41

antigen-antibody reaction

immune reaction. involves binding antigens to antibodies

42

antigen

any substance that the body regards as being foreign

43

tolerance

refers to an acquired unresponsiveness to a specific antigen

44

antibody

a disease fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen

45

immunoglobulins

bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response

46

immunoglobulin g IgG

the most abundant class of antibodies found in blood serum and lymph fight against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and foreign particles

47

immunoglobulin a IgA

class of antibodies produced predominately against ingested antigens. found in saliva, sweat or tears prevent the attachment of viruses and bacteria to the epithelial surfaces

48

immunoglobulin m IgM

class of antibodies found only in circulating body fluids, first antibodies to appear in response to an initial exposure to an antigen

49

immunoglobulin d IgD

class of anitbodies found only on the surface of B cells. important in B cell activation

50

immunoglobulin e IgE

class of antibodies produced in the lungs, skin and mucous membranes responsible for allergic reactions

51

phagocytes

specialized leukocytes that act as part of the antigen antibody reaction to destroy substances such as cell debris, dust, pollen and pathogens

52

phago

to eat or swall

53

cyte

cell

54

monocytes

provide immunological defenses against many infectious organisms

55

macrophage

surrounds and kills invading cells

56

macro

large

57

phage

a cell that eats

58

dendritic cells

patrol the body searching for antigens that produce infections

59

natural immunity

resistance to a disease present without the administration of an antigen or exposure to a disease

60

acquired immunity

obtained by having had a contagious disease . vaccinated

61

vaccine

a preparation containing and antigen, consisting of whole or partial disease causing organisms.

62

vaccination

provides protection against the disease

63

allergist

specializes in diagnosing and treating conditions of altered immunological reactivity

64

immunologist

specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the immune system

65

lymphologist

physician who specializeds in diagnosing and treating disorders of the lymphatic system

66

oncologist

physician specializing in the diagnosing and treatment of malignant disorders such as tumors and cancers

67

lymphadenitis

swollen glands, an inflammation of the lymph nodes

68

lymphadenopathy

disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes

69

lymphangloma

benign tumor formed by an abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system

70

splenomegaly

abnormal enlargement of the spleen

71

spenorrhagia

bleeding of the spleen

72

lymphedema

swelling of the tissues due to an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid within the tissues

73

primary lymphedema

hereditary condition of the lymphatic system that develops with swelling beginning at the feet and progressing into the ankles and in an upward direction along the legs

74

secondary lymphedema

caused by damage to the lymphatic vessels that are most frequently due to cancer treatment, surgery, trauma or burns

75

allergic reaction

occurs when the body's immune system reacts to a harmless allergen, such as pollen, food or pet dander as if it were a dangerous invader

76

allergy

an overreaction by the body to a particular allergen

77

allergen

substance that produces an allergic reaction in an individual

78

localized allergic response /cellular response

includes redness, itching and burning where the skin has come into contact with an allergen

79

systemic reaction/ anaphylaxis

severe response to an allergen

80

scratch test

diagnostic test to identify commonly troublesom allergens

81

antihistamines

medications administered to relieve or prevent the symptoms of hay fever

82

autoimmune disorder

any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues, mistaking healthy cells, tissues or organs for antigens

83

immunodeficiency disorder

occurs when the immune response is compromised

84

compromised

weakened or not functioning properly

85

human immunodeficiency virus -HIV

a bloodborn infection in which the virus damages or kills the T cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail.

86

opportunistic infection

caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce and illness in healthy humans

87

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome -AIDS

the most advanced and fatal stage of HIV infection

88

Rheumatoid arthritis

affects joints and connective tissue

89

Myasthenia gravis

affects nerve and muscle synapses

90

Pernicious anemia

affects the red blood cells

91

Crohns disease

affects the intestines, ileum or the colon

92

Multiple sclerosis

affects the brain and spinal cord

93

Scleroderma

affects the skin and connective tissue

94

Graves disease

affects the thyroid gland

95

Kaposi's sarcoma

cancer causes patches of abnormal tissue growth under the skin, the lining of the mouth, nose and throat or in other organs

96

ELISA - enzyme linked immounosorbent assay

blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies

97

Western blot test

more accurate results than ELISA, performed to confirm the diagnosis of HIV

98

pathogen

micro-organism that causes a disease in humans

99

bacteria

one celled microscopic organisms

100

bacilli

rod shaped spore forming bacteria

101

bacilli

rod shaped

102

anthrax

a contagius disease that can be transmitted through livestock infected with bacillus anthracis

103

rickettsia

small bacterium that live in lice, fleas, ticks and mites

104

spirochetes

long slender spiral shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement

105

lyme disease

caused by spirochete belonging to the genus borrelia, affects the heart, joints and central nervous system.

106

staphylococci

approx 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes

107

staphyl/o

means cluster or bunches of grapes

108

cocci

spherical bacteria

109

staphylococcus aureus

form of stahylococci that infects wounds and causes toxic shock syndrome or food poisoning

110

streptococci

bacteria that forms a chain

111

strept/o

means twisted chain

112

cocci

spherical bacteria

113

septic shock

a serious condition that occurs when an overwhelming bacterial infection affects the body

114

antibiotic resistant bacteria

occur when antibiotics fail to kill all of the bacteria they target

115

fungus

simple parasitic organism

116

tinea pedis

athletes foot -fungal infection that develops between the toes

117

yeast

infection occur on the skin or mucous membranes

118

oral thrush

yeast infection in the mouth

119

parasite

plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism

120

malaria

parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes transfered by the bite of infected mosquito

121

toxoplasmosis

parasite transmitted from pets to humans through contact with infected feces

122

viruses

small infectious agents that live only by invading other cells

123

influenza

highly contagious viral respiratory infection

124

mumps

viral infection characterized by the swelling of the parotid glands

125

rubella

german measles

126

rabies

acute viral infection transmitted to humans through the bite or saliva of an infected animal

127

Infectious mononucleosis

EBV - epstein-barr virus

128

bacteriostatic

agent slows or stops the growth of bacteria

129

antifungl

destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi

130

angiogenesis

the process through which a tumor creates its own blood supply

131

antiangiogenesis

treatment that disrupts or stops the blood supply to the tumor

132

cancer

uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of the cells to invade other tissues

133

metastasize

cancer spreads from one place to another

134

metastasis

the new cancer site that results from the spreading process

135

carcinoma

malignant tummor that occurs in epithelial tissue

136

carcinoma in sity

malignant tumor in its original position that has yet to disturb or invade surrounding tissues

137

in situ

the place where the cancer first occurred

138

adenocarcinoma

cancer of the gland

139

sarcoma

malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues

140

hard tissue carcomas

arise from bone or cartilage

141

liquid tissue sarcoma

arises from blood or lymph

142

staging

is the process of classifying tumors by how far the disease has progressed.

143

ductal carcinoma in situ

breast cancer in its earliest stage

144

infiltrating ductal carcinoma

starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall and invades the fatty breast tissue


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