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A ______ consists of an embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat.



Microspores develop into _____ ______, which contain the male gametophytes.

pollen grains


________ is the transfer of pollen to the part of a seed plant containing the ovules.

it eliminates the need for a film of water and can be dispersed great distances by air or animals.



an _______ consists of a megasporangium, megaspore, and on or more protective integuments.



________ megaspores have one integument.



_________ megaspores usually have two integuments.



a seed is a _________ embryo, along with its food supply, packaged in a protective coat.



Seeds provide some evolutionary advantages over spores:

-they may remain ______ for days to years, until conditions are favorable for germination.



Seeds provide some evolutionary advantages over spores:

- they may be _________ long distances by wind or animals.



The gymnosperms have "_______" seeds not enclosed by ovaries and consist of four phyla.



Gymnosperm Phyla ________:

-individuals have large cones and palm like leaves.

-These thrived during the Mesozoic, but relatively few species exist today.



Gymnosperm Phyla _________:

- consists of a single living species, Ginkgo biloba.

-it has a high tolerance to air pollution and is a popular ornamental tree.



Gymnosperm Phyla _________:

-comprises three genera species that vary in appearance and some are tropical whereas others live in deserts.



Gymnosperm Phyla ________:

-by far the largest of the gymnosperm phyla

-most conifers are evergreens and can carry out photosynthesis year round.



_________ are seed plants with repercussive structures called flowers and fruits.

They are the most widespread and diverse of all plants.



All angiosperms are classified in a single phylum, ________. the name comes from the Greek anthos, flower



the _______ is an angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction. Many species are pollinated by insect or animals, while some species are wind-pollinated.



A flower is a specialized shoot with up to four types of modified leaves:

1. ______, which enclose the flower.



A flower is a specialized shoot with up to four types of modified leaves:

2. ________, which are brightly colored and attract pollinators.



A flower is a specialized shoot with up to four types of modified leaves:

3. _________, which produce pollen on their terminals anthers.



A flower is a specialized shoot with up to four types of modified leaves:

4. ________, which produce ovules and consists of an ovary at the base and a style leading up to a stigma, where pollen is received.



A ______ typically consists of a mature ovary but can also include other flower parts. They protect seeds and aid in their disposal. And can be either fleshy or dry.



Which group is noted for the independence of gametophyte and sporophyte generations from each other?
A) ferns
B) mosses, hornworts, and liverworts
C) charophytes
D) angiosperms
E) gymnosperms

Answer: A


All of the following cellular structures are functionally important in cells of the gametophytes of both angiosperms and gymnosperms except
A) haploid nuclei.
B) mitochondria.
C) cell walls.
D) chloroplasts.
E) peroxisomes.

Answer: D


In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics are unique to the seed-producing plants?
A) sporopollenin
B) lignin present in cell walls
C) pollen
D) use of air currents as a dispersal agent
E) megaphylls

Answer: C


In seed plants, which of the following is part of a pollen grain and has a function most like that of the seed coat?
A) sporophyll
B) male gametophyte
C) sporopollenin
D) stigma
E) sporangium

Answer: C


In terms of alternation of generations, the internal parts of the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most similar to a
A) moss sporophyte.
B) moss gametophyte bearing both male and female gametangia.
C) fern sporophyte.
D) hermaphroditic fern gametophyte.
E) fern gametophyte bearing only antheridia.

Answer: E


Gymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant (living) ferns because they
A) are woody.
B) have macrophylls.
C) have pollen.
D) have sporophylls.
E) have spores.

Answer: C


Which of the following can be found in gymnosperms?
A) nonfertile flower parts
B) triploid endosperm
C) fruits
D) pollen
E) carpels

Answer: D


Which trait(s) is (are) shared by many modern gymnosperms and angiosperms?

1. pollen transported by wind
2. lignified xylem
3. microscopic gametophytes
4. sterile sporophylls, modified to attract pollinators
5. endosperm

A) 1 only
B) 1 and 3
C) 1, 2, and 3
D) 1, 3, and 5
E) 2, 4, and 5

Answer: C


Which structure is common to both gymnosperms and angiosperms?
A) stigma
B) carpel
C) ovule
D) ovary
E) anthers

Answer: C


Which of the following sex and generation combinations most directly produces the fruit?
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte

Answer: D


Which of the following is a characteristic of all angiosperms?
A) complete reliance on wind as the pollinating agent
B) double internal fertilization
C) free-living gametophytes
D) carpels that contain microsporangia
E) ovules that are not contained within ovaries

Answer: B


Which of the following is true concerning flowering plants?
A) The flower includes sporophyte tissue.
B) The gametophyte generation is dominant.
C) The gametophyte generation is what we see when looking at a large plant.
D) The sporophyte generation is not photosynthetic.
E) The sporophyte generation consists of relatively few cells within the flower.

Answer: A


The seeds of orchids are among the smallest known, with virtually no endosperm and with miniscule seed leaves. Consequently, what should one expect to be true of such seeds?
A) They require extensive periods of dormancy during which the embryo develops.
B) They are surrounded by brightly colored, sweet fruit.
C) They germinate very soon after being released from the ovary.
D) The developing embryo within is dependent upon the gametophyte for nutrition.
E) The sporophytes that produce such seeds are wind-pollinated.

Answer: C


Which of the following are structures of angiosperm gametophytes?
A) immature ovules
B) pollen tubes
C) ovaries
D) stamens
E) sepals

Answer: B


Which of the following statements is true of monocots?
A) They are currently thought to be polyphyletic.
B) The veins of their leaves form a netlike pattern.
C) They, along with the eudicots, magnoliids, and basal angiosperms, are currently placed in the phylum Anthophyta.
D) Each possesses multiple cotyledons.
E) They are in the clade that includes most of our crops, except the cereal grains.

Answer: C


Which of the following is a true statement about angiosperm carpels?
A) Carpels are features of the gametophyte generation.
B) Carpels consist of anther and stamen.
C) Carpels are structures that directly produce male gametes.
D) Carpels surround and nourish the female gametophyte.
E) Carpels consist of highly modified microsporangia.

Answer: D


The generative cell of male angiosperm gametophytes is haploid. This cell divides to produce two haploid sperm cells. What type of cell division does the generative cell undergo to produce these sperm cells?
A) binary fission
B) mitosis
C) meiosis
D) mitosis without subsequent cytokinesis
E) meiosis without subsequent cytokinesis

Answer: B


How have fruits contributed to the success of angiosperms?
A) by nourishing the plants that make them
B) by facilitating dispersal of seeds
C) by attracting insects to the pollen inside
D) by producing sperm and eggs inside a protective coat
E) by producing triploid cells via double fertilization

Answer: B


Which of the following flower parts develops into a seed?
A) ovule
B) ovary
C) fruit
D) stamen

Answer: A


Which of the following flower parts develops into the pulp of a fleshy fruit?
A) stigma
B) style
C) ovule
D) ovary
E) micropyle

Answer: D


Angiosperms are the most successful terrestrial plants. Which of the following features is unique to them and helps account for their success?
A) wind pollination
B) dominant gametophytes
C) fruits enclosing seeds
D) embryos enclosed within seed coats
E) sperm cells without flagella

Answer: C


Where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium?
A) in the style of a flower
B) inside the tip of a pollen tube
C) enclosed in the stigma of a flower
D) within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower
E) packed into pollen sacs within the anthers found on a stamen

Answer: D


A fruit is most commonly
A) a mature ovary.
B) a thickened style.
C) an enlarged ovule.
D) a modified root.
E) a mature female gametophyte.

Answer: A


With respect to angiosperms, which of the following is incorrectly paired with its chromosome count?

A) egg–n
B) megaspore–2n
C) microspore–n
D) zygote–2n
E) sperm–n

Answer: B


Which of the following is not a characteristic that distinguishes gymnosperms and angiosperms from other plants?
A) alternation of generations
B) ovules
C) integuments
D) pollen
E) dependent gametophytes

Answer: A


Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except
A) seeds.
B) pollen.
C) vascular tissue.
D) ovaries.
E) ovules.

Answer: D

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