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Medical Microbiology review 3

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created 2 years ago by Amanda_Nicole_Wiggins
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updated 2 years ago by Amanda_Nicole_Wiggins

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1

Which of the following is not a characteristic of Okazaki fragments?

They are longer in eukaryotic cells

2

Which of the following is True concerning the structure and function of enzymes?

After an enzyme has catalyze do reaction, it resumes its original shape and can interact with a new substrate molecule.

3

Honey can be stored at room temperature for long periods of time because it

Is hypertonic

4

Bacteria acquire new DNA from the environment in the process of

Transformation

5

Modified corn strains that produce an insect toxin from a bacterial gene are an example of

Transgenic organisms

6

Antiviral medications can best be described as

Extremely narrow spectrum synthetic antimicrobials

7

Alcohols are used for

Both antiseptic and disinfection

8

Which of the following items is Not a part of the name of a restriction enzyme

The Gram reaction of the source bacterium

9

Synthetic nucleic acids are useful as

DNA probes, primers, and antisense RNAs

10

Which of the following types of antimicrobial agent has the narrowest spectrum of action

Antivirals

11

Isomerases catalyze reactions in which

Atoms in biomolecules are rearranged

12

Which of the is found at the 5' end of a DNA strand

A phosphate group

13

Which statement about quaternary ammonium compounds is CORRECT

They are not effective against pseudomonas aeruginosa

14

If a cell reverses the process of beta-oxidation, which of the following molecules will it make

Fatty acids

15

A codon is a particular combination of three nucleotides. Therefore, there are ______ possible combinations of the nucleotides A,C,G, and T.

64

16

If all of the following DNA fragments were analyzed on an electrophoresis gel, which one would migrate farthest from the negative electrode

250 base pairs

17

Some of the strongest opposition to the application of recombinant DNA technology concerns

Modification of food crops

18

During ______, a new peptide bond is formed with the amino acid located in the A site

Translation elongation

19

The AUG codon function in coding for the ammino acid methionine and as a

Start signal

20

Dedication is primarily effective against

Vegetative bacteria

21

If a researcher used E. coli DNA polymerase instead of T. aquaticus DNA polymerase in the PCR procedure, what would be the result

DNA replication would stop after one cycle

22

An ancient application of biotechnology is

Production of cheese

23

Which of the following would be an appropriate sequence of temperatures for PCR

94, 65, 72 degrees Celsius

24

The assembly of carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates occurs in the process known as

Photosynthesis

25

Which of the following is a target of pasteurization

Brucella melitensis

26

DNA fingerprinting can be used

For forensics and detection of unculturable organisms

27

Medications which should not be prescribed for a pregnant woman include

Sulfanamides and tetracyclines

28

Recombinant DNA technology can be most accurately defined as the

Deliberate modification of the genome of an organism for practical purposes

29

Disruption of the normal microbiota can result in infections caused by which of the following

Candida albicans,Microbacterium, and Clostridium difficile

30

Which of the following microbes has been genetically engineered to contain a protein that helps protect crops from freezing

Pseudomonas

31

Small circular DNA autonomously replicating molecules with several restriction sites and a " marker" to trace their location are commonly called

Vectors

32

Synthetic antimicrobial that block protein synthesis by binding to the mRNA are

Antisense nucleic acids

33

All of the following are ways in which cells regulate metabolism EXCEPT

Use of the same coenzymes for anabolic and catabolic reactions that share substrate molecules

34

The chemical agent known as "quats" are used for

Disinfection

35

Which of the following has been genetically modified to stop the spread of a human disease

Aedes aegypti

36

A new antibacterial medication prevents the assembly of ribosomes on mRNA. The new medication would be

Either an antisense RNA or a type of oxazolidinone

37

The compound ethylene oxide is used in

Sterilization

38

Most broad spectrum antibiotics act by

Inhibiting protein synthesis

39

How does resistance to drugs spread in bacterial populations

Both horizontal gene transfer and the growth of biofilms spread drug resistance

40

The conversation of ammino acids to carbohydrates is an example of

Gluconeogensis

41

DNA sequences known as transposons contain

F+ plasmids

42

What are the "sticky ends" produced by some restriction enzymes

Sticky ends are short single-strand ends of DNA able to hydrogen bond with complementary strands

43

Injecting DNA into cells can be accomplished using

Micropipetes, or compressed air and gold beads

44

The events of _______ are initiated at sequences called origins

DNA replication

45

The bacterial chromosome is

Both circular and found in a nucleoid

46

Which of the following would be used to sterilize a mattress

Ethylene oxide

47

Cells must be naturally or artificially "competent" for which of the following events to occur

Transformation

48

Which of the following is not involved in the regulation of the lac operon

An iRNA

49

Which of the following statements is true of disinfectants

They are used on inanimate surfaces

50

Which of the following recombinant tools is NOT used in DNA fingerprinting

Reverse transcription

51

The E test determines which of the following

Both susceptibility and MIC ( minimum inhibitory concentration)

52

A medication that inhibits synthesis of ergosterol would be effective in treating

Fungal infections

53

The DNA sequence of a portion of gene in a wild type organisms is TTACCATATTCACC, and the corresponding peptide sequence is Leu-Pro-Tyr-Ser-Pro. The corresponding gene fragment in a phenotypic variant of the organism is TTACCATTCACC and the peptide sequence is Leu-Pro-Cys-Ser-Pro. This is an example of an ________ mutation (type) resulting in a _________ mutation (effect)

Base substitution; missense

54

In southern blotting, DNA molecules are immobilized on

Nitrocellulose membranes

55

Subunit vaccines are safer than traditional vaccines because they

Are acellular and do not pose a risk for causing the disease

56

The mechanism of action of the antibiotic vancomycin is

Inhibition of cell wall synthesis

57

Which of the following is necessary to produce an "expression " library representing the active genes of an organism

Reverse transcriptase

58

Broad spectrum synthetic antimicrobial swerve discovered by

Gerhard Domagk

59

Why is bacillus stearothermophilus useful as an indicator of sterility

It forms endospore said, among the most hardy of microbial contaminants

60

Seventy-percent alcohol is effective against

Enveloped viruses

61

Alterations in the structure of which of the following are an important aspect of gram- negative bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs

Porins

62

Beta oxidation produces a substrate of the

Kreb cycle

63

Codons are recognized by

tRNAs

64

The endospore said of which of the following are used to measure the effectiveness of autoclave sterilization

Bacillus stearothermophilus

65

In reactions catalyzed by oxidoreductases an electron donor is

Oxidized

66

Formaldehyde must be handled with greater care than gluteraldehyde because it is

A carcinogenic gas

67

During elongation a charged tRNA first enters the ribosomal _______ site and then moves into the __________ site.

A, P

68

A germistatic agent would be effective on

Vegetative bacterial cells

69

Which of the following antimicrobial agents is the most toxic to humans

Ethylene oxide

70

Which of the following procedures might be used to detect the presence of genetic sequences of a virus in a sample

Southern blotting or PCR

71

Which of the following is involved in translation

mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA, are all involved

72

DNA encoding a normal gene is inserted into cells from a patient with a defective form of the gene. Recombinant cells are identified and isolated, and returned to the patient's body. This is an example of

Gene therapy

73

Which of the following interferes with cell wall synthesis by blocking alanine bridge formation

Both cycloserine and vancomycin

74

Which of the following occurs in eukaryotes but Not in prokaryotes

Polyadenylation

75

Which of the following is used for microbial control in fresh fruits and vegetables

Gamma rays

76

What repair mechanism is most likely involved in repairing DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation

SOS response

77

Which of the following is an example of sanitization

A public toilet is treated with disinfectants

78

Which of the following antibiotics disrupts cytoplasmic membrane function

Amphotericin B

79

In coagulation, F+ cells

Contain an F plasmid

80

Pentamidine is an example of an antimicrobial that

Binds to DNA

81

Which of the following types of radiation causes the formation of damaging chemical bonds in DNA

Ultraviolet light

82

Which of the following contributes to the packaging of bacterial chromosome

Gyrase

83

Several antiviral medications used to treat HIV interfere with

Nucleic acid synthesis

84

Bacterial DNA replication requires the enzyme gyrase, but eukaryotic replication does not. Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) inhibits gyrase activity. This is an example of

Selective toxicity

85

An antimicrobial that inhibits cell wall synthesis will result in which of the following

Cells become more susceptible to osmotic pressure

86

Infection of the ______ would be the hardest to treat with antimicrobial drugs

Brain

87

Mutagens are useful in biotechnology research for

Producing organisms with altered phenotypes

88

Probes used for detecting genetic sequences are frequently composed of

Synthetic nucleic acids and labeled conjugates, such as fluorescent dyes

89

Which of the following statements is CORRECT about bacterial transcription

Various stigma factors recognize different promoter sequences

90

What factors need to be considered when choosing a method of microbial control

The site and environment to be treated, and the susceptibility of the microbes

91

Although glycolysis requires an input of ATP, this pathway results in a net gain of two ATP; therefore, it is________ pathway.

An exergonic

92

The cooperative activity of drugs such as beta-lactam antibiotics and clavulanic acid, a B-lactamase inhibitor, is known as

Synergism

93

Which of the following statements is CORRECT about BOTH bacterial and eukaryotic DNA replication

Replication proceeds bidirectionally from the origin of replication

94

In the compound lamivudine an -SH group replaces an -OH group found in cytosine. When used as a medication it will

Interfere with nucleic acid synthesis

95

Inhibitors of DNA synthesis specifically effective on prokaryotes are

Quinolones

96

Hydrogen peroxide is NOT an effective antiseptic because

The catalase present in skin cells degrade it

97

A compound is extracted from a microbial culture and is modified in the laboratory for use as an oral medication. This product would be

Semisynthetic antimicrobial

98

The procedure known as "replica plating" is used in

Negative selection only

99

Changes in temperature or pH can cause enzymes to lose activity. What is a common feature of these two effects

Temperature and pH both induce an enzyme to lose its precise three-dimensional shape

100

Who discovered the first antibiotic widely available to the general public

Domagk

101

Bacillus licheniformis secretes a compound that inhibits the growth of other Gram- positive bacteria

Antibiotic

102

Hydrolases are generally involved in _______ reactions

Catabolic

103

The process of _______ produces amino acids from precurser metabolites and ammonia

Amination

104

In gel electrophoresis, DNA molecules move toward the ______ electrodes because they have an overall _______ charge

Positive, negative

105

Which of the following is the most appropriate pairing of microbe and biosafety level

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), BSL-2

106

The process of ______ is best described as semiconservative

DNA replication

107

Beta-lactam antibiotics have an effect on which of the following types of cells

Bacterial cells

108

A microarray is assembled using

Single stranded DNA and silicon chips

109

If you started with a single DNA molecule, how many would you have at the end of six PCR cycles

64

110

The horizontal transfer process known as transduction

Involves a virus

111

Which of the following types of plasmids facilitates the transfer of genetic material among bacteria

Fertility plasmids

112

Which of the following occurs in DNA but Not RNA

Both deoxyribose and thymine

113

A stationary broth culture contains 10 billion cells. The microbial death rate during autoclaving of this spent culture is 1.5 minutes. How long must it be autoclaved to be considered sterile

16.5 minutes

114

Which of the following procedures would be used to introduce DNA into a single mouse cell

Microinjection

115

Which of the following is a primary advantage of semisynthetic drugs

They have a broader spectrum of action

116

Which of the following is a sterilizing agent

Peracetic acid

117

Semiconservative DNA replication means that

Each daughter DNA molecule is composed of one original strand and one new strand

118

The Ames test determines that a chemical is

Mutagenic in salmonella

119

Which of the following could be used to reduce production of harmful proteins in diseased animals

Antisense RNAs

120

DNA replication and RNA transcription have many features in common. Which of the following does not occur in both processes

A requirement for a primer

121

Which of the following are considered to be frameshift mutations

Both deletions and insertions

122

Gamma irradiation is a process for

Sterilization

123

Inducible operans

Are generally anabolic pathways

124

Ribozymes are required for

Both translation and RNA splicing

125

An antimicrobial agent that ______ will have the most lasting germicidal effect

Damages DNA

126

Physical removal of microbes without killing them is

Degerming

127

The metabolic processes called fermentation

Use an organic molecule as a final electron acceptor

128

________ may be achieved using chlorine dioxide

Disinfection

129

Which of the following causes mutations by creating thymine dimers

Ultraviolet light

130

The procedure used to identify individuals by their unique genetic sequences is known as

DNA fingerprinting

131

Which of the following is measured in the broth dilution test

Lack of turbidity

132

An effective tool for screening a large number of genetic sequences at once is known as

Microarray

133

Which of the following restriction enzyme site would produce blunt-ended fragments

CCC|GGG

134

A researcher finds a mutant mouse with a phenotype that may have applications to human disease. What would be the most efficient means of identifying the mutated gene

Use DNA fingerprinting to identify an altered DNA fragment, sequence it and search a gene library

135

The DNA double helix can be seperated into single strands using

Either heat or NaOH

136

Gluteraldehyde acts on microbes by

Forming chemical cross links in DNA and proteins

137

A wild-type organism and a genetic variant both have a gene encoding a receptor producing a chemotactic response to metabolite A. The genetic variant has a mutation in a regulatory gene for expression of the receptor. Which of the following statements with respect to the receptor is CORRECT

The organisms have the same receptor genotype but different phenotypes

138

Chemical reactions that are reversible, proceeding anabolically or catabolically, are called

Amphibolic

139

Which of the following pathways is specifically inhibited by trimethoprim

The conversion of dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid

140

A northern blot differs from a southern blot in the

Type of nucleic acid being isolated

141

Which of the following procedures is currently the standard test used in the United States for evaluating the efficiency of antiseptics and disinfectants

Use-dilution test

142

Typically eukaryotic genomes are composed of _______ DNA molecules

Multiple linear

143

Drug resistant populations of microbes arise when

Exposure to drugs selectively kills sensitive cells, allowing overgrowth of resistant cells

144

Which of the following processes is involved in the "central dogma" of genetics

Transcription and translation

145

The individual serving of half & half used in restaurants is usually treated by

Ultra- high temperature sterilization

146

The CDC issued alerts about a bacterial strain known as NDM1(New Delhi metals-lactamase 1). What type of antibiotic resistance is indicated by the name

Inactivation of the drug

147

Disinfecting agents naturally produced by microorganisms are

Antimicrobials

148

Boiling water for 10 minutes is effective in ridding it of

Both growing bacteria and enveloped viruses

149

DNA damage caused by ethidium bromide results in _______ mutations

Both insertion and deletion

150

A library of cloned sequences representing the expressed genes of an organism is known as a

cDNA library

151

A compound is structurally similar to PABA and inhibits folic acid synthesis. It is most likely a

Sulfonamide

152

Which of the following is a characteristic shared by DNA and RNA polymerases

Direction of polymerization

153

Antimicrobial sugar analogs are effective for

Preventing virus attachment

154

Which of the following statements is True of bacterial plasmids

They are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate autonomously

155

Which of the following can result when antibiotic therapy disrupts the normal microbiota

Both pseudomembranous colitis and thrush

156

In aerobic non-photosynthetic organisms, the majority of ATP is generated by

Oxidation-reduction reactions

157

The use of lysozyme during the preparation of cheeses and wines is effective in reducing the numbers of

Bacteria

158

Antimicrobial agents that damage nucleic acids also affect

Protein synthesis

159

A sulfonamide and trimethoprim may be administered in combination to

Reduce development of antibiotic resistance

160

The heavy metal compound _____ is used as a preservative in some vaccines

Thimerosal

161

Which of the following regulatory RNAs alter translation in response to environmental conditions

Riboswitches

162

The first synthetic antimicrobial widely available for treatment of infections

Was an antimetabolite

163

The B-lactams are narrow spectrum antibacterials because

The outer membrane prevents their entry into cells

164

Replacing the defective gene responsible for sickle-cell anemia is an example of

Gene therapy

165

A researcher has discovered a new metabolic product of a fungus that may have antimicrobial properties. Which method would be best for preparing the material for tests of its effect on bacteria

Filtration

166

Air can be disinfected using

Both HEPA filters and ultraviolet light

167

A medication which specifically targets cell walls that contain arabinogalactan-mycolic acid is

Isoniazid

168

Which of the following is bacteriostatic

Freezing below 0 degree Celsius

169

Filtration is a _____ method of achieving sterilization

Degerming

170

Examples of recent accomplishments in the use of recombinant DNA technology include

Gene therapy to correct an immune system deficiency in humans

171

The antimicrobial polymyxin is primarily effective for treating superficial infections with

Gram-negative bacteria

172

The process of _______ requires the activity of DNA ligase

DNA replication

173

Many metabolites for anabolic pathways are produced by the ________ pathway

Pentose-phosphate

174

Most drugs that inhibit the synthesis of the cell wall act by

Preventing the cross-linkage of NAM subunits

175

Which of the following is characteristic of prokaryotic genomes but NOT eukaryotic genomes

Circular chromosomes

176

The therapeutic range of an antimicrobial is the

Range of concentrations at which the antimicrobial is both effective and non-toxic

177

The mechanism of action of erythromycin is

Inhibition of protein synthesis

178

Disinfectants that damage membranes include

Both alcohols and phenolics

179

The phenolic________ is present in many consumers products labeled "antibacterial "

Triclosan

180

Silvadene, a topical treatment for burns, contains 1% silver. What category of chemical control agent is in Silvadene

Heavy metals

181

The process known as ______ is initiated with the incorporation of fMet

Translation

182

Ribavirin is an antiviral that interferes with

Nucleic acid synthesis

183

Synthesis of cDNA requires the use of

Reverse transcriptase

184

Which of the following is essential in PCR

Both DNA primers and DNA polymerase

185

Synthetic nucleic acids are produced using

Computerized assembly using replication enzymes in vitro

186

Which of the following best describes flash pasteurization

Heating at 72 degrees Celsius for 15 seconds

187

The process of incineration is used for

Sterilization

188

During the synthesis of acetyl-CoA from pyruvic acid, ______ is produced

NADH

189

Sigma factors are involved in the regulation of bacterial

Transcription

190

The detection of DNA by FISH makes use of

Synthetic DNAs and fluorescent tags

191

Specific DNA fragments can be isolated from a mixture of fragments using

An electrophoresis chamber

192

An instrument that will come into contact with only the skin of a patient should be disinfected with a

Low-level germicide

193

Which of the following products of glucose catabolism is a substrate for fatty acid synthesis

Acetyl-Coa

194

A researcher inserted DNA fragments from an organism into plasmids and introduced the modified plasmids into bacterial cells. Which of the following methods would be the most efficient means of identifying which clones contain a specific gene of interest

Use a labeled synthetic probe complementary to the gene sequence


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