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Chapter 15 Sensory Pathways and the Somatic Nervous System

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1

1) The term general senses refers to sensitivity to all of the following, except

A) temperature.

B) taste.

C) touch.

D) vibration.

E) pain.

B) taste.

2

2) Which of the following is not one of the special senses?

A) hearing

B) smell

C) taste

D) pressure

E) vision

D) pressure

3

3) The general senses

A) involve receptors that are relatively simple in structure.

B) are located in specialized structures called sense organs.

C) are localized to specific areas of the body.

D) cannot generate action potentials.

E) include taste and smell.

A) involve receptors that are relatively simple in structure.

4

4) Gustatory receptors are sensitive to dissolved chemicals but insensitive to light. This is due to

A) receptor specificity.

B) accessory cells.

C) the fact that they are interoceptors.

D) receptor potentials.

E) receptor speciation.

A) receptor specificity.

5

5) In order for a sensation to become a perception,

A) it must be received by the somatosensory cortex.

B) the individual must vocalize about it.

C) it must arrive over fast-conducting nerve fibers.

D) the other senses must be silent.

E) it must be received by the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus.

A) it must be received by the somatosensory cortex.

6

6) Which of the following can contribute to receptor specificity?

A) the structure of the receptor cell

B) characteristics of the receptor cell membrane

C) accessory cells that function with the receptor

D) accessory structures and tissues that shield the receptors from other stimuli

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

7

7) Examples of sensory stimuli include

A) touch.

B) warmth.

C) pain.

D) vibration.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

8

8) Sensory transduction can involve which of the following?

A) a stimulus altering the permeability of a receptor membrane

B) change in the flow of ions across the sensory membrane

C) the production of a receptor potential

D) inhibition of neurotransmitter release

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

9

9) Central adaptation refers to

A) the decline in activity of peripheral receptors when stimulated.

B) a characteristic of phasic receptors.

C) inhibition of nuclei located along a sensory pathway.

D) increases in conscious perception of a sensory stimulus.

E) a change in motor receptivity of a neuron.

C) inhibition of nuclei located along a sensory pathway.

10

10) A receptor potential may

A) increase neurotransmitter release.

B) decrease neurotransmitter release.

C) be a hyperpolarization.

D) be a depolarization.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

11

11) Peripheral adaptation ________ the number of action potentials that reach the CNS.

A) decreases

B) increases

C) stabilizes

D) neutralizes

E) amplifies

A) decreases

12

12) Which of the following statements is true about general senses?

A) They are distributed all over the body.

B) They are all mechanoreceptors.

C) Receptors involved in general sensation consist of naked nerve endings.

D) They are located in sense organs.

E) The reception of the stimulus occurs slowly with these receptors.

A) They are distributed all over the body.

13

13) Sensory encoding of the perceived location of a stimulus depends on

A) the frequency of action potentials.

B) which labeled line is active.

C) the specific location of the cortical neuron that is stimulated.

D) the specific sensitivity of the peripheral receptor.

E) the number of receptors stimulated.

C) the specific location of the cortical neuron that is stimulated.

14

14) Action potentials from receptors involved in general sensations are interpreted in the

A) premotor cortex.

B) primary sensory cortex.

C) general interpretive area.

D) mesencephalon.

E) reticular activating system.

B) primary sensory cortex.

15

15) A receptor that contains many mechanically-gated ion channels would function best as a

A) tactile receptor.

B) chemoreceptor.

C) photoceptor

D) thermoreceptor.

E) light receptor.

A) tactile receptor.

16

16) A mechanoreceptor in the papillary layer of the dermis that responds to fine touch is a

A) tactile (Merkel) disc.

B) root hair plexus.

C) free nerve ending.

D) Ruffini corpuscle.

E) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.

E) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.

17

17) Which of the following is/are sometimes called "prickling pain"?

A) mechanical damage

B) proprioception

C) extremes of temperature

D) fast pain

E) fast and slow pain

D) fast pain

18

18) All of the following are true of a prickling pain sensations except that they

A) are carried by type A fibers.

B) reach the CNS quickly.

C) are interpreted by the pre-frontal cortex.

D) receive conscious attention.

E) often trigger somatic reflexes.

C) are interpreted by the pre-frontal cortex.

19

19) Endorphins can reduce perception of sensations initiated by

A) nociceptors.

B) mechanoreceptors.

C) thermoreceptors.

D) chemoreceptors.

E) proprioceptors.

A) nociceptors.

20

20) Thermoreceptors

A) are found within the dermis.

B) are free nerve endings.

C) for "cold" are structurally indistinguishable from those for "warm."

D) are more numerous for cold than for warm temperatures.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

21

21) Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called

A) nociceptors.

B) chemoreceptors.

C) baroreceptors.

D) proprioceptors.

E) thermoreceptors.

D) proprioceptors.

22

22) Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called

A) nociceptors.

B) baroreceptors.

C) chemoreceptors.

D) proprioceptors.

E) thermoreceptors.

B) baroreceptors.

23

23) Tactile receptors composed of capsules that surround a core of collagen fibers intertwined with dendrites are called

A) Ruffini corpuscles.

B) lamellated corpuscles.

C) tactile (Meissner) corpuscles.

D) tactile discs.

E) root hair plexuses.

A) Ruffini corpuscles.

24

24) A tactile receptor composed of highly coiled dendrites that are surrounded by modified Schwann cells and a fibrous capsule is a

A) lamellated corpuscle.

B) Ruffini corpuscle.

C) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.

D) tactile (Merkel) disc.

E) root hair plexus.

C) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.

25

25) A very large, fast-adapting tactile receptor that is composed of a single dendrite enclosed by concentric layers of collagen is a

A) Ruffini corpuscle.

B) lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle.

C) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.

D) tactile (Merkel) disc.

E) root hair plexus.

B) lamellated (Pacinian) corpuscle.

26

26) Sensations of burning or aching pain

A) are carried by type A fibers.

B) reach the CNS quickly.

C) cause a generalized activation of the reticular formation and the thalamus.

D) are well localized.

E) are fast adapting.

C) cause a generalized activation of the reticular formation and the thalamus.

27

27) Bladder fullness is to ________ as blood pH is to ________.

A) nociceptors; thermoreceptors

B) baroreceptors; chemoreceptors

C) baroreceptors; nociceptors

D) chemoreceptors; nociceptors

E) baroreceptors; thermoreceptors

B) baroreceptors; chemoreceptors

28

28) A highly sensitive tactile receptor composed of dendritic processes of a single myelinated fiber that makes contact with specialized cells of the stratum germinativum (basale) is a

A) lamellated corpuscle.

B) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.

C) Ruffini corpuscle.

D) tactile (Merkel) disc.

E) root hair plexus.

D) tactile (Merkel) disc.

29

29) A fast-adapting tactile receptor that monitors movements across the body surface is a

A) tactile (Merkel) disc.

B) lamellated corpuscle.

C) tactile (Meissner) corpuscle.

D) Ruffini corpuscle.

E) root hair plexus.

E) root hair plexus.

30

30) A sensory receptor characterized peripherally as a free nerve ending which centrally uses glutamate and/or substance P as neurotransmitters would most likely be a

A) chemoreceptor.

B) mechanoreceptor.

C) thermoreceptor.

D) nociceptor.

E) free receptor.

D) nociceptor.

31

31) We are constantly bombarded by a variety of stimuli inside and outside of our bodies. Why are we not overwhelmed by sensory information?

A) We do not have receptors for most stimuli.

B) Stimuli are blocked from the receptors by our immune systems.

C) Most stimuli are external to our bodies and we have very few exteroceptors on the outside of the body.

D) A particular receptor type can have different sensitivities to different stimuli.

E) A very tiny percentage of incoming sensory information is received by the cerebral cortex.

E) A very tiny percentage of incoming sensory information is received by the cerebral cortex.

32

32) Mechanoreceptors might detect which of the following sensations?

A) pressure

B) touch

C) vibration

D) muscle length

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

33

33) Pain is to ________ as cold is to ________.

A) nociceptors; thermoreceptors

B) baroreceptors; chemoreceptors

C) baroreceptors; nociceptors

D) chemoreceptors; nociceptors

E) baroreceptors; thermoreceptors

A) nociceptors; thermoreceptors

34

34) If a friend is talking about someone she knows who lost his special senses, you would correct her when you hear her mention ________ because it is not a special sense.

A) smell

B) sight

C) balance

D) cold

E) hearing

D) cold

35

35) Tactile discs are to ________ as tactile corpuscles are to ________.

A) Wilms; Meissner

B) Merkel; Meissner

C) Meissner; Merkel

D) Pacinian; Merkel

E) pain; pressure

B) Merkel; Meissner

36

36) ________ are receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure.

A) Chemoreceptors

B) Nociceptors

C) Baroreceptors

D) Proprioceptors

E) Hair cells

C) Baroreceptors

37

37) Which of the following kinds of information do fine-touch and light-pressure mechanoreceptors provide?

A) location of the stimulus

B) shape of the stimulus

C) texture of the stimulus

D) movement of the stimulus

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

38

38) Which of the following is a property of thermoreceptors?

A) involves specialized receptors

B) monitor heat stimuli, not cold

C) found in skin only

D) project to reticular formation

E) cold receptors found around the body in small numbers

B) monitor heat stimuli, not cold

39

39) For the last few weeks, you have had an odd sensation on your upper thigh. When you touch the naked skin, it feels very strange, like you are touching your skin through layers of cloth. The surrounding area feels normal. Your doctor thinks that this may be related to spinal nerve damage related to a herniated disc. The doctor calls this change in sensation

A) paresthesia.

B) anesthesia.

C) hypesthesia.

D) synesthesia.

E) kinesthesia.

A) paresthesia.

40

40) Chemoreceptors are located in all of the following except

A) carotid bodies.

B) aortic bodies.

C) the skin.

D) the organs of taste.

E) the organs of smell.

C) the skin.

41

41) Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibration?

A) corticobulbar

B) corticospinal

C) posterior (dorsal) column

D) spinothalamic

E) spinocerebellar

C) posterior (dorsal) column

42

42) The spinal tract that carries sensations from proprioceptors to the CNS is the

A) fasciculus gracilis.

B) fasciculus cuneatus.

C) spinocerebellar.

D) lateral spinothalamic.

E) anterior spinothalamic.

C) spinocerebellar.

43

43) The spinal tract that relays information concerning pain and temperature to the CNS is the

A) fasciculus gracilis.

B) fasciculus cuneatus.

C) posterior spinocerebellar.

D) lateral spinothalamic.

E) anterior spinothalamic.

D) lateral spinothalamic.

44

44) Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of ________ pain.

A) referred

B) phantom

C) psychogenic

D) somatic

E) neurogenic

A) referred

45

45) Stimulation of a neuron that terminates in the superior region of the left postcentral gyrus would produce

A) a sensation in the right leg.

B) a sensation in the lips.

C) a muscle twitch in the right leg.

D) a muscle twitch in the lips.

E) both sensations and muscle twitches in the right leg.

A) a sensation in the right leg.

46

46) The spinal tract that relays information concerning crude touch and pressure to the CNS is the

A) fasciculus gracilis.

B) fasciculus cuneatus.

C) posterior spinocerebellar.

D) lateral spinothalamic.

E) anterior spinothalamic.

E) anterior spinothalamic.

47

47) Each of the following is an ascending tract in the spinal cord except the

A) fasciculus gracilis.

B) fasciculus cuneatus.

C) posterior spinocerebellar.

D) reticulospinal tract.

E) anterior spinothalamic.

D) reticulospinal tract.

48

48) The afferent neuron that carries the sensation to the CNS is a ________ neuron.

A) receptor

B) first-order

C) second-order

D) third-order

E) fourth-order

B) first-order

49

49) What loss would result from cutting through the medial lemniscus on the right side?

A) loss of pain sensation on the left side of the body

B) loss of pain sensation on the right side of the body

C) loss of fine touch sensation on the left side of the body

D) loss of fine touch sensation on the right side of the body

E) complete hemiplegia (paralysis) on the left side of the body

C) loss of fine touch sensation on the left side of the body

50

50) Thalamic neurons that project to the primary sensory cortex are ________ neurons.

A) receptor

B) first-order

C) second-order

D) third-order

E) fourth-order

D) third-order

51

51) Which neuron delivers sensations to the CNS?

A) first-order

B) second-order

C) third-order

D) fourth-order

E) sensory receptor

A) first-order

52

52) Neurons from the fasciculus gracilis

A) relay information directly to the cerebrum.

B) decussate before entering the medial lemniscus.

C) relay sensory information to the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere.

D) carry both crude and fine touch.

E) process proprioception.

B) decussate before entering the medial lemniscus.

53

53) We can localize sensations that originate in different areas of the body because

A) sensory neurons carry only one modality.

B) sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions.

C) incoming sensory information is first processed by the thalamus.

D) different types of sensory receptors produce action potentials of different sizes and shapes.

E) of the many types of tactile receptors.

B) sensory neurons from specific body regions project to specific cortical regions.

54
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54) Identify the neuron labeled "3."

A) lower motor neuron

B) upper motor neuron

C) first-order neuron

D) second-order neuron

E) ganglionic neuron

D) second-order neuron

55
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55) Where in the spinal cord is the structure labeled "2" located?

A) anterior gray horns

B) dorsal root ganglion

C) anterior white column

D) anterior median fissure

E) posterior white column

C) anterior white column

56
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56) Identify the neuron labeled "1."

A) lower motor neuron

B) upper motor neuron

C) first-order neuron

D) second-order neuron

E) ganglionic neuron

C) first-order neuron

57
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57) Identify the structure labeled "5."

A) thalamus

B) cerebral cortex

C) primary motor cortex

D) primary sensory cortex

E) autonomic ganglion

A) thalamus

58
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58) Which of the following is true regarding the structure labeled "6"?

1. The synapse occurs between motor neurons.

2. The sensations may be filtered out.

3. The third-order neuron projects to the primary sensory cortex.

4. The third-order neuron's axon is identified.

A) 1 and 4

B) 2 only

C) 3 only

D) 3 and 4

E) 1 and 3

D) 3 and 4

59
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59) Which structure conducts action potentials directly from a sensory receptor?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 5

E) 7

A) 1

60

60) Which ascending tract carries the sensations for fine touch and vibration?

A) corticobulbar

B) corticospinal

C) posterior (dorsal) column

D) spinothalamic

E) spinobulbar

C) posterior (dorsal) column

61

61) Identify the type of information that travels along the structure labeled "2."

A) motor commands to skeletal muscles

B) proprioception to the cerebral cortex

C) fine touch to the cerebral cortex

D) pressure and touch sensations

E) visceral motor commands to smooth muscle

D) pressure and touch sensations

62

62) The descending spinal tract that crosses to the opposite side of the body within the cord is the ________ tract.

A) lateral corticospinal

B) anterior corticospinal

C) rubrospinal

D) reticulospinal

E) vestibulospinal

B) anterior corticospinal

63

63) The descending spinal tract that crosses to the opposite side of the body within the medulla oblongata is the ________ tract.

A) lateral corticospinal

B) anterior corticospinal

C) rubrospinal

D) reticulospinal

E) vestibulospinal

A) lateral corticospinal

64

64) The spinal tract that normally plays a role in the subconscious regulation of the muscles of the arms is the ________ tract.

A) lateral corticospinal

B) anterior corticospinal

C) rubrospinal

D) reticulospinal

E) vestibulospinal

C) rubrospinal

65

65) Descending (motor) pathways always involve at least ________ motor neuron(s).

A) one

B) two

C) three

D) four

E) spinal

B) two

66

66) The cerebellum relies on information from

A) the eyes.

B) the inner ear as movements are underway.

C) proprioceptive sensations.

D) motor commands from upper motor neurons.

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

67

67) The spinal tract that unconsciously maintains balance and muscle tone is the ________ tract.

A) lateral corticospinal

B) anterior corticospinal

C) rubrospinal

D) reticulospinal

E) vestibulospinal

E) vestibulospinal

68

68) The medial pathway that controls involuntary movements of head, neck, and arm position in response to sudden visual and auditory stimuli is the ________ tract.

A) lateral corticospinal

B) tectospinal

C) rubrospinal

D) reticulospinal

E) vestibulospinal

B) tectospinal

69
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61) Identify the type of information that travels along the structure labeled "2."

A) motor commands to skeletal muscles

B) proprioception to the cerebral cortex

C) fine touch to the cerebral cortex

D) pressure and touch sensations

E) visceral motor commands to smooth muscle

D) pressure and touch sensations

70

70) Upper motor neurons of the corticospinal tract synapse with neurons in

A) autonomic ganglia.

B) the anterior gray horns of the spinal cord.

C) the spinothalamic tract.

D) the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord.

E) the dorsal root ganglia.

B) the anterior gray horns of the spinal cord.

71

71) The corticospinal system is often referred to as the

A) red nucleus.

B) reticular formation.

C) spinothalamic tracts.

D) pyramidal system.

E) medullary centers.

D) pyramidal system.

72

72) The area of the motor cortex that is devoted to a particular region of the body is proportional to the

A) size of the body area.

B) distance of the body area from the brain.

C) number of motor units in that region.

D) number of sensory receptors in the area of the body.

E) size of the nerves that serve the area of the body.

C) number of motor units in that region.

73

73) The ________ tract provides subconscious regulation of balance and muscle tone and is part of the ________ pathway.

A) tectospinal; lateral

B) rubrospinal; lateral

C) reticulospinal; medial

D) vestibulospinal; medial

E) corticobulbar; medial

D) vestibulospinal; medial

74

74) Axons of the corticobulbar tract terminate in the

A) sensory neurons.

B) somatic motor neurons in the spinal cord.

C) autonomic motor neurons in the spinal cord.

D) motor nuclei of cranial nerves.

E) nuclei in the thalamus.

D) motor nuclei of cranial nerves.

75

75) Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron in the somatic nervous system produces

A) the inability to localize a stimulus.

B) a subconscious response to a stimulation.

C) flaccid paralysis of its muscle fibers (motor unit).

D) a stimulation of the innervated muscle.

E) contractile paralysis of its motor unit.

C) flaccid paralysis of its muscle fibers (motor unit).

76

76) The ________ tract provides subconscious regulation of upper limb muscle tone and movement and is part of the ________ pathway.

A) tectospinal; lateral

B) rubrospinal; lateral

C) reticulospinal; medial

D) vestibulospinal; lateral

E) corticobulbar; medial

B) rubrospinal; lateral

77

77) The cerebellum

A) functions to maintain proper posture and equilibrium.

B) receives input from the motor cortex and basal ganglia.

C) compares intended movement to actual movement.

D) if damaged leads to uncoordinated and jerky movements.

E) has all of these characteristics.

E) has all of these characteristics.

78

78) Based on the motor homunculus, which of the following body regions has the fewest number of motor units involved?

A) tongue

B) face

C) hands

D) back trunk

D) back trunk

79

79) The pyramids on the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata are formed by fibers of the ________ tracts.

A) corticospinal

B) corticobulbar

C) reticulospinal

D) vestibulospinal

E) tectospinal

A) corticospinal

80

80) Axons that decussate between the pyramids of the medulla oblongata belong to the ________ tracts.

A) anterior corticospinal

B) lateral corticospinal

C) vestibulospinal

D) reticulospinal

E) rubrospinal

B) lateral corticospinal

81

81) The basal nuclei

A) initiate conscious motor activity.

B) activate spinal reflexes.

C) provide the background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities.

D) exert direct control over lower motor neurons.

E) act as gatekeepers, filtering out unnecessary sensorimotor activity.

C) provide the background patterns of movement involved in voluntary motor activities.

82

82) Complex motor activities such as riding a bicycle

A) only require neural processing at the level of the cerebrum.

B) involve little input from the brain, with practice.

C) require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain.

D) are largely controlled at the level of the spinal cord.

E) usually escape notice by the cerebellum.

C) require the coordinated activity of several regions of the brain.

83

83) The upper motor neurons of the medial pathway are located within any of the following except the

A) vestibular nuclei.

B) reticular formation.

C) superior colliculi.

D) inferior colliculi.

E) mamillary bodies.

E) mamillary bodies.

84

84) Tracts of the lateral and medial pathways include all of the following except ________ tracts.

A) corticospinal

B) tectospinal

C) rubrospinal

D) reticulospinal

E) vestibulospinal

A) corticospinal

85

85) A brain injury to a patient results in facial paralysis. Which descending tract is most likely affected?

A) corticospinal tract

B) tectospinal tract

C) rubrospinal tract

D) corticobulbar tract

E) reticulospinal tract

D) corticobulbar tract

86

86) Some neurons within the basal nuclei are known to

A) stimulate neurons with GABA.

B) inhibit neurons with GABA.

C) stimulate neurons with acetylcholine.

D) stimulate neurons with GABA and stimulate neurons with acetylcholine.

E) inhibit neurons with GABA and stimulate neurons with acetylcholine.

E) inhibit neurons with GABA and stimulate neurons with acetylcholine.

87

87) Damage to the pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex would directly affect

A) perception of pain.

B) sight.

C) voluntary motor activity.

D) hearing.

E) balance.

C) voluntary motor activity.

88

88) The cerebellum adjusts motor activity in response to all of the following except

A) touch sensations.

B) visual information.

C) equilibrium-related sensations.

D) input from the motor cortex.

E) input from proprioceptors.

A) touch sensations.

89

89) Motor neurons whose cell bodies are within the spinal cord are called ________ neurons.

A) upper motor

B) lower motor

C) preganglionic

D) postganglionic

E) somesthetic

B) lower motor

90

90) Upper motor neurons are located in the

A) precentral gyrus.

B) postcentral gyrus.

C) brain stem.

D) spinal cord.

E) cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem.

E) cerebral hemispheres and the brain stem.

91

91) Damage to the tectospinal tracts would interfere with the ability to

A) position the arms.

B) monitor body position.

C) make reflex responses of the head and neck in response to sudden movements or loud noises.

D) control motor units located in the leg.

E) coordinate eating and swallowing movements.

C) make reflex responses of the head and neck in response to sudden movements or loud noises.

92
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92) Identify the origin of the axon labeled "2."

A) lower motor neuron

B) upper motor neuron

C) decussation neuron

D) second-order neuron

E) ganglionic neuron

B) upper motor neuron

93
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93) The axon labeled "2" synapses with which structure?

A) 1

B) 3

C) 4

D) 5

E) 6

D) 5

94
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94) Identify the structure labeled "5."

A) ventral root

B) upper motor neuron

C) first-order neuron

D) second-order neuron

E) dorsal root

A) ventral root

95
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95) What occurs in this neural pathway at label "3"?

A) synapse

B) communication between sensory and motor neurons

C) amplification of motor signals

D) decussation

E) autonomic reflexes

D) decussation

96
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96) Identify the structure labeled "1."

A) primary sensory cortex

B) primary motor cortex

C) thalamus

D) autonomic motor center

E) basal nuclei

B) primary motor cortex

97
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97) Identify the type of information that travels along the structure labeled "4."

A) motor commands to skeletal muscles

B) proprioception to the cerebral cortex

C) fine touch to the cerebral cortex

D) pain and crude touch sensations

E) visceral motor commands to smooth muscle

A) motor commands to skeletal muscles

98

1) The ________ nervous system carries impulses to skeletal muscles.

A) somatic

B) sympathetic

C) parasympathetic

D) afferent

E) primitive

A) somatic

99

2) The heart muscle is a ________ effector.

A) somatic

B) sympathetic

C) visceral

D) afferent

E) higher-order

C) visceral

100

3) The conversion of the stimulus into an action potential to be interpreted by the brain is called

A) transformation.

B) transduction.

C) translation.

D) transcription.

E) transpotential.

B) transduction.

101

4) Sensory information from all parts of the body is routed to

A) the prefrontal cortex.

B) the cerebellum.

C) the primary motor cortex.

D) the somatosensory cortex.

E) Broca's area.

D) the somatosensory cortex.

102

5) The ________ is the area monitored by a single receptor cell.

A) corpuscle

B) cortex

C) receptor potential

D) receptive field

E) nerve center

D) receptive field

103

6) The conversion of a sensory input to a change in membrane potential in the receptor is known as

A) transduction.

B) reception.

C) effection.

D) potential.

E) stimulation.

A) transduction.

104

7) The link between peripheral receptor and cortical neuron is called a(n)

A) efferent pathway.

B) spinocortical line.

C) sympathetic chain.

D) adaptation pathway.

E) labeled line.

E) labeled line.

105

8) A ________ potential is a depolarization of a sensory dendrite that can lead to an afferent nerve impulse if strong enough.

A) resting

B) refractory

C) postsynaptic

D) generator

E) receptor

D) generator

106

9) Sensory neurons that adapt quickly are called ________ receptors.

A) phasic

B) tonic

C) intracellular

D) chemical-channel

E) opioid

A) phasic

107

10) A reduction in sensitivity in the presence of a constant stimulus is referred to as

A) transduction.

B) adaptation.

C) negation.

D) exhaustion

E) transformation.

B) adaptation.

108

11) Sensory neurons that are always active are called ________ receptors.

A) tonic

B) pasich

C) noci

D) isometric

E) isotonic

A) tonic

109

12) ________ provides information about the intensity, duration, location, and modality of a sensory stimulus.

A) Baroreceptors

B) Sensory coding

C) Tactile receptors

D) Lamellated corpuscles

E) Merkel's discs

B) Sensory coding

110

13) Why is it that one cannot identify the location of internal organs, although joints and bone location can be identified?

A) The internal organs have no proprioceptors like joints, bones, and muscles.

B) Internal organs have no pain receptors.

C) Although internal organs have some receptors, the information is not interpreted by the brain.

D) Internal organs have no receptors of any kind.

E) Sensory information from internal organs is processed by a different part of the brain than the joints, bones, and muscles.

A) The internal organs have no proprioceptors like joints, bones, and muscles.

111

14) The sense of proprioception passes along the ________ pathway.

A) rubriocerebellar

B) corticospinal

C) spinocerebellar

D) decussation pathways

E) ganglion

C) spinocerebellar

112

15) Feeling pain in the left arm during a heart attack is an example of ________ pain.

A) referred

B) phantom

C) cutaneous

D) prickling

E) adaptive

A) referred

113

16) In the spinothalamic pathway, the sensory neuron that synapses with a neuron in the cerebral cortex is called the ________ neuron.

A) first-order

B) second-order

C) third-order

D) fourth-order

E) receptive

C) third-order

114

17) Ascending tracts in the spinal cord relay ________ information.

A) sensory

B) motor

C) sensory and motor

D) only somatic

E) autonomic

A) sensory

115

18) Descending tracts in the spinal cord relay ________ information.

A) sensory

B) motor

C) sensory and motor

D) only somatic

E) autonomic

B) motor

116

19) In the corticospinal pathway, the neuron that exits the spinal cord and enters the spinal nerve is called the ________ neuron.

A) upper sensory

B) lower sensory

C) upper motor

D) lower motor

E) pyramidal

D) lower motor


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