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Cattell and Esyneck, Mcrae, Skinner, Mischel and Bandura, Buss

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created 2 years ago by Tracy_Korn
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1

Ability trait

trait that determines how effectively a person works toward a desired goal

e.g. intelligence

2

Attitude

learned tendency to respond in a particular way in a particular situation to a particular object or event

derive from sentiments, which in turn derive from ergs

type of metaerg

3

Beyondism

Cattell's proposal that scientific facts be utilized to create moral systems rather than religious illusions or philosophical speculations

4

Classical conditioning

type of learning in which a stimulus that did not originally elicit a response is made to do so

Cattle believed many emotional responses to persons, objects, or events are learned by this conditioning

5

Cluster analysis

systematic search of a correlation matrix in order to discover factors

6

Constitutional trait

genetically determined trait

7

Correlation

condition that exists when values on two variables vary together in some systematic way

8

Correlation coefficient

mathematical expression indicating the extent to which two variables are correlated

Correlation coefficients can vary from 1 (perfect positive correlation) to -1 (perfect negative correlation)

9

Correlation matrix

display of the many correlation coefficients that result when many sources of information are intercorrelated

10

Crystallized intelligence

type of intelligence that comes from formal education or from general experience

it is the type of intelligence that most intelligence test attempt to measure

11

Culture free intelligence test

test designed by Cattell to measure fluid intelligence rather than crystallized intelligence

12

Dynamic trait

Motivational trait that sets a person in motion toward a goal

Cattell postulated the existence of two types of dynamic traits: ergs and metaergs

13

Environmental-mold trait

trait that is determined by experience rather than by heredity

14

Erg

constitutional dynamic source trait that provides the energy for all behavior

much the same as what other theorists call a primary drive

e.g. hunger and thirst

15

Ergic tension

tension that varies as the intensity of an erg varies

16

Extraversion

Superfactor in Eysenck's theory that includes the traits of sociability, activity, assertiveness, and sensation seeking

17

Factor

ability or characteristic that is thought to be responsible for consistent behavior

Cattell's system a factor is also a trait

18

Factor analysis

complex statistical technique based on the concept of correlation

used to discover personality traits

19

Fluid intelligence

general problem-solving ability that is largely innate

20

Hypothetico-deductive reasoning

method (Eysenck) that beings with hypothesis that guides data collection

21

Inductive reasoning

method (Cattell) that begins with collection of data which leads to a hypothesis

22

instrumental conditioning

learning to make a response that will either make a reward available or remove an aversive stimulus

23

L-data

information about a persons everyday life. The L stands for life record

24

Lexical hypothesis

the idea that all necessary information about personality is revealed in everyday language

25

metaerg

Environmental-mold, dynamic source trait

similar to secondary drive

learned drive

26

Personality sphere

Universe of source traits in terms of which all humans can be compared

27

psychoticism

superfactir or type in Eysenck's theory

includes traits of aggression, egocentricity, impulsiveness, and creativity

28

P-technique

type of factor analysis that studies how a single individual's traits change over time

29

Q-data

information provided when people fill out a questionnaire on which they rate themselves on various characteristics

30

R-technique

type of factor analysis that studies many things about many people

31

self-sentiment

concern for oneself that is a prerequisite to pursuit of any goal in life

32

sentiment

learned predisposition to responds to a class of objects or events in a certain way

a metaerg

33

Source traits

traits that constitute a person's personality structure and are thus the ultimate causes of behavior

causally related to surface traits

34

Structured learning

results in rearranging one's personality traits

Cattell says most important kind of learning

35

Subsidiation

Sentiments depend on ergs and attitudes depend on sentiments

36

Superfactor (type)

eysenck

higher order factor that encompasses or explains a number of correlated traits or first order factors

37

Surface traits

outward manifestations of source traits

are the characteristics of a person that can be directly observed and measured

38

T-data

information obtained about a person from performance on an objective test

39

temperament

opposite factors that describe emotional, motivational, and cognitive aspects of behavior

does not include intelligence or ability

40

Temperament trait

constitutional trait that determines a persons emotionality and style behaving

41

trait

either group of interrelated overt behaviors or the deeper determinant interrelated behavior

useful for surface traits to provide information about source traits

42

Acquisition

part of operant conditioning in which an operant response is followed by a reinforcer

increases rate which response occurs

43

avoidance contingency

organism can avoid an aversive stimulus by engaging in appropriate activity

44

classical conditioning

conditioning studied by pavlov and used by Watson as a model for her version of behaviorism

45

Contingency contracting

agreement between two people that when one acts in an appropriate way the other one gives him or her something of value

46

contingency management

purposive manipulation of reinforcement contingencies so they encourage desirable behaviors

47

Contingent reinforcement

certain response must be made before a reinforcer is obtained

no response, no reinforcer

48

cultural engineering

use of contingency management in designing a culture

49

culture

set of reinforcement contingencies

50

Differential reinforcement

situation in which some responses are reinforced and others are not

51

Discriminative operant

operant response made under one set of circumstances but not under others

52

discriminative stimulus (S^D)

cue indicating that if a certain response is made it will be followed by reinforcement

53

Extinction

weakening of an operant response by removing the reinforcer that had been following the response during acquisition

all negative reinforcement involves an escape contingency

54

fixed interval reinforcement shedule

reinforces a response that is made only after a specified interval of time

55

fixed ratio reinforcement scehdule

reinforcement schedule that reinforces every nth response

every 5th response the organism makes is reinforced

56

functional analysis

skinners approach to research that attempted to relate measurable environmental event to measurable behavior and bypass cognitive and physiological processes altogether

57

generalized reinforcers

class of secondary reinforcers that have been paired with more than one primary reinforcer

58

Negative reinforcement

reinforcement that occurs when a response removes a primary or secondary negative reinforcer

59

non contingent reinforcement

situation in which no relationship exists between an organisms behavior and the availability of reinforcement

60

operant behavior

behavior that cannot be linked to any known stimulus and therefore appears to be emitted rather than evoked

61

positive reinforcement

type of reinforcement that occurs when a response makes available a primary or secondary positive reinforcer

62

primary negative reinforcer

threatens an organisms survival

pain or oxygen deprivation

63

primary positive reinforcer

enhances an organisms survival

food or water

64

punishment

removing positive reinforcer or giving a negative reinforcer

65

radical behaviorism

only directly observable events should constitute the subject matter of psychology

reference to internal events can be avoided

66

respondent behavior

behavior evoked by known stimulus

67

secondary negative reinforcer

derives its reinforcing properties through its association with primary negative reinforcer

68

secondary positive reinforcer

derives its reinforcing properties through its association with primary positive reinforcer

69

Shaping

gradual development of a response that na organism does not normally make

requires differential reinforcement and successive approximations

70

successive approximations

situation in which only those responses that are increasingly similar to the one ultimately desired are reinforced

71

superstitious behavior

behavior that develops under non contingent reinforcement in which the organism seems to believe that a relationship exists between its actions and reinforcement, when it does not

72

Type R conditioning (operant conditioning)

conditioning of operant or emitted behavior to emphasize the importance of the response to such conditioning

73

Type S conditioning (respondent)

classical conditioning to emphasize the importance of the stimulus to such conditioning

74

variable interval reinforcement

reinforcement schedule in which a certain average time interval must pass before a response will be reinforced

organism reinforced on average of every 30 seconds

75

variable ratio reinforcement

reinforcement schedule in which a certain average number of responses need to be made before reinforcement is obtained

organism reinforced on average of every fifth responses

76

Attentional processes

processes that determine what is attended to and therefore what is learned through observation

77

Behavior-outcome expectancy

belief that acting a certain way in a certain situation will have a certain consequence

78

Cognitive social person variables

those variables thought by Mischel to determine how a person selects, perceives, interprets, and uses the stimuli confronting him or her

79

competencies

cognitive social person variable that describes what a person knows and what he or she is capable of doing

80

consistency paradox

according to Mischel, the persistent belief that human behavior is more consistent than is indicated by experimental evidence

81

Delay of gratification

postponement of a small, immediate reinforcer in order to obtain a larger, more distant reinforcer

82

Delayed modeling

there is often a long delay between when something is learned observationally and when that learning is translated into behavior

83

dysfunctional expectancies

expectancies that do not result in effective interactions with the environment

can result from inaccurate modeling, from overgeneralization of nonrepresentational personal experience or from distorted perceived self-efficacy

84

encoding strategies

cognitive social person variable that determines which aspects of the environment are selected for attention and how those aspects are interpreted by the individual

85

Expectancies

cognitive social person variable that determines how individuals anticipate events in their lives

86

Extrinsic reinforcement

reinforcement that results from sources outside of the person

87

Freedom

within social-cognitive theory, freedom is determined by the number of options available to people and their right to exercise them

88

Intrinsic reinforcement

self-reinforcement

89

model

anything that conveys information to an observer

90

moral conduct

behavior that is in accordance with internalized mortal principles

when a person acts in accordance with internalized moral principles, he or she experiences self-contempt

91

Motivational processes

processes that determine the circumstances under which learning is translated into behavior

will not occur unless the person has an adequate incentive

92

motor reproduction processes

processes that determine what behavior a person is physically capable of performing

93

observational leanring

learning that results form attending to something

occurs independently of reinforcement

94

participant modeling

requires observer to participate int eh modeling experience

both model and observer engage in activities together that are anxiety-provoking to the observer

most effective modeling

95

perceived self-efficacy

what a person believes he or she is capable of doing

96

performance standards

standards that but be met or exceeded before one experiences self-reinforcement

if a person's performance does not meet or exceed a performance standard, he or she experiences self-punishment

97

person variables

variables contained within the person that determine how he or she responds to a situation

98

personality coefficient

Mischel's quantification of the amount of consistency found in human behavior

correlation of behavior across time, across similar situations, and between personality questionnaires and behavior was about .30 (weak that suggested that human behavior was not nearly as consistent as it had been widely assumed to be)

99

Psychotherapy

within social cognitive theory, andy procedure that corrects dysfunctional expectancies

procedure used is some kind of modeling

100

Reciprocal determinism

contention that person variables, situation variables, and behavior constantly interact with one another

person influences the environment, the environment influences the person, and the consequences of one's behavior change both the person and the environment

101

reinforcement

within social-cognitive theory, reinforcement provides information concerning what behavior will be effective in a given situation

proveds incentive for translating learning into performance

102

retention proceses

processes that determine how experiences are encoded into emory for possible future use

103

self-control

ability to tolerate delay of gratification

104

self-efficacy

what a person is actually capable of

105

self-efficacy expectancy

expectancy one has concerning one's ability to engage in effective behavior

106

self-exonerating mechanisms

cognitive mechanisms a person can employ to escape the self-contempt that ordinarily results when a person acts contrary to an internalized moral principle

107

self-regulated behavior

behavior governed by intrinsic reinforcement and punishment

self-regulated behavior is often directed at some major future goal that is approached through a series of subgoals

once goals are set, and imdivid organizes his or her life so as to increase the probability of their attainment

also determined by his/her perceived self-efficacy

108

situation variables

variables in the environment the provide the setting in which person variables manifest themselves

109

social-cognitive theory

name given to Bandura and Mischel theory because of its emphasis on the social and cognitive origins of human behavior

110

stimulus-outcome expectancy

belief that one environmental even will be followed by another specific even that has been consistently associated with the first event in the past

111

symbolic modeling

modeling involving something other than a live human

film, television, instructions

112

systematic desensitization

therapeutic procedure whereby a client is asked to imagine a series of interrelated anxiety-provoking scenes until they no longer cause anxiety

113

vicarious punishment

punishment that comes from observing the negative consequences of another person's behavior

114

vicarious reinforcement

reinforcement that comes for observing the positive consequences of another persons behavior

115

Adaptation

any physiological structure, trait, or behavioral pattern that facilitates survival and reproduction

116

Altruism

behavior that risks resources of the actor in order to benefit a recipient

117

Cheating

occurs in an altruistic system when one accepts help from another but does not reciprocate or when one accepts more help than one gives

118

Competitor derogation

mating tactic in which on provides negative information about rival

119

context failure

activation of an evolved mechanism or strategy by inappropriate stimuli or in an inappropriate context

120

coolidge effect

male mammals, a reduction or elimination of the post-ejaculatory refractory period when a novel female is introduced

121

cost-benefit analysis

in evolutionary psychology, and intuitive or unconscious evaluation of the trade-off between costs of a behavior and the benefits that the behavior might arise from

122

empirical theory

the mind is blank at birth without inherited dispositions, and that experience rather than innate factors, shapes the mind and its characteristics

123

error management theory (EMT)

a proposal that humans are predisposed to make those types of errors for which costs are minimized

124

evolutionary psychology

uses darwinian and net-darwinian evolutionary principles to generate hypotheses and explanation of psychological phenomena

125

evolutionary psychology theory of human nature

some aspects of the mind have been shaped by natural selection and that certain behaviors are predisposed

126

exaptations

use of adaptation for purposes other than those for which it originally evolved

127

fitness

ability to produce viable offspring

128

fluctuating assymetry

deviations from perfect symmetry between the right and left halves of the body

129

hamilton's rule

extend help and resources in proportion to genes shared with the recipient of our actions

130

inclusive fitness

evolutionary fitness can be increased by reproducing, by contributing to the fitness of those with whom we share genes, or both

131

Jealousy

emotion experienced by males when they know, or suspect, that their mate is sexually unfaithful and by females when they know that the resources provided to her and her offspring by her mate are threatened by a rival

132

kin selection

helping behavior extended to those to whom we are genetically related

133

love

irrational but necessary emotion that evolved to maintain long-term mating relationships

134

natural selection

only organisms that posses adaptive traits in a given environment survive and reproduce

135

naturalistic fallacy

mistaken belief that what naturally "is" is also what "ought" to be

136

phobias

fears that are wildly out of proportion to the realistic danger, are typically beyond voluntary control, and lead to avoidance of the feared situtaion

137

reciprocal altruism

helping behavior extended to individuals genetically unrelated to us with the explicit or implicit expectation that the favor will be repaid or returned

138

self-promotion

attempt to attract a mate by displaying or exaggerating the characteristics desired by that mate

139

sexual selection

typically females within a species will select mates with certain physical and behavioral characteristics, thereby perpetuating those characteristics into future generations

140

Sexual strategies theory (SST)

mating strategies differ due to sex and whether a short-term or long-term relationship is sought

141

social science model

theory of human nature, claims that experience, rather than inane factors, shapes the mind and its characteristics

142

strategic interference

occurs when a person employs a particular strategy to achieve a goal and another person interferes with successful enactment of that strategy

143

strategy

evolved multifaceted solution to a recurring adaptive problem


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