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Muscle's (origin, insertion, main action)

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1
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Epicranial Frontal belly

Action: Raises the eyebrows
Origin: Epicranial aponeurosis
Insertion: Skin of eyebrows and nose

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Epicranial Occipital belly

Action: Fixes aponeurosis and pulls scalp posteriorly
Origin: Occipital and temporal bones
Insertion
: Epicranial aponeurosis

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Orbicularis oculi

Action: Closes eye
Origin: Frontal and maxillary bones
Insertion: Eyelid

4
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Zygomaticus

Action: Raises lateral corners of the mouth
Origin: Zygomatic bone
Insertion: Skin and muscle at corner of mouth

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Risorius

Action: Draws corner of lip laterally
Origin: Fascia of masseter
Insertion: Skin at angle of mouth

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Orbicularis oris

Action: Closes lips
Origin: Maxilla and mandible
Insertion: Muscle and skin at angles of the mouth

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Mentalis

Action: Wrinkles chin
Origin: Mandible
Insertion: Skin of chin

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Buccinator

Action: Compresses cheek
Origin: Maxilla and mandible
Insertion: Orbicularis oris

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Platysma

Action: Tenses skin of neck
Origin: Fascia of chest
Insertion: Mandible and skin at corner of mouth

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Masseter

Action: Closes jaw
Origin: Zygomatic arch
Insertion: Angle, ramus of mandible

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Temporalis

Action: Closes jaw
Origin: Temporal fossa
Insertion: Coronoid process

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Sternocleidomastoid

Action: Flexes, laterally rotates head
Origin: Manubrium, medial clavicle
Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal bone and superior nuchal line of occipital bone

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Scalenes (Anterior, Middle, Posterior)

Action: Elevate ribs 1 and 2
Origin: Cervical vertebrae
Insertion: First two ribs

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Splenius capitis, cervicis

Action: Extends head
Origin: Cervical and thoracic vertebrae
Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal bone, occipital bone, transverse processes of C C 2 4

15
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Iliocostalis

Action: Extends and laterally flexes vertebral column, extends head and rotates toward same side
Origin: Iliac crests, ribs
Insertion: Angles of ribs, cervical vertebrae

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Longissimus

Action: Extends and laterally flexes vertebral column, extends head and rotates toward same side
Origin: Vertebral column
Insertion: Cervical and thoracic vertebrae, ribs

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Spinalis

Action: Extends and laterally flexes vertebral column, extends head and rotates toward same side
Origin: Thoracic and lumbar vertebrae
Insertion: Thoracic and cervical vertebrae

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External intercostals

Action: Elevates ribs
Origin: Inferior border of upper rib
Insertion: Superior border of rib below

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Internal intercostals

Action: Compresses and depresses ribcage
Origin: Superior border of rib below
Insertion: Inferior border of upper rib

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Diaphragm

Action: Flattens during inspiration
Origin: Internal surface of ribcage and sternum, lower costal cartilages, lumbar vertebrae
Insertion: Central tendon

21
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Rectus abdominis

Action: Flexes and rotates vertebral column
Origin: Pubic crest and symphysis
Insertion: Xiphoid process, lower costal cartilages

22
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External oblique

Action: Flexes vertebral column, rotates and flexes vertebral column laterally, compresses abdomen
Origin: Lower ribs
Insertion: Linea alba, pubic crest, tubercle, iliac crest

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Internal oblique

Action: Flexes vertebral column, rotates and flexes vertebral column laterally, compresses abdomen
Origin: Lumbar fascia, iliac crest
Insertion: Linea alba, pubic crest, costal margin, and lower ribs

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Transversus abdominis

Action: Compresses abdomen
Origin: Lumbar fascia, iliac crest, lower costal cartilages
Insertion: Linea alba, pubic crest

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Pectoralis minor

Action: Fixes ribs, protracts and depresses scapula
Origin: Ribs 3–5
Insertion: Coracoid process

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Serratus anterior

Action: Rotates scapula
Origin: Ribs 1–8
Insertion: Medial border of
scapula

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Subclavius

Action: Fixes and depresses pectoral girdle
Origin: Costal cartilage of rib 1
Insertion: Clavicle

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Trapezius

Action: Fixes, elevates, retracts, and rotates scapula
Origin: Occipital condyle, vertebral column
Insertion: Acromion, spine of scapula, lateral third of clavicle

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Levator scapulae

Action: Elevates, adducts scapula
Origin: Vertebral transverse processes
Insertion: Medial border of scapula

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Rhomboids (major, minor)

Action: Fixes scapula
Origin: Vertebral spinous processes
Insertion: Medial border of scapula

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Pectoralis major

Action: Flexes, adducts, medially rotates arm
Origin: Clavicle, sternum, costal cartilages
Insertion: Greater tubercle

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Deltoid

Action: Abducts arm
Origin: Acromion, spine of scapula, lateral third of clavicle
Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity

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Latissimus dorsi

Action: Extends, adducts, medially rotates arm
Origin: Vertebrae, ribs, iliac crest, inferior angle of scapula
Insertion: Humerus

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Subscapularis

(part of rotator cuff)

Action: Medially rotates arm
Origin: Subscapular fossa
Insertion: Lesser tubercle

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Supraspinatus

(part of rotator cuff)

Action: Abducts arm
Origin: Supraspinous fossa
Insertion: Greater tubercle

36
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Infraspinatus

(part of rotator cuff)

Action: Laterally rotates arm
Origin: Infraspinous fossa
Insertion: Greater tubercle

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Teres minor

(part of rotator cuff)

Action: Laterally rotates arm
Origin: Lateral border of scapula
Insertion: Greater tubercle

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Teres major

Action: Extends, medially rotates, adducts arm
Origin: Inferior angle of scapula
Insertion: Lesser tubercle

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Coracobrachialis

Action: Flexes, adducts arm
Origin: Coracoid process
Insertion: Humerus

40
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Triceps brachii

Action: Extends forearm
Origin: Scapula, humerus
Insertion: Olecranon

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Biceps brachii

Action: Flexes and supinates forearm
Origin: Coracoid process, glenoid cavity
Insertion: Radial tuberosity

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Brachialis

Action: Flexes forearm
Origin: Humerus
Insertion: Coronoid process

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Brachioradialis

Action: Flexes forearm
Origin: Humerus
Insertion: Radial styloid process

44
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Pronator teres

Action: Pronates forearm
Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process
Insertion: Radius

45
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Flexor carpi radialis

Action: Flexes wrist, abducts hand
Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Second and third metacarpals

46
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Palmaris longus

Action: Tenses skin and fascia of palm
Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Palmar aponeurosis

47
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Flexor carpi ulnaris

Action: Flexes wrist, adducts hand
Origin: Medial epicondyle, olecranon
Insertion: Pisiform, hamate, and fifth metacarpal

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Flexor digitorum superficialis

Action: Flexes wrist and middle phalanges of fingers 2–5
Origin: Medial epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Middle phalanges of fingers 2–5

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Extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis

Action: Extends and abducts wrist
Insertion: Third metacarpal

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Extensor digitorum

Action: Extends fingers
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Insertion: Distal phalanges of fingers 2–5

51
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Extensor carpi ulnaris

Action: Extends and adducts wrist
Origin: Lateral epicondyle of humerus, ulna
Insertion: Fifth metacarpal

52
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Thenar Muscles

Action: Abducts, adducts, flexes, and opposes thumb
Origin: Flexor retinaculum, carpals, metacarpals II–IV
Insertion: Proximal phalanx and metacarpal I

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Hypothenar Muscles

Action: Abducts, flexes little finger, opposes thumb
Origin: Carpals and flexor retinaculum
Insertion: Proximal phalanx of little finger

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Iliacus

Action: Flexes thigh at trunk, flexes vertebral column laterally
Origin: Iliac fossa, crest, and sacrum
Insertion: Lesser trochanter

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Psoas major

Action: Flexes thigh at trunk, flexes vertebral column laterally
Origin: Lumbar vertebrae
Insertion: Lesser trochanter

56
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Sartorius

Action: Flexes, abducts, medially rotates thigh, flexes knee
Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine
Insertion: Medial proximal tibia

57
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Adductor magnus

Action: Adducts, flexes, extends, medially rotates thigh
Origin: Ischial and pubic rami, ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Linea aspera

58
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Adductor longus

Action: Adducts, flexes, medially rotates thigh
Origin: Pubis
Insertion: Linea aspera

59
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Adductor brevis

Action: Adducts, flexes, medially rotates thigh
Origin: Pubis
Insertion: Linea aspera

60
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Gracilis

Action: Adducts, flexes, medially rotates thigh
Origin: Pubis, ischial ramus
Insertion: Tibia

61
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Rectus femoris

Action: Extends knee, flexes thigh
Origin: Anterior inferior iliac spine, acetabulum
Insertion: Patella, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

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Vastus lateralis

Action: Extends knee
Origin: Greater trochanter, linea aspera
Insertion: Patella, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

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Vastus medalis

Action: Extends knee
Origin: Linea aspera
Insertion: Patella, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

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Vastus intermedius

Action: Extends knee
Origin: Proximal shaft of femur
Insertion: Patella, tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

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Gluteus maximus

Action: Extends thigh
Origin: Ilium, sacrum, coccyx
Insertion: Gluteal tuberosity of femur, iliotibial tract

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Gluteus medius

Action: Abducts, medially rotates thigh
Origin: Ilium
Insertion: Greater trochanter

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Gluteus minimus

Action: Abducts, medially rotates thigh
Origin: Ilium
Insertion: Greater trochanter

68
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Biceps femoris

Action: Extends thigh, flexes knee
Origin: Ischial tuberosity, linea aspera
Insertion: Head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia

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Semitendinosus

Action: Extends thigh, flexes knee
Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Tibia

70
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Semimembranosus

Action: Extends thigh, flexes knee
Origin: Ischial tuberosity
Insertion: Medial condyle of tibia, lateral condyle of femur

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Tibialis anterior

Action: Dorsiflexes foot
Origin: Tibia, interosseous membrane
Insertion: Medial cuneiform, metatarsal I

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Extensor digitorum longus

Action: Extends toes
Origin: Tibia, fibula, interosseous membrane
Insertion: Middle and distal phalanges of toes 2–5

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Fibularis (peroneus) longus and brevis

Action: Plantar flexes and everts foot
Origin: Fibula
Insertion: Metatarsal I, medial cuneiform

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Gastrocnemius

Action: Plantar flexes foot
Origin: Medial and lateral condyles of femur
Insertion: Calcaneus

75
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Soleus

Action: Plantar flexes foot
Origin: Tibia, fibula, interosseous membrane
Insertion: Calcaneus

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Flexor digitorum longus

Action: Plantar flexes and inverts foot, flexes toes
Origin: Posterior tibia
Insertion: Tendon passes behind medial malleolus to distal phalanges of toes 2–5

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Tibialis posterior

Action: Inverts foot
Origin: Tibia, fibula, interosseous membrane
Insertion: Tendon passes behind medial malleolus, under arch, to tarsals and metatarsals II–IV


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