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Ch 28 The Reproductive System

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1

1) The reproductive system includes

  1. A) gonads and external genitalia.
  2. B) ducts that receive and transport the gametes.
  3. C) accessory glands and organs that secrete fluids.
  4. D) organs for copulation.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct.

2

2) The reproductive system

  1. A) produces gametes.
  2. B) stores gametes.
  3. C) transports gametes.
  4. D) nourishes gametes.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

3

3) Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens (vas deferens) by

  1. A) hydrostatic force.
  2. B) ciliary action.
  3. C) peristaltic contractions.
  4. D) suction.
  5. E) hydraulic action.

C) peristaltic contractions.

4

4) Arrange the four structures listed below into the order in which sperm pass from the testis to the urethral meatus.

  1. ductus deferens
  2. urethra
  3. ejaculatory duct
  4. epididymis
  5. A) 1, 3, 4, 2
  6. B) 4, 3, 1, 2
  7. C) 4, 1, 2, 3
  8. D) 4, 1, 3, 2
  9. E) 1, 4, 3, 2

D) 4, 1, 3, 2

5

5) The organ that monitors and adjusts the composition of tubular fluid, recycles damaged spermatozoa, and is the site of sperm maturation is the

  1. A) ductus deferens.
  2. B) rete testis.
  3. C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).
  4. D) epididymis.
  5. E) prostate gland.

D) epididymis

6

6) The organ that carries sperm from the epididymis to the urethra is the

  1. A) ductus deferens (vas deferens).
  2. B) epididymis.
  3. C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).
  4. D) ejaculatory duct.
  5. E) corpus cavernosum.

A) ductus deferens (vas deferens).

7

7) Inward projections of the tunica albuginea, known as septa, divide the testis into

  1. A) seminiferous tubules.
  2. B) straight tubules.
  3. C) lobules.
  4. D) rete testis.
  5. E) the epididymis and the testis proper.

C) lobules

8

8) Straight tubules originate at the seminiferous tubules and form a network of passageways called the

  1. A) epididymis.
  2. B) ductus deferens.
  3. C) rete testis.
  4. D) efferent ducts.
  5. E) vas deferens.

C) rete testis

9

9) Which of the following muscles move the testes toward the body?

  1. A) the cremaster
  2. B) the tunica muscularis
  3. C) the biceps brachii
  4. D) the dartos
  5. E) both the cremaster and the dartos muscles

E) both the cremaster and the dartos muscles

10

10) The spermatic cord is

  1. A) a bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics that serve the testis.
  2. B) a narrow opening that links the scrotal chamber with the peritoneal cavity.
  3. C) the external marking of the boundary between the two chambers of the scrotum.
  4. D) a layer of smooth muscle in the skin of the scrotal sac.
  5. E) a dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis.

A) a bundle of tissue that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics that serve the testis

11

11) The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds the testis is called the

  1. A) median raphe.
  2. B) spermatic cord.
  3. C) tunica albuginea.
  4. D) dartos.
  5. E) epididymis.

C) tunica albuginea

12

12) Interstitial cells produce

  1. A) sperm.
  2. B) inhibin.
  3. C) nutrients.
  4. D) testosterone.
  5. E) androgen-binding protein

D) testosterone

13

14) Sperm production occurs in the

  1. A) ductus deferens.
  2. B) seminiferous tubules.
  3. C) epididymis.
  4. D) seminal glands (seminal vesicles).
  5. E) rete testis.

B) seminiferous tubules

14

13) The nurse cells of the seminiferous tubules do all of the following except

  1. A) maintain the blood-testis barrier.
  2. B) support spermiogenesis.
  3. C) secrete inhibin.
  4. D) secrete testosterone.
  5. E) secrete androgen-binding protein.

D) secrete testosterone

15

15) Sperm develop from stem cells called

  1. A) spermatogonia.
  2. B) primary spermatocytes.
  3. C) secondary spermatocytes.
  4. D) spermatids.
  5. E) spermatozoa.

A) spermatogonia

16

16) When spermatogonia divide, the daughter cells are called

  1. A) spermatogonia.
  2. B) spermatocytes.
  3. C) spermatids.
  4. D) spermatozoa.
  5. E) Sertoli cells.

B) spermatocytes

17

17) The cells that are formed during spermatogenesis by the first meiosis are called

  1. A) spermatogonia.
  2. B) primary spermatocytes.
  3. C) secondary spermatocytes.
  4. D) spermatids.
  5. E) spermatozoa.

C) secondary spermatocytes.

18

18) The process of spermiogenesis produces

  1. A) spermatogonia.
  2. B) primary spermatocytes.
  3. C) secondary spermatocytes.
  4. D) spermatids.
  5. E) spermatozoa.

E) spermatozoa

19

19) The organ that produces a secretion that contains fructose, prostaglandins, and fibrinogen is the

  1. A) prostate gland.
  2. B) bulbourethral gland.
  3. C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).
  4. D) corpus cavernosum.
  5. E) preputial gland.

C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).

20

20) The organ that surrounds the urethra and produces an alkaline secretion is the

  1. A) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).
  2. B) bulbourethral gland.
  3. C) prostate gland.
  4. D) preputial gland.
  5. E) Bartholin's gland.

C) prostate gland

21

21) The small paired structures at the base of the penis that secrete a thick, alkaline mucus are the

  1. A) seminal vesicles.
  2. B) prostate glands.
  3. C) preputial glands.
  4. D) Bartholin glands.
  5. E) bulbo-urethral glands.

E) bulbo-urethral glands

22

22) Semen contains all of the following except

  1. A) spermatozoa.
  2. B) seminal fluid.
  3. C) prostaglandins.
  4. D) spermatogonia.
  5. E) fibrinogen.

`D) spermatogonia.

23

23) The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called

  1. A) mitosis.
  2. B) meiosis.
  3. C) maturation.
  4. D) capacitation.
  5. E) fertilization.

B) meiosis

24

24) The external marking of the boundary between the two testes is the

  1. A) spermatic cord.
  2. B) raphe.
  3. C) tunica albuginea.
  4. D) acrosome.
  5. E) dartos muscle.

B) raphe.

25

25) The organ that delivers semen into the female reproductive tract is the

  1. A) urethra.
  2. B) ejaculatory duct.
  3. C) penis.
  4. D) corpus cavernosum.
  5. E) corpus spongiosum.

C) penis

26

26) The fold of skin that covers the glans penis is the

  1. A) ejaculatory duct.
  2. B) prepuce.
  3. C) corpus cavernosum.
  4. D) corpus spongiosum.
  5. E) penile urethra.

B) prepuce.

27

27) The urethral meatus is an opening in the

  1. A) prepuce.
  2. B) glans penis.
  3. C) corpus spongiosum.
  4. D) corpus cavernosum.
  5. E) corona radiata.

B) glans penis.

28

28) The erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the

  1. A) membranous urethra.
  2. B) penile urethra.
  3. C) glans penis.
  4. D) corpus spongiosum.
  5. E) corpus cavernosum.

D) corpus spongiosum

29

29) The paired erectile bodies in the penis are the

  1. A) membranous urethra.
  2. B) penile urethra.
  3. C) corpus spongiosum.
  4. D) corpora cavernosa.
  5. E) prepuce.

D) corpora cavernosa

30

30) The role of FSH in males is to

  1. A) stimulate the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.
  2. B) stimulate the nurse cells to produce inhibin.
  3. C) initiate sperm production in the testes.
  4. D) develop and maintain secondary sex characteristics.
  5. E) influence sexual behaviors and sex drive.

C) initiate sperm production in the testes.

31

31) The pituitary hormone that stimulates the interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is

  1. A) FSH.
  2. B) LH.
  3. C) ACTH.
  4. D) ADH.
  5. E) GH.

B) LH.

32

32) Which of the following glands contributes the most volume to semen?

  1. A) prostate gland
  2. B) rete testis
  3. C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle)
  4. D) bulbourethral gland
  5. E) prepuce

C) seminal gland (seminal vesicle)

33

33) The male reproductive system is most closely associated with which of the following systems?

  1. A) muscular
  2. B) urinary
  3. C) endocrine
  4. D) digestive
  5. E) integumentary

B) urinary

34

34) Which of the following can be found inside the spermatic cord?

  1. A) blood vessels
  2. B) nerves
  3. C) lymphatic vessels
  4. D) ductus deferens
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

35

35) Nurse cells

  1. A) are found in the seminiferous tubules.
  2. B) form the blood-testis barrier.
  3. C) coordinate spermatogenesis.
  4. D) secrete the hormone inhibin.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

36

36) The delicate layer of serous membrane that covers the testis is called the

  1. A) median raphe.
  2. B) tunica vaginalis.
  3. C) tunica albuginea.
  4. D) dartos.
  5. E) lamina propria.

B) tunica vaginalis

37

37) A primary spermatocyte matures into ________ spermatids having ________ chromosomes.

  1. A) millions of; 46
  2. B) four; 23
  3. C) one; 46
  4. D) millions of; 23
  5. E) four; 46

B) four; 23

38

38) The special type of cell division required to produce gametes is called

  1. A) mitosis.
  2. B) meiosis.
  3. C) maturation.
  4. D) capacitation.
  5. E) fertilization.

B) meiosis.

39

39) Spermatozoa are functionally matured within the

  1. A) epididymis.
  2. B) ductus deferens.
  3. C) rete testes.
  4. D) seminiferous tubules.
  5. E) seminal gland (seminal vesicle).

A) epididymis.

40

40) During meiosis I, maternal and paternal chromosomes come together during the process called ________ to form a ________.

  1. A) synapsis; chromatid
  2. B) prophase I; chromatid
  3. C) synapsis; spermatid
  4. D) metaphase II; tetrad
  5. E) synapsis; tetrad

E) synapsis; tetrad

41

41) Crossing over occurs during ________ of meiosis ________.

  1. A) prophase; I
  2. B) metaphase; I
  3. C) interphase; II
  4. D) prophase; II
  5. E) interphase; I

A) prophase; I

42

42) How many tetrads form during synapsis?

  1. A) 23
  2. B) hundreds
  3. C) thousands
  4. D) 46
  5. E) 4

A) 23

43

43) Interstitial cells

  1. A) are also called Leydig cells.
  2. B) respond to luteinizing hormone.
  3. C) produce testosterone.
  4. D) are located between seminiferous tubules.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

44

44) The PSA test is used for diagnosis of

  1. A) testicular cancer.
  2. B) penile cancer.
  3. C) prostatitis.
  4. D) premature puberty.
  5. E) prostate cancer.

E) prostate cancer.

45

45) The ductus deferens is approximately ________ cm long.

  1. A) 15-20
  2. B) 50-60
  3. C) 40-45
  4. D) 31-35
  5. E) 12

C) 40-45

46

46) In a mature human spermatozoan, the

  1. A) acrosome is next to the flagellum.
  2. B) midpiece contains the chromosomes.
  3. C) tail contains the mitochondria.
  4. D) head contains 23 chromosomes.
  5. E) head is diploid.

D) head contains 23 chromosomes.

47

47) A typical ejaculation releases approximately ________ sperm.

  1. A) 1 million
  2. B) 250 million
  3. C) 100,000
  4. D) 20 million
  5. E) 800 million

B) 250 million

48

48) Secondary spermatocytes each contain

  1. A) 23 chromosomes.
  2. B) 23 pairs of chromosomes.
  3. C) twice the diploid number of chromosomes.
  4. D) 46 pairs of chromosomes.
  5. E) 46 chromosomes.

A) 23 chromosomes.

49

49) Testosterone is secreted by the

  1. A) hypothalamus.
  2. B) adenohypophysis.
  3. C) nurse cells.
  4. D) interstitial cells.
  5. E) suprarenal cortex.

D) interstitial cells

50

50) Where in the male reproductive system would you expect to find the most mature spermatozoa?

  1. A) in the seminiferous tubules
  2. B) in the head of the epididymis
  3. C) in the ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct
  4. D) in the seminal gland
  5. E) in the prostate gland

C) in the ductus deferens and ejaculatory duct

51

51) If the prostate stopped secreting fluid, this would result in semen

  1. A) that lacked sperm.
  2. B) with a higher than normal pH.
  3. C) with less fructose.
  4. D) with no mucus.
  5. E) that was rich in prostaglandins.

B) with a higher than normal pH.

52

52) A vasectomy would interfere with a man's ability to

  1. A) secrete testosterone.
  2. B) make sperm.
  3. C) ejaculate.
  4. D) produce semen.
  5. E) deliver spermatozoa to the ejaculatory duct.

E) deliver spermatozoa to the ejaculatory duct

53

53) Contraction of the cremaster muscles

  1. A) tenses the scrotal sac.
  2. B) pulls the testes closer to the body cavity.
  3. C) propels sperm through the urethra.
  4. D) moves sperm through the ductus deferens.
  5. E) tenses the scrotal sac and pulls the testes closer to the body cavity

E) tenses the scrotal sac and pulls the testes closer to the body cavity

54

54) Contraction of the dartos muscle

  1. A) tightens the scrotal sac.
  2. B) produces an erection.
  3. C) propels sperm through the urethra.
  4. D) moves sperm through the ductus deferens.
  5. E) initiates seminal emission.

A) tightens the scrotal sac.

55

55) Functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system include all of the following except

  1. A) production of spermatozoa.
  2. B) meeting the nutrient needs of spermatozoa for motility.
  3. C) propelling spermatozoa and fluids along the reproductive tract.
  4. D) producing buffers.
  5. E) activating the spermatozoa.

A) production of spermatozoa.

56

56) A boy has a genetic mutation such that FSH is not produced, but LH is normal. After the boy grows to maturity, it is likely he will

  1. A) not develop secondary sex characteristics.
  2. B) be sterile.
  3. C) be impotent.
  4. D) have impaired function of the interstitial cells.
  5. E) produce large amounts of inhibin.

B) be sterile

57

57) A male bodybuilder starts taking injections of testosterone (an anabolic steroid) on a daily basis. After three weeks, which of the following would you expect to observe?

  1. A) increased sex drive
  2. B) decreased levels of GnRH
  3. C) decreased levels of LH and FSH
  4. D) increased muscle mass
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

58

68) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term endometrium?

  1. A) thick layer of smooth muscle cells
  2. B) supports the uterus anteriorly
  3. C) supports the uterus laterally
  4. D) consists of a functional zone and a basilar zone of epithelium
  5. E) After ovulation, the ovum is captured by it.

D) consists of a functional zone and a basilar zone of epithelium

59

69) The broad ligament is a(n)

  1. A) extensive mesentery that encloses the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus.
  2. B) thickened fold of mesentery that supports and stabilizes the position of the ovary.
  3. C) pocket formed between the posterior wall of the uterus and the anterior surface of the rectum.
  4. D) structure that anchors the ovary to the rectouterine pouch.
  5. E) structure that extends from the lateral surface of the ovary to the pelvic wall.

A) extensive mesentery that encloses the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus.

60

70) The organ that transports the ovum to the uterus is the

  1. A) uterosacral ligament.
  2. B) vagina.
  3. C) uterine (Fallopian) tube.
  4. D) infundibulum.
  5. E) myometrium

C) uterine (Fallopian) tube.

61

71) The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the

  1. A) vagina.
  2. B) uterine tube.
  3. C) ovary.
  4. D) uterus.
  5. E) cervix.

D) uterus.

62

72) The round ligaments extend from the

  1. A) base of the uterus and vagina to the lateral walls of the pelvis.
  2. B) lateral surface of the uterus to the anterior surface of the sacrum.
  3. C) lateral margins of the uterus, through the inguinal canal to the external genitalia.
  4. D) body of the uterus to the fundus.
  5. E) cervix of the uterus to the vagina

C) lateral margins of the uterus, through the inguinal canal to the external genitalia.

63

73) The inferior one-third portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is the

  1. A) isthmus.
  2. B) fornix.
  3. C) fundus.
  4. D) body.
  5. E) cervix.

E) cervix.

64

74) The thick muscular layer of the uterus is the

  1. A) endometrium.
  2. B) perimetrium.
  3. C) myometrium.
  4. D) uterometrium.
  5. E) sarcometrium.

C) myometrium

65

75) Which of the following statements concerning oogenesis is false?

  1. A) Oogenesis begins before birth.
  2. B) Ova develop from stem cells called oogonia.
  3. C) An ovum completes its last meiosis after it is fertilized.
  4. D) About half the oogonia complete mitosis between birth and puberty.
  5. E) By the time of their birth, girls have already lost about 80 percent of their oocytes.

D) About half the oogonia complete mitosis between birth and puberty.

66

76) The surge in luteinizing hormone that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers

  1. A) follicle maturation.
  2. B) menstruation.
  3. C) ovulation.
  4. D) menopause.
  5. E) atresia.

C) ovulation.

67

77) A rise in the blood levels of follicle-stimulating hormone at the beginning of the ovarian cycle is responsible for

  1. A) follicle maturation.
  2. B) menstruation.
  3. C) ovulation.
  4. D) menopause.
  5. E) atresia.

A) follicle maturation.

68

78) The average length of the menstrual cycle is ________ days.

  1. A) 16
  2. B) 19
  3. C) 21
  4. D) 28
  5. E) 35

D) 28

69

79) During the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle, the

  1. A) corpus luteum is forming.
  2. B) functional zone of the endometrium is restored.
  3. C) fertilized ovum implants.
  4. D) old functional layer is sloughed off.
  5. E) endometrium finalizes the preparation for implantation.

B) functional zone of the endometrium is restored.

70

80) During the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle,

  1. A) the fertilized ovum implants.
  2. B) progesterone levels are high.
  3. C) endometrial glands enlarge.
  4. D) the corpus luteum is formed.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

71

81) During the menses,

  1. A) progesterone levels are high.
  2. B) a new uterine lining is formed.
  3. C) secretory glands and blood vessels develop in the endometrium.
  4. D) the old functional layer is sloughed off.
  5. E) the corpus luteum is most active.

D) the old functional layer is sloughed off.

72

82) Which of the following statements concerning the vagina is false?

  1. A) It serves as a passageway for the elimination of menstrual fluids.
  2. B) It receives the penis during coitus.
  3. C) It holds spermatozoa prior to their passage to the uterus.
  4. D) It forms the lower portion of the birth canal.
  5. E) It loses a portion of its lining during menses.

E) It loses a portion of its lining during menses.

73

83) The vagina is

  1. A) lined by simple columnar epithelium rich in goblet cells.
  2. B) similar to the inner lining of the uterus.
  3. C) another term for the cervix.
  4. D) a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the external genitalia.
  5. E) a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the anus.

D) a muscular tube extending between the uterus and the external genitalia.

74

84) The vulva includes all of the following except the

  1. A) mons pubis.
  2. B) vagina.
  3. C) labia minora.
  4. D) clitoris.
  5. E) labia majora.

B) vagina.

75

85) The uterine phase that develops because of a fall in progesterone levels is the

  1. A) menses.
  2. B) proliferative phase.
  3. C) secretory phase.
  4. D) follicular phase.
  5. E) luteal phase.

A) menses.

76

86) The space bounded by the labia minora is the

  1. A) fornix.
  2. B) vestibule.
  3. C) hymen.
  4. D) clitoris.
  5. E) isthmus.

B) vestibule.

77

87) Fatty folds of skin that encircle and partially conceal the labia minora and vestibule are the

  1. A) fornices.
  2. B) ampullae.
  3. C) labia majora.
  4. D) mons pubis.
  5. E) vestibular arches.

C) labia majora.

78

88) The clitoris

  1. A) is derived from the same embryonic structures as the penis in males.
  2. B) engorges with blood during sexual arousal.
  3. C) is topped by a small erectile glans.
  4. D) contains erectile tissue comparable to the corpora cavernosa of the penis.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

79

89) The pigmented skin that surrounds the nipple is the

  1. A) zona reticularis.
  2. B) fornix.
  3. C) zona pellucida.
  4. D) peripapilla.
  5. E) areola.

E) areola.

80

90) The principal hormone secreted by the corpus luteum is

  1. A) LH.
  2. B) FSH.
  3. C) progesterone.
  4. D) luteosterone.
  5. E) estrogen.

C) progesterone.

81

91) Menstruation is triggered by a drop in the levels of

  1. A) FSH.
  2. B) LH.
  3. C) relaxin.
  4. D) progesterone.
  5. E) inhibin.

D) progesterone.

82

92) The granulosa cells of developing follicles secrete

  1. A) estradiol.
  2. B) progesterone.
  3. C) FSH.
  4. D) LH.
  5. E) GnRH.

A) estradiol.

83

93) Which of the following is not an action of estrogen?

  1. A) stimulates bone growth
  2. B) maintains female secondary sex characteristics
  3. C) mimics the symptoms of menopause
  4. D) maintains accessory reproductive organs
  5. E) initiates repair of the endometrium

C) mimics the symptoms of menopause

84

94) Problems with ligaments attachments to the uterus or stretched ligaments would result in

  1. A) an increased probability of STDs.
  2. B) cervical cancer.
  3. C) a change in orientation of the uterus.
  4. D) endometriosis.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

C) a change in orientation of the uterus.

85

95) The ________ is the region of the vagina that surrounds the cervix.

  1. A) rugae
  2. B) fornix
  3. C) dartos
  4. D) fundus
  5. E) external os

B) fornix

86

96) Which region of the uterine tube captures the ovum?

  1. A) ampulla
  2. B) anterior segment
  3. C) infundibulum
  4. D) posterior segment
  5. E) isthmus

C) infundibulum

87

97) The ________ is the rounded portion of the uterine body superior to the attachment of the uterine tubes.

  1. A) body
  2. B) cervix
  3. C) myometrium
  4. D) fundus
  5. E) internal os

D) fundus

88

98) The attachment of the ovary to the uterus is with the

  1. A) infundibulopelvic ligament.
  2. B) tunica albuginea.
  3. C) ovarian umbilical cord.
  4. D) ovarian hilum.
  5. E) ovarian ligament.

E) ovarian ligament.

89

99) The portion of the uterine tube that ends in fingerlike fimbriae is the

  1. A) ampulla.
  2. B) distal segment.
  3. C) infundibulum.
  4. D) proximal segment.
  5. E) isthmus.

C) infundibulum.

90

100) The primary follicle develops from the

  1. A) ovarian hilum.
  2. B) tunica albuginea.
  3. C) primordial follicle.
  4. D) ovarian stroma.
  5. E) granulosa cells.

C) primordial follicle.

91

101) The fold of peritoneum that extends out from the ovary to the wall of the pelvis is called the

  1. A) suspensory ligament.
  2. B) tunica albuginea.
  3. C) ovarian ligament.
  4. D) ovarian hilum.
  5. E) uterovesical ligament.

A) suspensory ligament.

92

102) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term round ligament?

  1. A) thick layer of smooth muscle cells
  2. B) enters the inguinal canal
  3. C) supports the uterus laterally
  4. D) consists of stratum basalis and stratum functionalis
  5. E) After ovulation, the ovum is captured by it.

B) enters the inguinal canal

93

103) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term myometrium?

  1. A) thick layer of smooth muscle cells
  2. B) supports the uterus anteriorly
  3. C) supports the uterus laterally
  4. D) consists of a functional zone and a basilar zone
  5. E) After ovulation, the ovum is captured by it.

A) thick layer of smooth muscle cells

94

104) The segment of the uterine tube where fertilization commonly occurs is the

  1. A) ampulla.
  2. B) fimbriae.
  3. C) infundibulum.
  4. D) posterior.
  5. E) outer one-third of the tube.

E) outer one-third of the tube.

95

105) Which of the following statements is false regarding the female reproductive tract?

  1. A) Acidity in the vagina kills most sperm.
  2. B) The uterus contains large amounts of fructose nutrients.
  3. C) The size of breasts is primarily determined by adipose tissue.
  4. D) Cervical cancer is caused by a virus.
  5. E) The inner wall layer of the vagina consists of stratified squamous epithelium, like the skin.

B) The uterus contains large amounts of fructose nutrients.

96

106) Which of the following is not a similarity between the testis and ovary?

  1. A) Both produce progesterone.
  2. B) Meiosis takes place in both.
  3. C) Both respond to follicle-stimulating hormone.
  4. D) Both respond to luteinizing hormone.
  5. E) Both produce gametes.

A) Both produce progesterone.

97

107) The broad ligament attaches to all of the following organs except the

  1. A) ovaries.
  2. B) uterine tubes.
  3. C) uterus.
  4. D) oviducts.
  5. E) urinary bladder.

E) urinary bladder.

98

108) Which of the following is the function of the ovaries?

  1. A) secretion of hormones
  2. B) production of oocytes
  3. C) formation of immature gametes
  4. D) secretion of inhibin
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

99

109) Which of the following statements about oogenesis is false?

  1. A) The polar body is the egg cell which is then fertilized by the sperm cell.
  2. B) Far fewer eggs are produced by the female than sperm produced by the male.
  3. C) Meiosis I begins in the female fetus.
  4. D) Meiosis II is not completed until after the egg cell makes contact with the sperm cell.
  5. E) The lack of viable oogonia in the ovaries leads to menopause in the female.

A) The polar body is the egg cell which is then fertilized by the sperm cell.

100

110) The ________ is the largest portion of the uterus.

  1. A) body
  2. B) cervix
  3. C) myometrium
  4. D) fundus
  5. E) internal os

A) body

101

111) Another term for vulva is

  1. A) gonads.
  2. B) vagina.
  3. C) female external genitalia.
  4. D) accessory glands.
  5. E) labia.

C) female external genitalia.

102

112) A sample of a woman's blood is analyzed for reproductive hormone levels. The results indicate a high level of progesterone, relatively high levels of inhibin, and low levels of FSH and LH. The female is most likely experiencing ________ of the uterine cycle.

  1. A) the proliferative phase
  2. B) menses
  3. C) the secretory phase
  4. D) menarche
  5. E) menopause

C) the secretory phase

103

113) Follicle-stimulating hormone

  1. A) stimulates the thyroid follicles.
  2. B) stimulates ovulation.
  3. C) stimulates maturation of primordial follicles in the ovary.
  4. D) is important only in females.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

C) stimulates maturation of primordial follicles in the ovary.

104

114) A mature follicle releases an ovum in response to a surge in

  1. A) follicle-stimulating hormone.
  2. B) luteinizing hormone.
  3. C) estrogen.
  4. D) progesterone.
  5. E) oxytocin.

B) luteinizing hormone.

105

115) After ovulation, the ovary secretes

  1. A) luteinizing hormone.
  2. B) estrogen.
  3. C) progesterone.
  4. D) both estrogen and progesterone.
  5. E) luteinizing hormone, estrogen, and progesterone.

D) both estrogen and progesterone.

106

116) Ovarian cancer is the deadliest of the reproductive cancers because it

  1. A) is the most aggressive.
  2. B) is usually not diagnosed early.
  3. C) does not respond to any chemotherapy medications.
  4. D) affects the elderly population, which already has other health issues.
  5. E) is the most resistant to radiation therapy.

B) is usually not diagnosed early.

107

117) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term uterine tube?

  1. A) has ciliated epithelium
  2. B) has stratified squamous epithelium
  3. C) covers the glans penis or glans clitoris
  4. D) holds the uterus to the ovary
  5. E) passes through erectile tissue in females

A) has ciliated epithelium

108

118) Which of the following statements about the menstrual cycle is true?

  1. A) The first occurrence is termed menarche.
  2. B) It is ultimately controlled by GnRH.
  3. C) It is skipped in pregnancy.
  4. D) It often involves painful myometrial contraction.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

109

129) Emission and ejaculation

  1. A) occurs under sympathetic stimulation.
  2. B) begins with peristaltic contractions of the ampulla.
  3. C) is responsible for propelling semen into the female reproductive tract.
  4. D) involves contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

110

130) Contractions of the skeletal muscles of the pelvic floor result in

  1. A) erection.
  2. B) emission.
  3. C) ejaculation.
  4. D) detumescence.
  5. E) impotence.

C) ejaculation.

111

131) Which of the following is a type of sexually transmitted disease?

  1. A) chlamydia
  2. B) gonorrhea
  3. C) genital herpes
  4. D) AIDS
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

112

132) For erection to occur,

  1. A) there must be sufficient blood hydrostatic pressure.
  2. B) the sacral spinal cord must be intact.
  3. C) nitric oxide must be present.
  4. D) blood flow to the penis must increase.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

113

133) Which of the following does not occur after menopause?

  1. A) Menstrual cycles cease.
  2. B) Ovulation ceases.
  3. C) Estrogen levels rise.
  4. D) GnRH secretion increases.
  5. E) FSH secretion increases.

C) Estrogen levels rise.

114

1) The male gonad is called a(n)

  1. A) seminal vesicle.
  2. B) epididymis.
  3. C) rete.
  4. D) testis.
  5. E) prostate.

D) testis.

115

2) The ________ is a layer of smooth muscle in the skin of the scrotal sac.

  1. A) rete testis
  2. B) dartos
  3. C) bulbourethral
  4. D) cremaster
  5. E) prepuce

B) dartos

116

3) Spermatids mature into spermatozoa by the process of

  1. A) spermiogenesis.
  2. B) meiosis II.
  3. C) spermatogenesis.
  4. D) cytokinesis.
  5. E) meiosis I.

A) spermiogenesis.

117

4) The ________ is the part of the sperm that contains the DNA.

  1. A) head
  2. B) neck
  3. C) acrosome
  4. D) zona pellucida
  5. E) corona radiata

A) head

118

5) The middle piece of the sperm contains the ________ in a spiral arrangement.

  1. A) nucleosome
  2. B) chromosomes
  3. C) mitochondria
  4. D) flagella
  5. E) acrosome

C) mitochondria

119

6) Which of the following statements regarding erection is true?

  1. A) It involves parasympathetic stimulation.
  2. B) Vascular channels in the erectile tissue become engorged with blood.
  3. C) Dilation of penile arteries occurs.
  4. D) It involves nitric oxide production by neurons.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

120

7) A normal sperm count ranges from approximately ________ spermatozoa per milliliter.

  1. A) 10 million
  2. B) 100-150 million
  3. C) 1-2 million
  4. D) 500 million
  5. E) 20-100 million

E) 20-100 million

121

8) The ________ of a sperm contains the enzymes essential for fertilization.

  1. A) acrosome
  2. B) flagellum
  3. C) nucleosome
  4. D) neck
  5. E) nucleus

A) acrosome

122

9) Why are inguinal hernias generally associated with males?

  1. A) Males have a gene on the Y chromosome that codes for inguinal hernia, whereas women do not have the Y chromosome.
  2. B) Women have a thicker set of skeletal muscles in the abdominal wall compared to men.
  3. C) Males work more strenuously than women, thereby damaging the abdominal wall.
  4. D) Males have a canal through the abdominal wall that the testes move through, and it often does not close up properly.
  5. E) The groin area is genetically weaker in men than in women because of the presence of the penis and testes.

D) Males have a canal through the abdominal wall that the testes move through, and it often does not close up properly.

123

10) Primary spermatocytes are produced by mitosis of cells called

  1. A) secondary spermatocytes.
  2. B) polar bodies.
  3. C) spermatogonia.
  4. D) spermatids.
  5. E) stem cells.

C) spermatogonia.

124

11) The portion of the urethra that passes through the pelvic cavity floor is called the

  1. A) membranous urethra.
  2. B) bulbourethral.
  3. C) penile urethra.
  4. D) ureter.
  5. E) prostatic urethra.

E) prostatic urethra.

125

12) The term ________ means the failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum by the time of birth.

  1. A) premature puberty
  2. B) vasculitis
  3. C) cryptorchidism
  4. D) priapism
  5. E) orchitis

C) cryptorchidism

126

13) The most important androgen is

  1. A) dihydrotestosterone.
  2. B) androstenedione.
  3. C) dehydroepiandrosterone.
  4. D) progesterone.
  5. E) testosterone.

E) testosterone.

127

14) The formation of a tetrad of maternal and paternal chromosomes during spermatogenesis is called

  1. A) synapsis.
  2. B) spermiogenesis.
  3. C) meiosis.
  4. D) transformation.
  5. E) cytokinesis.

A) synapsis.

128

15) The portion of the urethra that penetrates the urogenital diaphragm is the

  1. A) membranous urethra.
  2. B) penile urethra.
  3. C) corpus spongiosum.
  4. D) spongy urethra.
  5. E) vascular urethra.

A) membranous urethra.

129

16) The portion of the urethra that passes through a column of erectile tissue to the external urethral meatus is the

  1. A) membranous urethra.
  2. B) penile urethra.
  3. C) corpus spongiosum.
  4. D) spongy urethra.
  5. E) vascular urethra

D) spongy urethra.

130

17) The surgical removal of the prepuce is called

  1. A) circumcision.
  2. B) orchidectomy.
  3. C) tubectomy.
  4. D) vasectomy.
  5. E) pupectomy.

A) circumcision.

131

18) The ________ carries fluid from the seminal gland (seminal vesicle) through the prostate.

  1. A) ejaculatory duct
  2. B) vas deferens
  3. C) ductus deferens
  4. D) epididymis
  5. E) rete

A) ejaculatory duct

132

19) The ductus deferens passes through the ________ to enter the pelvic cavity.

  1. A) canaliculi
  2. B) mesiobuccal canal
  3. C) epididymis
  4. D) inguinal canal
  5. E) urinary bladder

D) inguinal canal

133

20) The organ inferior to the urinary bladder and contains the urethra in the middle is the ________ gland.

  1. A) prostate
  2. B) bulbourethral
  3. C) Cowper's
  4. D) seminal vesicle
  5. E) seminiferous tubular

A) prostate

134

21) The hormone that stimulates spermatogenesis in males is

  1. A) PTH.
  2. B) FSH.
  3. C) LH.
  4. D) GH.
  5. E) MSH.

B) FSH.

135

22) The interstitial cells in the testes produce

  1. A) dihydrotestosterone.
  2. B) androstenedione.
  3. C) growth hormone.
  4. D) progesterone.
  5. E) testosterone.

E) testosterone.

136

23) The cremaster muscle can raise and lower the testes to regulate

  1. A) temperature.
  2. B) expansion.
  3. C) erection.
  4. D) pH.
  5. E) size.

A) temperature.

137

24) The hormone that stimulates ovulation is

  1. A) luteinizing hormone.
  2. B) FSH.
  3. C) growth hormone.
  4. D) progesterone.
  5. E) testosterone.

A) luteinizing hormone.

138

25) The hood that covers the clitoris is called the

  1. A) glans.
  2. B) prepuce.
  3. C) labia minora.
  4. D) cervix.
  5. E) vestibule.

B) prepuce

139

26) The muscle layer of the uterus is the

  1. A) endometrium.
  2. B) epimetrium.
  3. C) perimetrium.
  4. D) myometrium.
  5. E) neurometrium.

D) myometrium.

140

27) The ________ is a pocket formed between the posterior wall of the uterus and the anterior surface of the rectum.

  1. A) rectouterine pouch
  2. B) prostate
  3. C) fornix
  4. D) os
  5. E) hymen

A) rectouterine pouch

141

28) The ________ ligament extends from the uterus, near the attachment of the uterine tube, to the medial surface of the ovary.

  1. A) suspensory
  2. B) ovarian
  3. C) round
  4. D) gubernaculum
  5. E) mesovarium

B) ovarian

142

29) The ________ ligament extends from the lateral surface of the ovary to the pelvic wall.

  1. A) suspensory
  2. B) ovarian
  3. C) round
  4. D) gubernaculum
  5. E) mesovarium

A) suspensory

143

30) The funnel-like opening at the distal end of the uterine tube is called the

  1. A) gubernaculum.
  2. B) fimbrae.
  3. C) infundibulum.
  4. D) uterine horn.
  5. E) uterine tunnel.

C) infundibulum.

144

31) The ________ are fingerlike projections that capture the freshly ovulated ovum.

  1. A) gubernaculum
  2. B) fimbrae
  3. C) infundibulum
  4. D) uterine horn
  5. E) uterine tunnel

B) fimbrae

145

32) The expanded, initial segment of the uterine tube is called the

  1. A) fimbra.
  2. B) infundibulum.
  3. C) tunnel.
  4. D) ampulla.
  5. E) os.

D) ampulla.

146

33) The ________ of the uterine tube is between the uterus and the ampulla.

  1. A) isthmus
  2. B) ampulla
  3. C) fimbra
  4. D) os
  5. E) commissure

A) isthmus

147

34) Sperm enter the cervical canal through the external

  1. A) isthmus.
  2. B) ampulla.
  3. C) fimbra.
  4. D) os.
  5. E) commissure.

D) os.

148

35) The ________ ligaments extend from the base of the uterus and vagina to the lateral walls of the pelvis.

  1. A) cardinal
  2. B) uterosacral
  3. C) round
  4. D) broad
  5. E) mesovarium

A) cardinal

149

36) The main portion of the uterus is called the corpus or

  1. A) fundus.
  2. B) cervix.
  3. C) horn.
  4. D) body.
  5. E) isthmus.

D) body.

150

37) The portion of the uterus that projects into the vagina is called the

  1. A) fundus.
  2. B) cervix.
  3. C) horn.
  4. D) body.
  5. E) isthmus.

B) cervix.

151

38) The painful condition that develops because epithelial tissue from the uterus is present in the peritoneal cavity is

  1. A) endometriosis.
  2. B) ovarian cysts.
  3. C) peritonitis.
  4. D) lymphedema.
  5. E) orchitis.

A) endometriosis.

152

39) The ________ is the inner lining of the uterus.

  1. A) endometrium
  2. B) epimetrium
  3. C) perimetrium
  4. D) myometrium
  5. E) exometrium

A) endometrium

153

40) The internal os connects the uterine cavity to the

  1. A) cervical canal.
  2. B) fundus.
  3. C) fornix.
  4. D) external os.
  5. E) fimbra.

A) cervical canal.

154

41) The shallow recess that surrounds the cervical protrusion into the vagina is called the

  1. A) cervical canal.
  2. B) fundus.
  3. C) fornix.
  4. D) external os.
  5. E) fimbra.

C) fornix.

155

42) The ________ is the glycoprotein-rich region between the developing oocyte and the granulosa cells.

  1. A) acrosome
  2. B) rugae
  3. C) corpus spongiosum
  4. D) zona pellucida
  5. E) corona radiata

D) zona pellucida

156

43) The fluid-filled cavity that appears in a secondary follicle is called the

  1. A) corpus luteum.
  2. B) cortex.
  3. C) stroma.
  4. D) antrum.
  5. E) corpus albicans.

D) antrum.

157

44) The ________ consists of the follicle cells that cling to the oocyte after ovulation.

  1. A) stroma
  2. B) corpus albicans
  3. C) corpus spongiosum
  4. D) zona pellucida
  5. E) corona radiata

E) corona radiata

158

45) Mammography, a procedure used for examining breast tissue, is based on

  1. A) MRI.
  2. B) CT.
  3. C) PET.
  4. D) X-rays.
  5. E) nuclear scanning.

D) X-rays

159

46) The surgical procedure in which the entire breast is removed is called a

  1. A) lumpectomy.
  2. B) biopsy.
  3. C) ovarectomy.
  4. D) orchidctomy.
  5. E) total mastectomy.

E) total mastectomy.

160

47) Menstruation is the process of sloughing off the old functional layer of the

  1. A) perimetrium.
  2. B) endometrium.
  3. C) epimetrium.
  4. D) myometrium.
  5. E) exometrium.

B) endometrium

161

48) The ________ provides mechanical protection, nutritional support, and waste removal for the developing embryo.

  1. A) uterus
  2. B) ovary
  3. C) vagina
  4. D) stroma
  5. E) corpus albicans

A) uterus

162

49) After menopause, the production of two pituitary hormones increases. One of these is

  1. A) LH.
  2. B) prolactin.
  3. C) estrogen.
  4. D) progesterone.
  5. E) andostenedione.

A) LH.

163

50) The ________ is the endometrial layer that undergoes dramatic changes during the menstrual cycle.

  1. A) functional zone
  2. B) corpus albicans
  3. C) basal layer
  4. D) corpus letum
  5. E) stroma

A) functional zone

164

51) Painful menstruation is called

  1. A) dysmenorrhea.
  2. B) polymenorrhea.
  3. C) amenorrhea.
  4. D) menorrhea.
  5. E) nocimenorrhea.

A) dysmenorrhea.

165

52) An inflammation of the vaginal canal caused by fungi, bacteria, or parasites is called

  1. A) endometriosis.
  2. B) a UTI.
  3. C) peritonitis.
  4. D) vaginitis.
  5. E) orchitis.

D) vaginitis.

166

53) The ________ is an elastic epithelial layer between the vagina and vestibule, which, if present, is often torn during first intercourse.

  1. A) zona pellucida
  2. B) prepuce
  3. C) isthmus
  4. D) fornix
  5. E) hymen

E) hymen

167

54) The glands that produce mucus used as a lubricant during sexual intercourse are ________ glands.

  1. A) vestibular
  2. B) seminal
  3. C) vulvular
  4. D) bulbourethral
  5. E) mons

A) vestibular

168

55) The first menses is called the

  1. A) menarche.
  2. B) menopause.
  3. C) climacteric.
  4. D) emission.

A) menarche.

169

56) Impotence is defined as an inability to achieve or maintain

  1. A) an erection.
  2. B) an emission.
  3. C) ejaculation.
  4. D) a normal sperm count.
  5. E) blood flow.

A) an erection.

170

57) Which of the following is directly responsible for an orgasm?

  1. A) menarche
  2. B) erection
  3. C) emission
  4. D) spermiogenesis
  5. E) ejaculation

E) ejaculation

171

58) The subsidence of an erection after ejaculation is known as

  1. A) detumescence.
  2. B) tumescence.
  3. C) menses.
  4. D) emission.
  5. E) ejaculation.

A) detumescence.

172

59) The cessation of menstruation after no more developing follicles remain is called

  1. A) dysmenorrhea.
  2. B) detumescence.
  3. C) menopause.
  4. D) menses.
  5. E) amenorrhea.

C) menopause.

173

60) A man can get testosterone injections to increase sexual drive, muscle mass, and overall mood. These symptoms can occur as a result of

  1. A) prostate cancer.
  2. B) male climateric.
  3. C) premature ejaculation.
  4. D) testicular cancer.
  5. E) menopause.

B) male climateric.


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