Cancel
© 2016 pictureone.ru
card-image

Chapter 18 Endocrine System

Set Details Share
Helpfulness: +2
show more
1

1) All of the following are true of the nervous system except that it does not

  1. A) respond rapidly to stimuli.
  2. B) respond specifically to stimuli.
  3. C) communicate by the release of neurotransmitters.
  4. D) respond with motor output.
  5. E) function independently of the endocrine system.

E) function independently of the endocrine system.

2

2) Endocrine cells

  1. A) are a type of nerve cell.
  2. B) release their secretions onto an epithelial surface.
  3. C) release their secretions directly into body fluids such as blood.
  4. D) contain few vesicles.
  5. E) are modified connective-tissue cells.

C) release their secretions directly into body fluids such as blood.

3

3) ________ are chemical messengers that are released by cells and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.

  1. A) Hormones
  2. B) Neuropeptides
  3. C) Neurotransmitters
  4. D) Humoral antibodies
  5. E) Antigens
  1. A) Hormones
4

4) A hormone might

  1. A) alter a membrane channel by changing its shape, thereby affecting what can go through it.
  2. B) depolarize a skeletal muscle cell.
  3. C) interfere with norepinephrine at a neuronal synapse.
  4. D) inactivate glucose so it cannot be used by a cell.
  5. E) block the production of a cell membrane.
  1. A) alter a membrane channel by changing its shape, thereby affecting what can go through it.
5

5) Hormones known as "catecholamines" are

  1. A) lipids.
  2. B) peptides.
  3. C) steroids.
  4. D) derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine.
  5. E) derivatives of reproductive glands.
  1. D) derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine.
6

6) Peptide hormones are

  1. A) composed of amino acids.
  2. B) produced by the suprarenal glands.
  3. C) derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
  4. D) lipids.
  5. E) chemically related to cholesterol.

A) composed of amino acids.

7

7) A kinase is an enzyme that performs

  1. A) phosphorylation.
  2. B) as a membrane channel.
  3. C) active transport.
  4. D) protein synthesis.
  5. E) as an antibody.

A) phosphorylation

8

8) An activated G protein can trigger

  1. A) the activation of adenyl cyclase.
  2. B) the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane.
  3. C) the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores.
  4. D) a fall in cAMP levels.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.
  1. E) All of the answers are correct.
9

9) Calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein

  1. A) calcitonin.
  2. B) calcitriol.
  3. C) calmodulin.
  4. D) calcium-binding globulin.
  5. E) calcitropin.
  1. C) calmodulin.
10

10) Hormones can operate on the ________ level of organization.

  1. A) cellular
  2. B) tissue
  3. C) organ
  4. D) organismic
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.
  1. E) All of the answers are correct.
11

11) Why is it that steroid hormones use receptors inside of target cells, whereas protein, peptide, and amino acid hormones do not?

A) Steroids can cross the cell membrane because they are lipids and the membrane is lipid.

B) Amino acids and peptide hormones do not have a 3 dimensional structure that can bind to internal receptors.

C) Cells are full of steroid molecules so it is easy for steroid molecules to enter.

D) The target cells affected by steroid hormones have all of their receptors in the cell cytoplasm.

E) All of the answers are correct

  1. A) Steroids can cross the cell membrane because they are lipids and the membrane is lipid.
12

12) The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a(n) ________ organ.

  1. A) endocrine
  2. B) cardiovascular
  3. C) renal
  4. D) muscular
  5. E) hepatic
  1. A) endocrine
13

13) A simple endocrine reflex involves ________ hormone(s).

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) hypothalamic
  4. D) gonadotropic
  5. E) tropic
  1. A) one
14

14) Which of the following substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger?

  1. A) insulin
  2. B) ACTH
  3. C) epinephrine
  4. D) cyclic AMP
  5. E) TSH
  1. D) cyclic AMP
15

15) All of the following are true of steroid hormones except that they

  1. A) are produced by the suprarenal medulla.
  2. B) are derived from cholesterol.
  3. C) are produced by reproductive glands.
  4. D) bind to receptors within the cell.
  5. E) are lipids.
  1. A) are produced by the suprarenal medulla.
16

16) Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative except

  1. A) epinephrine.
  2. B) norepinephrine.
  3. C) thyroid hormone.
  4. D) testosterone.
  5. E) melatonin.
  1. D) testosterone.
17

17) Membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?

  1. A) catecholamines
  2. B) peptide hormones
  3. C) eicosanoids
  4. D) thyroid
  5. E) catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids
  1. E) catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids
18

18) Steroid hormones

  1. A) are proteins.
  2. B) cannot diffuse through cell membranes.
  3. C) bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells.
  4. D) act on target cells by turning on genes.
  5. E) are transported in the blood dissolved in the plasma.

C) bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells.

19

19) When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the

A) hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm.

B) cell membrane becomes depolarized.

C) second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.

D) cell becomes inactive.

E) hormone is transported to the nucleus where it alters the activity of DNA.

C) second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.

20

20) Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include

  1. A) peptides.
  2. B) steroids.
  3. C) eicosanoids.
  4. D) amino acid derivatives.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

21

21) Hormonal actions on cells include those that affect

  1. A) quantities of enzymes.
  2. B) activities of enzymes.
  3. C) synthesis of enzymes.
  4. D) gating of ion channels.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

22

22) The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually

  1. A) cAMP.
  2. B) cGMP.
  3. C) adenyl cyclase.
  4. D) a G protein.
  5. E) calcium ion levels.

D) a G protein.

23

23) When adenyl cyclase is activated,

  1. A) ATP is consumed.
  2. B) cAMP is formed.
  3. C) cAMP is broken down.
  4. D) ATP is produced.
  5. E) ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed.

E) ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed

24

24) After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex,

  1. A) adenyl cyclase is activated.
  2. B) cyclic nucleotides are formed.
  3. C) G proteins are phosphylated.
  4. D) gene transcription is initiated.
  5. E) protein kinases are activated.
  1. D) gene transcription is initiated.
25

25) The most complex endocrine responses involve the

  1. A) thyroid gland.
  2. B) pancreas.
  3. C) suprarenal glands.
  4. D) hypothalamus.
  5. E) thymus gland.
  1. D) hypothalamus.
26

26) Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors?

  1. A) blood level of an ion like calcium
  2. B) blood level of glucose
  3. C) blood level of a hormone
  4. D) nervous stimuli
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.
  1. E) All of the answers are correct.
27

27) Which of the following hormones is/are water soluble and therefore bind(s) to extracellular receptors?

  1. A) insulin
  2. B) epinephrine
  3. C) cortisol
  4. D) calcitriol
  5. E) insulin and epinephrine

E) insulin and epinephrine

28

28) All target cells

  1. A) have hormone receptors.
  2. B) respond to electrical signals.
  3. C) secrete hormones.
  4. D) produce their own hormones.
  5. E)are in the blood.
  1. A) have hormone receptors.
29

29) If the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose?

  1. A) growth hormone
  2. B) glucagon
  3. C) cortisol
  4. D) thyroxine
  5. E) leptin

B) glucagon

30

30) Increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of

  1. A) testosterone.
  2. B) estrogen.
  3. C) thyroid hormone.
  4. D) cAMP.
  5. E) progesterone.

D) cAMP.

31

31) Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which of the following results?

  1. A) loss of ADH secretion
  2. B) loss of GH secretion
  3. C) loss of melatonin secretion
  4. D) loss of emotional response
  5. E) loss of loss of regulatory factor secretion

A) loss of ADH secretion

32

32) The primary function of ADH is to

  1. A) increase the amount of sodium lost at the kidneys.
  2. B) decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.
  3. C) decrease blood pressure.
  4. D) increase digestive absorption.
  5. E) delay urination.

B) decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.

33

33) If the hypophyseal portal system is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?

  1. A) TSH
  2. B) ACTH
  3. C) PRL
  4. D) ADH and OXT
  5. E) TSH, ACTH, PRL

E) TSH, ACTH, PRL

34

34) Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of

  1. A) ACTH.
  2. B) ADH.
  3. C) oxytocin.
  4. D) TSH.
  5. LH.

B) ADH

35

35) The hypothalamus controls secretion in the adenohypophysis by

  1. A) direct neural stimulation.
  2. B) indirect osmotic control.
  3. C) secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system.
  4. D) altering ion concentrations and pH in the anterior pituitary.
  5. E) gap synaptic junctions.

C) secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system.

36

36) Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture

  1. A) CRF and GnRH.
  2. B) TSH and FSH.
  3. C) ADH and oxytocin.
  4. D) FSH and PRL.
  5. E) GHIH and GHRH.

C) ADH and oxytocin.

37

37) Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release

  1. A) FSH.
  2. B) TSH.
  3. C) ACTH.
  4. D) GH.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

38

38) The hypophyseal portal system

  1. A) is a blood connection between the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary.
  2. B) has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins.
  3. C) carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary.
  4. D) carries ADH and oxytocin.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

39

39) The main action of antidiuretic hormone is

  1. A) increased water conservation by kidneys.
  2. B) to stimulate kidney cells to secrete renin.
  3. C) increase urine output to remove excess fluid.
  4. D) increased blood pressure by increased Na+ reabsorption.
  5. E) inhibition of aldosterone.

A) increased water conservation by kidneys.

40

40) Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause

  1. A) dwarfism.
  2. B) rickets.
  3. C) gigantism.
  4. D) acromegaly.
  5. E) diabetes insipidus.

C) gigantism.

41

41) Which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates?

  1. A) cortisol
  2. B) parathyroid hormone
  3. C) insulin
  4. D) growth hormone
  5. E) epinephrine

D) growth hormone

42

42) Which of the following organs contain target cells for oxytocin?

  1. A) prostate
  2. B) ductus deferens
  3. C) mammary glands
  4. D) uterus
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

43

43) The posterior pituitary gland secretes

  1. A) FSH.
  2. B) TSH.
  3. C) ACTH.
  4. D) ADH.
  5. E) MSH.
  1. D) ADH.
44

44) The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is

  1. A) FSH.
  2. B) ADH.
  3. C) TSH.
  4. D) MSH.
  5. E) ACTH.

D) MSH.

45

45) Each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis except

  1. A) FSH.
  2. B) oxytocin.
  3. C) TSH.
  4. D) corticotropin.
  5. E) somatotropin.

B) oxytocin.

46

46) The hormone oxytocin

  1. A) promotes uterine contractions.
  2. B) is responsible for milk expression from the mammary glands.
  3. C) triggers prostate gland contraction.
  4. D) is produced in the hypothalamus.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

47

47) Growth hormone does all of the following except

  1. A) promote bone growth.
  2. B) promote muscle growth.
  3. C) speed up metabolism.
  4. D) spare glucose.
  5. E) promote amino acid uptake by cells.

C) speed up metabolism.

48

48) Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called

  1. A) gonadotrophins.
  2. B) prostaglandins.
  3. C) hepatic hormones.
  4. D) somatomedins.
  5. E) glucocorticoids.

D) somatomedins

49

49) The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is

  1. A) TSH.
  2. B) ACTH.
  3. C) FSH.
  4. D) LH.
  5. E) GH.

A) TSH.

50

50) The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is

  1. A) TSH.
  2. B) ACTH.
  3. C) FSH.
  4. D) LH.
  5. E) GH.

B) ACTH.

51

51) The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is

  1. A) TSH.
  2. B) ACTH.
  3. C) FSH.
  4. D) LH.
  5. E) GH.

C) FSH.

52

52) The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is

  1. A) TSH.
  2. B) ACTH.
  3. C) FSH.
  4. D) LH.
  5. E) GH.

D) LH.

53

53) The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is

  1. A) TSH.
  2. B) ACTH.
  3. C) growth hormone.
  4. D) FSH.
  5. E) prolactin.

E) prolactin

54

54) The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is

  1. A) ACTH.
  2. B) MSH.
  3. C) prolactin.
  4. D) insulin.
  5. E) somatotropin.

E) somatotropin.

55

55) The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is

  1. A) TSH.
  2. B) FSH.
  3. C) MSH.
  4. D) STH.
  5. E) ADH.

E) ADH

56

56) After brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?

  1. A) aldosterone
  2. B) epinephrine
  3. C) renin
  4. D) ADH
  5. E) cortisol

E) cortisol

57

57) The term used to describe excess production of urine is

  1. A) polyuria.
  2. B) polydipsia.
  3. C) hematuria.
  4. D) glycosuria.
  5. E) diabetes insipidis.

A) polyuria

58

58) Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia

  1. A) during pregnancy.
  2. B) in very young children.
  3. C) during fetal development.
  4. D) in some disease processes.
  5. All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

59

59) The two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones?

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 5
  3. C) 7
  4. D) 9
  5. E) 16

D) 9

60

60) PRL is to ________ as ADH is to ________.

  1. A) prolactin; vasopressin
  2. B) oxytocin; mammotropin
  3. C) gonadotropin; mammotropin
  4. D) oxytocin; cortisol

A) prolactin; vasopressin

61

61) The hormone(s) that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is/are

  1. A) oxytocin.
  2. B) prolactin.
  3. C) luteinizing hormone.
  4. D) none; only extra fluids are needed.
  5. E) both oxytocin and luteinizing hormone.

A) oxytocin

62

67) Which of the following elements is necessary for the production of thyroid hormone?

  1. A) sodium
  2. B) iodine
  3. C) potassium
  4. D) iron
  5. E) colloid

B) iodine

63

68) Which of the following cells are target cells for the hormone that causes a decrease in blood-calcium concentration?

  1. A) alpha cells
  2. B) osteoclasts
  3. C) osteoblasts
  4. D) C cells
  5. E) All cells in the body, especially cartilage, bone, and muscle cells.

C) osteoblasts

64

69) Which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues?

  1. A) increased oxygen consumption
  2. B) increased heart rate
  3. C) increased sensitivity to autonomic stimulation
  4. D) increased body temperature
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

65

70) Thyroid hormone contains the element

  1. A) fluorine.
  2. B) chlorine.
  3. C) iron.
  4. D) iodine.
  5. E) zinc.

D) iodine

66

71) Mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of

  1. A) hyperthyroidism.
  2. B) hypothyroidism.
  3. C) hyperparathyroidism.
  4. D) hypoparathyroidism.
  5. E) diabetes insipidus

B) hypothyroidism

67

72) The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is

  1. A) somatotropin.
  2. B) thyroxine.
  3. C) calcitonin.
  4. D) parathyroid hormone.
  5. E) glucagon.

B) thyroxine

68

73) A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is

  1. A) parathyroid hormone.
  2. B) thyroxine.
  3. C) calcitonin.
  4. D) glucagon.
  5. E) oxytocin.

C) calcitonin.

69

74) The condition known as hirsutism can result from too

  1. A) much insulin.
  2. B) little TSH.
  3. C) much ACTH.
  4. D) much androgen production.
  5. E) little glucagon.

D) much androgen production

70

75) The C cells of the thyroid gland produce

  1. A) thyroxine.
  2. B) TSH.
  3. C) calcitonin.
  4. D) PTH.
  5. E) triiodothyronine

C) calcitonin

71

76) Increased levels of the hormone ________ will lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood.

  1. A) thymosin
  2. B) calcitonin
  3. C) PTH
  4. D) aldosterone
  5. E) cortisol

C) PTH

72

77) Where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place?

  1. A) in lysosomes
  2. B) in rough endoplasmic reticulum
  3. C) in the lumen of the thyroid follicle
  4. D) in pinocytotic vesicles
  5. E) in apical microvilli

C) in the lumen of the thyroid follicle

73

78) TSH plays a key role in the ________ of thyroid hormones.

  1. A) inhibition
  2. B) synthesis
  3. C) release
  4. D) inhibition and secretion
  5. E) synthesis and release

E) synthesis and release

74

79) The control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct ________ regulation.

  1. A) endocrine
  2. B) pancreatic
  3. C) homeostatic
  4. D) hepatic
  5. E) vascular

A) endocrine

75

80) Inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to

  1. A) hypothyroidism.
  2. B) cretinism.
  3. C) myxedema.
  4. D) high blood levels of TSH.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

76

81) Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the

  1. A) kidneys.
  2. B) heart.
  3. C) thyroid gland.
  4. D) gonads.
  5. E) pituitary gland.

C) thyroid gland.

77

82) The action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all the following steps except

  1. A) binding to a hormone receptor in the plasma membrane.
  2. B) transport into the target cell.
  3. C) binding to a cytoplasmic receptor protein.
  4. D) activation of a specific gene.
  5. E) activation of a G protein.

A) binding to a hormone receptor in the plasma membrane.

78

83) Which of the following is not an action of TSH?

  1. A) stimulates T3 and T4 secretion
  2. B) stimulates iodide trapping by thyroid follicle cells
  3. C) inhibits T3 and T4 secretion
  4. D) stimulates pinocytosis of colloid by thyroid follicle cells
  5. E) increases cyclic AMP concentration within thyroid follicle cells

C) inhibits T3 and T4 secretion

79

84) Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?

  1. A) thyroid glands; calcitonin
  2. B) parathyroid glands; calcitonin
  3. C) parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone
  4. D) thyroid glands; levothyroxine
  5. E) parathyroid glands; levothyroxine

C) parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone

80

85) Parathyroid hormone does all of the following except

  1. A) stimulate osteoclast activity.
  2. B) inhibit osteoblast activity.
  3. C) build up bone.
  4. D) stimulate the formation and secretion of calcitriol at the kidneys.
  5. E) enhance the reabsorption of calcium at the kidneys.

C) build up bone.

81

86) The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is

  1. A) insulin.
  2. B) glucagon.
  3. C) growth hormone.
  4. D) parathyroid hormone.
  5. E) thyroid hormone.

D) parathyroid hormone

82

87) The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that

  1. A) stimulates the formation of white blood cells.
  2. B) increases the level of calcium ions in the blood.
  3. C) increases the level of sodium ions in the blood.
  4. D) increases the level of potassium ions in the blood.
  5. E) increases the level of glucose in the blood

B) increases the level of calcium ions in the blood.

83

88) The zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces

  1. A) androgens.
  2. B) glucocorticoids.
  3. C) mineralocorticoids.
  4. D) epinephrine.
  5. E) norepinephrine.

A) androgens.

84

89) The zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces

  1. A) androgens.
  2. B) glucocorticoids.
  3. C) mineralocorticoids.
  4. D) epinephrine.
  5. E) norepinephrine.

B) glucocorticoids.

85

90) The zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces

  1. A) androgens.
  2. B) glucocorticoids.
  3. C) mineralocorticoids.
  4. D) epinephrine.
  5. E) norepinephrine.

C) mineralocorticoids

86

91) The suprarenal medulla produces

  1. A) androgens.
  2. B) glucocorticoids.
  3. C) mineralocorticoids.
  4. D) catecholamines.
  5. E) corticosteroids.

D) catecholamines

87

92) A hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is

  1. A) aldosterone.
  2. B) erythropoietin.
  3. C) thymosin.
  4. D) cortisol.
  5. E) parathormone.

D) cortisol

88

93) A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is

  1. A) cortisol.
  2. B) parathormone.
  3. C) thymosin.
  4. D) somatotropin.
  5. E) aldosterone.

E) aldosterone.

89

94) Cushing's disease results from an excess of

  1. A) growth hormone.
  2. B) parathyroid hormone.
  3. C) ADH.
  4. D) glucocorticoids.
  5. E) epinephrine.

D) glucocorticoids

90

95) Reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of

  1. A) antidiuretic hormone.
  2. B) calcitonin.
  3. C) aldosterone.
  4. D) cortisone.
  5. E) oxytocin.

C) aldosterone

91

96) The adrenal medulla produces the hormones

  1. A) synephrine and neosynephrine.
  2. B) epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  3. C) corticosterone and testosterone.
  4. D) androgens and progesterone.
  5. E) norcortisol and cortisol.

B) epinephrine and norepinephrine

92

97) Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in

  1. A) the loss of axillary and pubic hair.
  2. B) increased volume of urine formation.
  3. C) decreased levels of sodium ion in the blood.
  4. D) decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose.
  5. E) increased water retention.

D) decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose

93

98) A rise in cortisol would cause an increase in each of the following except

  1. A) the rate of glucose synthesis by the liver.
  2. B) the rate of glycogen formation by the liver.
  3. C) the level of fatty acids in the blood.
  4. D) fatty acid metabolism by muscle cells.
  5. E) ACTH levels.

E) ACTH levels

94

99) If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to suppress the immune system, what unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry?

  1. A) increase of insulin
  2. B) decrease of insulin
  3. C) increase of blood glucose
  4. D) decrease of blood glucose
  5. E) both an increase in insulin and an increase in glucose

C) increase of blood glucose

95

100) Too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes

  1. A) goiter.
  2. B) diabetes mellitus.
  3. C) diabetes insipidus.
  4. D) Addison's disease.
  5. E) Cushing's disease.

D) Addison's disease

96

101) A hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is

  1. A) aldosterone.
  2. B) insulin.
  3. C) cortisol.
  4. D) calcitonin.
  5. E) renin.

C) cortisol

97

102) Cells of the adrenal cortex produce

  1. A) epinephrine.
  2. B) norepinephrine.
  3. C) aldosterone.
  4. D) ACTH.
  5. E) angiotensin.

C) aldosterone

98

103) Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system?

  1. A) cortisol
  2. B) parathyroid hormone
  3. C) insulin
  4. D) growth hormone
  5. E) acetylcholine

A) cortisol

99

104) Which gland is called the "emergency gland" and helps the body adjust to stress?

  1. A) thyroid
  2. B) adrenal (suprarenal)
  3. C) pituitary
  4. D) pancreas
  5. E) thymus

B) adrenal (suprarenal)

100

105) Which group of hormones cause an anti-inflammatory action?

  1. A) thyroglobulins
  2. B) mineralocorticoids
  3. C) pancreatic hormones
  4. D) antidiuretic hormones
  5. E) glucocorticoids

E) glucocorticoids

101

106) Hormones from the adrenal cortex that regulate electrolyte balance are

  1. A) antidiuretics.
  2. B) calcitonin and parathyroid hormone.
  3. C) mineralocorticoids.
  4. D) androgens.
  5. E) glucocorticoids.

C) mineralocorticoids

102

107) Which of the following is false concerning melatonin?

  1. A) Exposure to light inhibits production.
  2. B) Exposure to light stimulates production.
  3. C) It inhibits releases of GnRH.
  4. D) It is produced by pinealocytes.
  5. E) It is made from serotonin.

B) Exposure to light stimulates production

103

108) Which recommendation might be given by a doctor when counseling a patient who is suffering from excessive melatonin production?

  1. A) Spend time outside during the day when possible, eating lunch, taking a walk, etc.
  2. B) Wear a special light made for seasonal affective disorder patients on the head.
  3. C) Take antidepressants.
  4. D) Do not take melatonin supplements from the pharmacy as a sleep aid.
  5. E) All of these recommendations might be made.

E) All of these recommendations might be made.

104

109) Melatonin is produced by the

  1. A) thymus.
  2. B) pineal gland.
  3. C) kidneys.
  4. D) skin.
  5. E) heart.

B) pineal gland.

105

110) Each of the following is true of the pineal gland except that it

  1. A) is a component of the epithalamus.
  2. B) is a component of the hypothalamus.
  3. C) secretes melatonin.
  4. D) contains pinealocytes.
  5. E) responds to light and darkness.

B) is a component of the hypothalamus.

106

111) The condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by

  1. A) increased levels of melanin.
  2. B) increased levels of melatonin.
  3. C) increased levels of melanocyte-stimulating hormone.
  4. D) increased levels of gonadotrophins.
  5. E) decreased levels of testosterone.

B) increased levels of melatonin

107

112) Alpha cells are to ________ as beta cells are to ________.

  1. A) glucagon; insulin
  2. B) somatostatin; insulin
  3. C) insulin; glucagon
  4. D) glucagon; somatostatin
  5. E) pancreatic polypeptide; insulin

A) glucagon; insulin

108

113) If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting

  1. A) glucagon.
  2. B) GHIH.
  3. C) thyroid hormone.
  4. D) aldosterone.
  5. E) antidiuretic hormone.

A) glucagon

109

114) The primary target(s) of insulin is/are

  1. A) skeletal muscle fibers.
  2. B) adipocytes.
  3. C) liver cells.
  4. D) cardiac muscle cells.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

110

115) The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is

  1. A) cortisol.
  2. B) somatotropin.
  3. C) insulin.
  4. D) glucagon.
  5. E) aldosterone.

C) insulin.

111

116) In persons with untreated diabetes mellitus,

  1. A) blood glucose levels are very high.
  2. B) excessive thirst is shown.
  3. C) glucose is present in the urine in large amounts.
  4. D) a large excretion of urine occurs.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

112

117) Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?

  1. A) glycosuria
  2. B) ketoacidosis
  3. C) high blood glucose
  4. D) low blood glucose
  5. E) polyuria

D) low blood glucose

113

118) Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. The tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, grow extensive body hair, and stop menstruating. This tumor probably involves cells of the

  1. A) zona glomerulosa.
  2. B) zona fasciculata.
  3. C) zona reticularis.
  4. D) suprarenal medulla.
  5. E) pars intermedia.

C) zona reticularis

114

119) Which of the following statements is true about the pancreas?

  1. A) The pancreas lies over the top of the stomach.
  2. B) The sole function of the pancreas is to produce hormones.
  3. C) The pituitary gland produces stimulating hormones that control the pancreas.
  4. D) The islets contain a variety of different cells producing different hormones.
  5. E) The pancreas stores glucose, which can be released into the blood.

D) The islets contain a variety of different cells producing different hormones

115

120) When blood glucose levels fall,

  1. A) insulin is released.
  2. B) glucagon is released.
  3. C) peripheral cells take up more glucose.
  4. D) protein synthesis increases.
  5. E) calcitonin is secreted.

B) glucagon is released

116

121) The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce

  1. A) insulin.
  2. B) glucagon.
  3. C) somatostatin.
  4. D) cortisol.
  5. E) peptide P.

A) insulin

117

122) The delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce

  1. A) insulin.
  2. B) glucagon.
  3. C) somatostatin.
  4. D) cortisol.
  5. E) peptide P.

C) somatostatin

118

123) Which of the following statements is true about the pancreas?

  1. A) The pancreas is tucked into the curvature of the small intestine, underneath the stomach.
  2. B) The pancreas produces enzymes for breakdown of foods.
  3. C) The main hormonal function of the pancreas is control of blood sugar.
  4. D) The pancreas affect's the functions of the liver.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

119

124) Type II diabetes is characterized by

  1. A) a lack of response by target cells to insulin.
  2. B) a decrease in secretion by pancreatic beta cells.
  3. C) excessive secretion of glucagon.
  4. D) inadequate insulin production.
  5. E) low blood-glucose concentration.

A) a lack of response by target cells to insulin.

120

125) Which of the following hormones stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to take in glucose from the blood?

  1. A) calcitonin
  2. B) cortisol
  3. C) insulin
  4. D) glucagon
  5. E) parathyroid hormone

C) insulin

121

126) Which of the following directly regulates the secretion of insulin?

  1. A) parasympathetic nervous system
  2. B) sympathetic nervous system
  3. C) blood glucose concentration
  4. D) hypothalamus
  5. E) tropic hormones from the pituitary gland

C) blood glucose concentration

122

127) All of the pancreatic hormones are regulated by

  1. A) the adenohypophysis.
  2. B) the liver.
  3. C) the neurohypophysis.
  4. D) the thyroid gland.
  5. E) nutrient concentrations in the blood

E) nutrient concentrations in the blood.

123

128) Cells in the brain

  1. A) can absorb glucose without insulin stimulation.
  2. B) prefer fats to glucose for energy production.
  3. C) are sensitive to insulin but not to glucagon.
  4. D) are very sensitive to low concentrations of insulin.
  5. E) can store glycogen, to be used later for glucose release

A) can absorb glucose without insulin stimulation

124

129) The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is

  1. A) somatotropin.
  2. B) cortisol.
  3. C) insulin.
  4. D) glucagon.
  5. E) erythropoietin.

C) insulin

125

130) Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in

  1. A) acromegaly.
  2. B) goiter.
  3. C) diabetes mellitus.
  4. D) diabetes insipidus.
  5. E) Addison's disease.

C) diabetes mellitus

126

131) Which problem is related to untreated diabetes mellitus?

  1. A) damage to the retina
  2. B) neuropathy
  3. C) gastric ulcers
  4. D) goiter
  5. E) retinal problems and nerve problems

E) retinal problems and nerve problems

127

132) Type 2 diabetes

  1. A) can usually be controlled by diet and exercise rather than with medication.
  2. B) is associated with an immune reaction to the pancreatic cells.
  3. C) is a lack of insulin production.
  4. D) is typically diagnosed in the very young.
  5. E) is not as common as type 1 diabetes

A) can usually be controlled by diet and exercise rather than with medication.

128

133) The enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of

  1. A) angiotensin.
  2. B) cortisol.
  3. C) erythropoietin.
  4. D) atrial natriuretic peptide.
  5. E) adrenaline.

A) angiotensin

129

134) The interstitial cells of the testes produce

  1. A) LH.
  2. B) progesterone.
  3. C) testosterone.
  4. D) inhibin.
  5. E) FSH.

C) testosterone

130

135) Follicle cells in the ovary secrete ________ when stimulated by FSH.

  1. A) estrogen
  2. B) progesterone
  3. C) testosterone
  4. D) inhibin
  5. E) gonadotropins

A) estrogen

131

136) A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes

  1. A) testosterone.
  2. B) progesterone.
  3. C) aldosterone.
  4. D) cortisone.
  5. E) androstenedione.

B) progesterone

132

137) The hormone that opposes the release of FSH in both males and females is

  1. A) testosterone.
  2. B) LH.
  3. C) inhibin.
  4. D) aldosterone.
  5. E) somatostatin

C) inhibin

133

138) The hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are

  1. A) thymosins.
  2. B) corticosteroids.
  3. C) aldosterones.
  4. D) thyroxines.
  5. E) somatotropins.

A) thymosins

134

139) Which of the following hormones increases production of red blood cells?

  1. A) cortisol
  2. B) erythropoietin
  3. C) thymosin
  4. D) aldosterone
  5. E) atrial natriuretic peptide

B) erythropoietin

135

140) The kidneys secrete

  1. A) renin.
  2. B) erythropoietin.
  3. C) calcitriol.
  4. D) hormones to regulate sodium ion concentration.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

136

141) Cholecalciferol is synthesized within the

  1. A) bone marrow of the skeletal system.
  2. B) splenic pulp of the lymphatic system.
  3. C) endothelial linings of the cardiovascular system.
  4. D) hypothalamus of the nervous system.
  5. E) epidermis of the integumentary system.

E) epidermis of the integumentary system

137

142) The heart secretes the hormone

  1. A) progesterone.
  2. B) oxytocin.
  3. C) thymosin.
  4. D) thyroxine.
  5. E) atrial natriuretic peptide

E) atrial natriuretic peptide.

138

143) Increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of the following hormones?

  1. A) somatostatin
  2. B) thyroxine
  3. C) growth hormone
  4. D) sex hormones
  5. E) insulin

D) sex hormones

139

144) The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is

  1. A) testosterone.
  2. B) aldosterone.
  3. C) cortisol.
  4. D) thyroid hormone.
  5. E) epinephrine.

E) epinephrine

140

145) You have just become the nurse manager of a nursing home and you are reminding yourself about what problems your nursing home population might have by studying your old pathophysiology books from nursing school. Many of the residents are tired and have problems with blood glucose levels. Which hormones might be related?

  1. A) insulin
  2. B) cortisol
  3. C) GH
  4. D) thyroid hormones
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

141

146) During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), there is

  1. A) decreased blood flow to skeletal muscles and skin.
  2. B) decreased mental alertness.
  3. C) mobilization of energy reserves.
  4. D) increased urine release.
  5. E) decreased rate of respiration.

C) mobilization of energy reserves

142

147) If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ________ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).

  1. A) alarm
  2. B) resistance
  3. C) exhaustion
  4. D) extension
  5. E) prolonged

B) resistance

143

148) Hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the

  1. A) mineralocorticoids.
  2. B) androgens.
  3. C) glucocorticoids.
  4. D) catecholamines.
  5. E) gonadotropins.

C) glucocorticoids

144

149) During the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS),

  1. A) lipid reserves are mobilized.
  2. B) proteins are conserved.
  3. C) blood glucose levels fall drastically.
  4. D) levels of growth hormone decrease.
  5. E) levels of insulin decrease.

A) lipid reserves are mobilized

145

150) The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by

  1. A) failure of electrolyte balance.
  2. B) increasing ability to produce glucose from glycogen.
  3. C) increased pumping effectiveness of the heart.
  4. D) a sharp increase in motivation and energy.
  5. E) an increase in urine output.

A) failure of electrolyte balance

146

1) Which of the following statements is true about paracrine communication?

  1. A) It is used for the regulation of cell and organ activities.
  2. B) Paracrine factors are rather similar to hormones.
  3. C) Many cells produce paracrine factors.
  4. D) The cells make local hormones, made by cells that affect surrounding cells.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct.

147

2) The intracellular protein ________ binds calcium ion. This complex can then activate enzymes.

  1. A) prostaglandin
  2. B) leukotrieneiuretic factor
  3. C) cyclic AMP
  4. D) calmodulin
  5. E) kinase

D) calmodulin

148

3) Receptors for ________, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids are found in the cell membranes of target cells.

  1. A) catecholamines
  2. B) carbohydrates
  3. C) kinases
  4. D) genes
  5. E) acetylcholine

A) catecholamines

149

4) The endocrine system regulates physiological processes through the binding of hormones to ________ on target cells.

  1. A) receptors
  2. B) endoplasmic reticula
  3. C) genes
  4. D) membranes
  5. E) microvilli

A) receptors

150

5) Cells that respond to a hormone are called ________ cells.

  1. A) stem
  2. B) pluripotent
  3. C) germ
  4. D) target
  5. E) peripheral

D) target

151

6) The posterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the

  1. A) basal ganglion.
  2. B) infundibulum.
  3. C) adenohypophysis.
  4. D) mesencephalon.
  5. E) neurohypophysis.

E) neurohypophysis

152

7) The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the

  1. A) basal ganglion.
  2. B) infundibulum.
  3. C) adenohypophysis.
  4. D) mesencephalon.
  5. E) neurohypophysis

C) adenohypophysis

153

8) The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland can be divided into three parts: the pars distalis, the pars intermedia, and the pars

  1. A) tuberalis.
  2. B) nervosa.
  3. C) pinea.
  4. D) intermedia.
  5. E) magnus.

A) tuberalis

154

9) Hormones produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that regulate the male and female reproductive organs are collectively called

  1. A) tropic hormones.
  2. B) androgens.
  3. C) somatotropins.
  4. D) immunogens.
  5. E) gonadotropins.

E) gonadotropins

155

10) The two lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by the

  1. A) isthmus.
  2. B) pars intermedia.
  3. C) commissure.
  4. D) aqueduct.
  5. E) peninsula.

A) isthmus

156

11) The thyroid gland is composed of many ________ that produce and store thyroid hormone.

  1. A) tubules
  2. B) follicles
  3. C) ducts
  4. D) capillaries
  5. E) plexuses

B) follicles

157

12) Thyroid hormones are structural derivatives of the amino acid

  1. A) glutamic acid.
  2. B) epinephrine.
  3. C) iodine.
  4. D) tyrosine.
  5. E) glycine.

D) tyrosine

158

13) The specific target cells of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine are

  1. A) the cells of the parathyroid glands.
  2. B) the cells of the pituitary gland.
  3. C) all cells of the body.
  4. D) the cells of the ovaries and testes.
  5. E) the cells of the thymus gland.

C) all cells of the body.

159

14) Which of the following statements is true regarding the parathyroid glands?

  1. A) The two glands straddle the larynx in the neck.
  2. B) The gland sits over the heart.
  3. C) The parathyroid gland contains the four thyroid glands.
  4. D) There are four small glands.
  5. E) None of the answers are correct.

D) There are four small glands.

160

15) The ________ gland sits along the superior border of the kidney.

  1. A) adipose
  2. B) pineal
  3. C) androgen
  4. D) renal
  5. E) suprarenal

E) suprarenal

161

16) The outer layer of the suprarenal gland is the

  1. A) cortex.
  2. B) interstitial tissue.
  3. C) medulla.
  4. D) stroma.
  5. E) capsule.

A) cortex

162

17) The inner portion of the suprarenal gland is the

  1. A) cortex.
  2. B) interstitial tissue.
  3. C) medulla.
  4. D) stroma.
  5. E) capsule.

C) medulla

163

18) The suprarenal cortex produces steroid hormones called

  1. A) leukotrienes.
  2. B) prostaglandins.
  3. C) corticosteroids.
  4. D) androgens.
  5. E) somatotropins.

C) corticosteroids

164

19) Adipocytes produce a peptide hormone called ________ that acts on the hypothalamus.

  1. A) leptin
  2. B) grehlin
  3. C) lipase
  4. D) glucagon
  5. E) adipocin

A) leptin

165

20) Hypogonadism could be caused by an insufficiency of hormones from the

  1. A) ovaries.
  2. B) anterior pituitary gland.
  3. C) testes.
  4. D) adrenal cortex.
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

166

21) The hormone related to appetite control is

  1. A) thymosin.
  2. B) brain natriuretic peptide.
  3. C) melanin.
  4. D) leptin.
  5. E) erythropoietin.

D) leptin

167

22) Why might someone want to take erythropoietin in a non-medical situation?

  1. A) to increase muscle mass
  2. B) to sleep
  3. C) to increase oxygen-carrying capacity and increase stamina
  4. D) to increase the chance of getting pregnant
  5. E) to increase sex drive

C) to increase oxygen-carrying capacity and increase stamina

168

23) Two hormones that have opposing effects are called

  1. A) antagonists.
  2. B) agonists.
  3. C) resistors.
  4. D) synergists.
  5. E) adjuvants.

A) antagonists

169

24) Two hormones that have additive effects are called

  1. A) antagonists.
  2. B) agonists.
  3. C) resistors.
  4. D) synergists.
  5. E) adjuvants.

D) synergists

170

25) When one hormone is needed for a second hormone to produce an effect, it is called

  1. A) a reflex.
  2. B) a causatum.
  3. C) an aftereffect.
  4. D) permissive.
  5. E) a radical.

D) permissive

171

26) Hormones that produce different but complementary results are called

  1. A) permissive.
  2. B) integrative.
  3. C) radicals.
  4. D) synergists.
  5. E) antagonists.

B) integrative

172

27) The hormone that dominates the alarm phase of the stress response is

  1. A) epinephrine.
  2. B) acetylcholine.
  3. C) steroids.
  4. D) androgen.
  5. E) glucagon.

A) epinephrine

173

28) The consistent pattern of hormonal and physiological responses to stresses of different kinds is called ________ syndrome.

  1. A) malabsorption
  2. B) serotonin
  3. C) general adaptation
  4. D) Prader-Willi
  5. E) afferent loop

C) general adaptation


Related pages


practice quizzes for biologyreductive biosynthesis definitionstages of white blood cell maturationcat musculaturedefine pericardial tamponadethe absorption of light energy by a photosystemeasy notecards anatomy and physiologyatp synthesis in glycolysis substrate level phosphorylationclassical conditioning and operant conditioning differ in thatsympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous systemless elastic demandhesi admission assessment exam review downloadallosteric enzyme animationmeiosis ii is similar to mitosis in thatclubbed fingers copdstarch agar plateswhere in the neuron is an action potential initially generatedsynonyms for intrudeap bio chapter 22 reading guide answersstructure of the pharynxwordly wise 3000 book 5 lesson 4list the reactants and products of cellular respirationwhat is responsible for tubular reabsorptionmuscles of the trunk diagramintercarpal joint typethe urinary bladder is found in which abdominopelvic regionwhite and grey matter in the spinal cordgas necessary for photosynthesisafter ovulation the ovary secretes quizletintestinal juicesichthyosaurs were aquatic dinosaurscounting in italian 1-100tortora derricksonhard vocab wordstrophic efficiency isdefine solute biologythe definition of selectively permeablesickle cell anemia chromosome numberap euro quizcalcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulumchapter 7 anatomy and physiologygodescalc gospelsmastering biology chapter 5 answersheart ventricles diagrameasynotesturner syndrome meiosisformation of glucose from proteins or fatscampbell stainsparts of the microscope quiziliac region paina&p 2 final examsplenius cervicis muscleintegumentary system summarycerebrum primary functiontransmission of microbes by direct contact includesthe cranial cavity houses theabbreviation of cupconsecutive exterior angles definitionfimbriae and pili differ in that piliwhich of the following is true of passive continental marginswhich of the following is not true of enzyme behaviorcul de sac of uteruscranial bones diagramkeratin monomermonohybrid examplerhogam is what type of plasma proteindefine valgus forceanatomy and physiology chapter 1 flashcardsdescribe the lytic cycle of virus reproductionlomotil otcmultiple allele exampleslocation of capillarieswhy are skeletal muscle cells multinucleated