1) All of the following are true of the nervous system except that it does not
2) Endocrine cells
3) ________ are chemical messengers that are released by cells and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.
4) A hormone might
5) Hormones known as "catecholamines" are
6) Peptide hormones are
7) A kinase is an enzyme that performs
8) An activated G protein can trigger
9) Calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein
10) Hormones can operate on the ________ level of organization.
11) Why is it that steroid hormones use receptors inside of target cells, whereas protein, peptide, and amino acid hormones do not?
A) Steroids can cross the cell membrane because they are lipids and the membrane is lipid.
B) Amino acids and peptide hormones do not have a 3 dimensional structure that can bind to internal receptors.
C) Cells are full of steroid molecules so it is easy for steroid molecules to enter.
D) The target cells affected by steroid hormones have all of their receptors in the cell cytoplasm.
E) All of the answers are correct
12) The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a(n) ________ organ.
13) A simple endocrine reflex involves ________ hormone(s).
14) Which of the following substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger?
15) All of the following are true of steroid hormones except that they
16) Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative except
17) Membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones?
18) Steroid hormones
19) When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the
A) hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm.
B) cell membrane becomes depolarized.
C) second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.
D) cell becomes inactive.
E) hormone is transported to the nucleus where it alters the activity of DNA.
20) Hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. These categories include
21) Hormonal actions on cells include those that affect
22) The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually
23) When adenyl cyclase is activated,
24) After a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex,
25) The most complex endocrine responses involve the
26) Hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors?
27) Which of the following hormones is/are water soluble and therefore bind(s) to extracellular receptors?
28) All target cells
29) If the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose?
30) Increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of
31) Destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which of the following results?
32) The primary function of ADH is to
33) If the hypophyseal portal system is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?
34) Changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of
35) The hypothalamus controls secretion in the adenohypophysis by
36) Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture
37) Secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release
38) The hypophyseal portal system
39) The main action of antidiuretic hormone is
40) Excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause
41) Which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates?
42) Which of the following organs contain target cells for oxytocin?
44) The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is
45) Each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis except
46) The hormone oxytocin
47) Growth hormone does all of the following except
48) Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called
49) The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is
50) The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is
51) The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is
52) The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is
53) The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is
54) The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is
55) The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is
56) After brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?
57) The term used to describe excess production of urine is
58) Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia
59) The two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones?
60) PRL is to ________ as ADH is to ________.
61) The hormone(s) that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is/are
67) Which of the following elements is necessary for the production of thyroid hormone?
68) Which of the following cells are target cells for the hormone that causes a decrease in blood-calcium concentration?
69) Which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues?
70) Thyroid hormone contains the element
71) Mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of
72) The hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is
73) A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is
74) The condition known as hirsutism can result from too
75) The C cells of the thyroid gland produce
76) Increased levels of the hormone ________ will lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood.
77) Where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place?
78) TSH plays a key role in the ________ of thyroid hormones.
79) The control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct ________ regulation.
80) Inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to
81) Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the
82) The action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all the following steps except
83) Which of the following is not an action of TSH?
84) Before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. What glands are these and which hormone is lacking?
85) Parathyroid hormone does all of the following except
86) The hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is
87) The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that
88) The zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces
89) The zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces
90) The zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces
91) The suprarenal medulla produces
92) A hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is
93) A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is
94) Cushing's disease results from an excess of
95) Reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of
96) The adrenal medulla produces the hormones
97) Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in
98) A rise in cortisol would cause an increase in each of the following except
99) If a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to suppress the immune system, what unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry?
100) Too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes
101) A hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is
102) Cells of the adrenal cortex produce
103) Which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system?
104) Which gland is called the "emergency gland" and helps the body adjust to stress?
105) Which group of hormones cause an anti-inflammatory action?
106) Hormones from the adrenal cortex that regulate electrolyte balance are
107) Which of the following is false concerning melatonin?
108) Which recommendation might be given by a doctor when counseling a patient who is suffering from excessive melatonin production?
109) Melatonin is produced by the
110) Each of the following is true of the pineal gland except that it
111) The condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by
112) Alpha cells are to ________ as beta cells are to ________.
113) If a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting
114) The primary target(s) of insulin is/are
115) The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is
116) In persons with untreated diabetes mellitus,
117) Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?
118) Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. The tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, grow extensive body hair, and stop menstruating. This tumor probably involves cells of the
119) Which of the following statements is true about the pancreas?
120) When blood glucose levels fall,
121) The beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
122) The delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
123) Which of the following statements is true about the pancreas?
124) Type II diabetes is characterized by
125) Which of the following hormones stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to take in glucose from the blood?
126) Which of the following directly regulates the secretion of insulin?
127) All of the pancreatic hormones are regulated by
128) Cells in the brain
129) The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is
130) Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in
131) Which problem is related to untreated diabetes mellitus?
132) Type 2 diabetes
133) The enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of
134) The interstitial cells of the testes produce
135) Follicle cells in the ovary secrete ________ when stimulated by FSH.
136) A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes
137) The hormone that opposes the release of FSH in both males and females is
138) The hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are
139) Which of the following hormones increases production of red blood cells?
140) The kidneys secrete
141) Cholecalciferol is synthesized within the
142) The heart secretes the hormone
143) Increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of the following hormones?
144) The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is
145) You have just become the nurse manager of a nursing home and you are reminding yourself about what problems your nursing home population might have by studying your old pathophysiology books from nursing school. Many of the residents are tired and have problems with blood glucose levels. Which hormones might be related?
146) During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS), there is
147) If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ________ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
148) Hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the
149) During the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS),
150) The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by
1) Which of the following statements is true about paracrine communication?
2) The intracellular protein ________ binds calcium ion. This complex can then activate enzymes.
3) Receptors for ________, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids are found in the cell membranes of target cells.
4) The endocrine system regulates physiological processes through the binding of hormones to ________ on target cells.
5) Cells that respond to a hormone are called ________ cells.
6) The posterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the
7) The anterior lobe of the pituitary is also known as the
8) The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland can be divided into three parts: the pars distalis, the pars intermedia, and the pars
9) Hormones produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that regulate the male and female reproductive organs are collectively called
10) The two lobes of the thyroid gland are connected by the
11) The thyroid gland is composed of many ________ that produce and store thyroid hormone.
12) Thyroid hormones are structural derivatives of the amino acid
13) The specific target cells of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine are
14) Which of the following statements is true regarding the parathyroid glands?
15) The ________ gland sits along the superior border of the kidney.
16) The outer layer of the suprarenal gland is the
17) The inner portion of the suprarenal gland is the
18) The suprarenal cortex produces steroid hormones called
19) Adipocytes produce a peptide hormone called ________ that acts on the hypothalamus.
20) Hypogonadism could be caused by an insufficiency of hormones from the
21) The hormone related to appetite control is
22) Why might someone want to take erythropoietin in a non-medical situation?
23) Two hormones that have opposing effects are called
24) Two hormones that have additive effects are called
25) When one hormone is needed for a second hormone to produce an effect, it is called
26) Hormones that produce different but complementary results are called
27) The hormone that dominates the alarm phase of the stress response is