Exercise 11: The Appendicular Skeleton

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created 6 years ago by jncanf
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pg. 157 - pg. 163
updated 6 years ago by jncanf
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1

deltoid tuberosity

raised area on lateral surface of humerus to which deltoid muscle attaches

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humerus

arm bone

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scapula, clavicle

bones of the shoulder girdle

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radius, ulna

forearm bones

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acromion

scapular region to which the clavicle connects

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scapula

shoulder girdle bone that is unattached to the axial skeleton

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clavicle

shoulder girdle bone that articulates with and transmits forces to the bony thorax

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glenoid cavity

depression in the scapula that articulates with the humerous

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coracoid process

process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment

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clavicle

the "collarbone"

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trochlea

distal condyle of the humerus that articulates with the ulna

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ulna

medial bone of forearm in anatomical position

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capitulium

rounded knob on the humerus; adjoins the radius

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coronoid fossa

anteriar depression, superior to the trochlea, which receives part of the ulna when the forearm is flexed

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ulna

forearm bone involved in formation of the elbow joint

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carpals

wrist bones

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phalanges

finger bones

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metacarpals

heads of these bones form the knuckles

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scapula, sternum

bones that articulate with the clavicle

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How is the arm held clear of the widest dimension of the thoracic cage?

Clavicle serves as an anterior base or strut to hold the arm away from the top of the thorax

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What is the total number of phalanges in the hand?

14

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What is the total number of carpals in the wrist?

8

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Name the carpals (medial to lateral) in the proximal row.

pisiform-triquetral-lunate-scaphoid

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In the distal row, they are (medial to lateral)

trapezium-trapezoid-capitate-hamate

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The humerus is a (right/left) bone in (an anterior/a posterior) view.

right; Posterior

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The radius and ulna are (right/left) bones in (an anterior/a posterior) view.

left; Anterior

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Pectoral

flexibility most important; lightweight; insecure axaial and limb attachments

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Pelvic

massive; secure axail and limb attachments; weight-bearing most important

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What organs are protected, at least in part, by the pelvic girdle?

Uterus, bladdar, rectum, small intestine, and reproductive organs

36

What is the difference between the true pelvis and the false pelvis?

The true pelvis is small bowl-like shape containing the unrinary bladder and sexual organs. The false pelvis is the area been the alla or wings of the pelvis. This is a much larger area and contains some of the abdominal organs like part of the small intestine and part of the colon.

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This is a (female/male) pelvis because?

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Female; It is adapted for childbearing, defines birth canal, Farther apart then a males, the sacrum is wider, shorter and less curved then a males. The pelvic inlet (brim) is wider; oval from side to side.

38

Deduce why the pelvis bones of a four-legged animal such as a cat or pig are less massive than those of the human.

The pelvic bones of a two-legged animal such as a human have to carry his whole weight, divided by two. A four-legged animal such as a pig divides its weight over four legs, so each leg and each pelvic bone has to bear only a fourth of the animal's weight. As the strain on the bones is a half than in the two-legged case, the bones can be less massive.

39

A person instinctively curls over his abdominal area in times of danger. Why?

To prevent a smaller target and also to protect the internal organs and genitalia.

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For what anatomical reason do many women appear to be slightly knock-kneed?

Biologically, women have wider pelvises than men. The angle of their hips turn the legs slightly inward, making some to actually touch at the knees.

41

How might this anatomical arrangement contribute to knee injuries in female athletes?

they can be more prone to knee related injuries, such as ACL tears due to high intensity straight knee landing or impact since the knee is already in a weak position.

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What does fallen arches mean?

It mean flat feet or flat footed

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illium, ischium, pubis

fuse to form the coxal bone

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ischium

"sit-down" bone of the coxal bone

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pubic symphysis

point where the coxal bones join anteriorly

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iliac crest

superiormost margin of the coxal bone

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acetabulum

deep socket in the coxal bone that receives the head of the thigh bone

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sacroiliac joint

joint between axaial skeleton and pelvic girdle

49

femur

longest, strongest bone in the body

50

fibula

thin lateral leg bone

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tibia

heavy medial leg bone

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femur, tibia, patella

bones forming knee joint

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tibial tuberosity

point where the patellar ligament attaches

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patella

kneecap

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tibia

shinbone

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medial malleolus

medial ankle projection

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lateral malleolus

lateral ankle projection

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calcaneus

largest tarsal bone

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tarsals

ankle bones

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metatarsals

bones forming the instep of the foot

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obturator foramen

opening in hip bone formed by the pubic and ischial rami

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gluteal tuberosity, greater and lesser trochanters

sites of muscle attachment on the proximal femur

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talus

tarsal bone that "sits" on the calcaneus

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tibia

weight-bearing bone of the leg

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talus

tarsal bone that articulates with the tibia

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The femur is a (right/left) bone in (an anterior/a posterior) view.

right; posterior

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The tibia and fibula are (right/left) bones in (an anterior/a posterior) view.

right; anterior

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