1) Muscle tissue, one of the four basic tissue groups, consists chiefly of cells that are highly specialized for
2) Which of the following is a recognized function of skeletal muscle?
3) At each end of the muscle, the collagen fibers of the epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium, come together to form a
4) The dense layer of connective tissue that surrounds an entire skeletal muscle is the
5) Nerves and blood vessels that service a muscle fiber are located in the connective tissues of its
6) A fascicle is a
7) The delicate connective tissue that surrounds the skeletal muscle fibers and ties adjacent muscle fibers together is the
8) The bundle of collagen fibers at the end of a skeletal muscle that attaches the muscle to bone is called a(n)
9) Put the following structures in order from superficial to deep.
10) Interactions between actin and myosin filaments of the sarcomere are responsible for
11) In a sarcomere, the central portion of thick filaments are linked laterally by proteins of the
12) The advantage of having many nuclei in a skeletal muscle fiber is the ability to
13) Skeletal muscle fibers are formed from embryonic cells called
14) The repeating unit of a skeletal muscle fiber is the
15) The plasma membrane of a skeletal muscle fiber is called the
16) Which of the following best describes the term sarcomere?
17) Muscle fibers differ from "typical cells" in that muscle fibers
18) Which of the following best describes the term sarcoplasmic reticulum?
19) Which of the following best describes the term Z line?
20) The region of the sarcomere containing the thick filaments is the
21) The skeletal muscle complex known as the triad consists of
22) Cross-bridges are portions of
23) The area in the center of the A band that contains no thin filaments is the
24) Each skeletal muscle fiber contains ________ myofibrils.
25) At rest, the tropomyosin molecule is held in place by
26) Each thin filament consists of
27) Which of the following best describes the term titin?
28) The region of the sarcomere that always contains thin filaments is the
29) At rest, active sites on the actin are blocked by
30) The series of membranous channels that surround each myofibril is the
31) Which of the following statements about the microscopic anatomy of skeletal muscle fibers is false?
32) All of the following proteins are part of the thin filaments except
33) When a skeletal muscle fiber contracts, the
34) Since each myofibril is attached at either end of the muscle fiber, when sarcomeres shorten, the muscle fiber
45) In response to action potentials arriving along the transverse tubules, the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases
46) Each skeletal muscle fiber is controlled by a motor neuron at a single
47) The narrow space between the synaptic terminal and the muscle fiber is the
48) Active sites on the actin become available for binding after
49) Receptors for acetylcholine are located on the
50) The action potential is conducted into a skeletal muscle fiber by
51) The most important factor in decreasing the intracellular concentration of calcium ion after contraction is
52) Which of the following acts as an ATPase during the contraction cycle of muscle?
53) When calcium ion binds to troponin,
54) Which of the following become connected by myosin cross-bridges during muscle contraction?
55) After death, muscle fibers run out of ATP and calcium begins to leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum into the sarcoplasm. This results in a condition known as
56) In rigor mortis
57) In a sarcomere, cross-bridge attachment occurs specifically in the
58) Physical evidence that supports the sliding filament theory of muscle contraction includes
59) Triggering of the muscle action potential occurs after
60) The following is a list of the events that occur during a muscle contraction. What is the correct sequence of these events?
61) How would the loss of acetylcholinesterase from the motor end plate affect skeletal muscle?
E) It would have little effect on skeletal muscles
62) When acetylcholine binds to receptors at the motor end plate, the sarcolemma becomes
63) The cytoplasm of the neuromuscular terminal contains vesicles filled with molecules of the neurotransmitter
64) At what point during excitation contraction coupling does exocytosis play a role?
65) Which of the following statements about excitation-contraction coupling is incorrect?
66) Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters that are released by ________ when the action potential arrives.
67) The muscle weakness of myasthenia gravis results from
68) A patient takes a medication that blocks ACh receptors of skeletal muscle fibers. What is this drug's effect on skeletal muscle contraction?
69) The rapid rise and fall in force produced by a muscle fiber after a single action potential is a(n)
70) When a muscle is stimulated repeatedly at a high rate, the amount of tension gradually increases to a steady maximum tension. This state of maximum tension is called
71) A muscle producing almost peak tension during rapid cycles of contraction and relaxation is said to be in
72) If a second stimulus arrives before the relaxation phase has ended, a second, more powerful contraction occurs. This addition of one twitch to another is called
73) A single motor neuron together with all the muscle fibers it innervates is called a(n)
74) The contraction of a muscle exerts a pull on a bone because muscles attach to bones by
75) The increase in muscle tension that is produced by increasing the number of active motor units is called
76) The type of contraction in which the muscle fibers do not shorten is called
77) A weight-lifter strains to lift a heavy weight and there is no movement of the person's arms holding on to the weight. This type of contraction is called a(n) ________ contraction.
78) You try to pick up an object and discover that it is much heavier than you expected. Which process must occur in the muscle to increase tension so you can pick up the object?
79) In which of the following would the motor units have the fewest muscle fibers?
80) In an isotonic contraction,
86) In the liver, during the Cori cycle,
87) During the recovery period the body's need for oxygen is increased because
88) A resting muscle generates most of its ATP by
89) Creatine phosphate
90) During anaerobic glycolysis,
91) Aerobic metabolism normally provides ________ percent of the ATP demands of a resting muscle cell.
92) After heavy exercise, if energy reserves in a muscle are depleted, ________ occurs.
93) During the recovery period following exercise, all of the following are true except
94) At peak levels of muscle exertion the mitochondria can supply
95) Which of the following hormones directly stimulates growth of muscle tissue, leading to increased muscle mass?
96) Which of the following would not lead to increased oxygen consumption?
97) Because skeletal muscle contractions demand large quantities of ATP, skeletal muscles have
98) Decreased blood flow to a muscle could result in all of the following except
99) How would an elevated level of thyroid hormone in the body affect skeletal muscles?
100) Heat energy gained from muscle contraction is released by the ________ system.
101) The type of muscle fiber that is most resistant to fatigue is the ________ fiber.
102) Fast fibers
103) Muscles that move the eyeball have ________ fibers.
104) During activities requiring aerobic endurance,
105) Fast muscle fibers can adapt to aerobic metabolism by generating more mitochondria in response to
106) Which of the following statements is/are false regarding human muscles?
107) When comparing slow muscle fibers to fast muscle fibers, slow fibers
108) Large-diameter, densely packed myofibrils, large glycogen reserves, and few mitochondria are characteristics of
109) Which of the following types of muscle fibers are best adapted for prolonged contraction such as standing all day?
110) Muscular force can be adjusted to match different loads by
111) Which of the following statements is false?
112) The ability of smooth muscle to function over a wide range of lengths is called
113) Which of the following is not characteristic of smooth muscle?
114) Which of the following is not a function of smooth muscle tissue?
1) A(n) ________ can be described as a broad tendinous sheet.
2) The protein that is found in the Z line of a sarcomere is called
3) The protein that regulates muscle contraction by controlling the availability of active sites on actin is called
4) Thin filaments are mostly made of the protein
5) Thick filaments are made of the protein
6) Stem cells located between the endomysium and sarcolemma that function in the repair of damaged muscle tissue are called
7) The complex of a transverse tubule and two adjacent terminal cisternae is known as a
8) The structural theory that explains how a muscle fiber contracts is called the ________ theory.
9) Communication between axons and muscle fibers occurs at specialized synapses called
10) Active sites become exposed when calcium ions bind to
11) Cross bridge detachment is caused by ________ binding to the myosin head.
12) The sequence of processes that links the action potential to contraction is called
13) An infection by the bacterium Clostridium tetani can cause the disease called
14) A single contraction-relaxation cycle in a muscle fiber produces a(n)