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Chaper 6 Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure

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1

1) Which of following is a function of the skeletal system?

A) body support

B) calcium homeostasis

C) protection of internal organs

D) blood cell production

E) All of the answers are correct.

E) All of the answers are correct

2

2) Which of the following are not components of the skeletal system?

  1. A) tendons
  2. B) bones
  3. C) ligaments
  4. D) cartilage
  5. E) other tissues that connect bones

A) tendons

3

3) Which of the following bones is classified as "irregular" in shape?

  1. A) patella
  2. B) frontal
  3. C) vertebra
  4. D) metatarsal
  5. E) ulna

C) vertebra

4

4) The proximal and distal ends of a long bone are called the

  1. A) epiphyses.
  2. B) diaphyses.
  3. C) epiphyseal plates.
  4. D) metaphyses.
  5. E) periphyses.

A) epiphyses.

5

5) The carpal bones are examples of ________ bones.

  1. A) long
  2. B) short
  3. C) flat
  4. D) irregular
  5. E) sesamoid

B) short

6

6) A rib is an example of a ________ bone.

  1. A) long
  2. B) short
  3. C) flat
  4. D) sutural
  5. E) sesamoid

C) flat

7

7) The patella is an example of a(n) ________ bone.

  1. A) irregular
  2. B) sesamoid
  3. C) sutural
  4. D) sagittal
  5. E) flat

B) sesamoid

8

8) Small bones that fill gaps between bones of the skull are called ________ bones.

  1. A) irregular
  2. B) sesamoid
  3. C) sutural
  4. D) sagittal
  5. E) tendon

C) sutural

9

9) ________ bones develop inside tendons, commonly near the knees, hands, and feet.

  1. A) Irregular
  2. B) Sesamoid
  3. C) Short
  4. D) Long
  5. E) Flat

B) Sesamoid

10

10) The humerus is an example of a(n) ________ bone.

  1. A) long
  2. B) short
  3. C) flat
  4. D) irregular
  5. E) sesamoid

A) long

11

11) A large proximal projection on a bone is called the

  1. A) ramus.
  2. B) trochanter.
  3. C) tuberosity.
  4. D) tubercle.
  5. E) condyle

B) trochanter

12

12) A hole through a bone is called a

  1. A) ramus.
  2. B) foramen.
  3. C) linea.
  4. D) tubercle.
  5. E) facet.

B) foramen

13

13) The smooth, rounded articular process of a bone is termed a

  1. A) crest.
  2. B) ridge.
  3. C) head.
  4. D) condyle.
  5. E) trochlea.

D) condyle

14

14) A shallow depression on a bone is termed a

  1. A) fossa.
  2. B) sulcus.
  3. C) facet.
  4. D) fissure.
  5. E) line.

A) fossa

15

15) The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is known as the

  1. A) diaphysis.
  2. B) epiphysis.
  3. C) osseophysis.
  4. D) metaphysis.
  5. E) medullary cavity

D) metaphysis

16

16) Which of the following labels best matches osteocyte?

  1. A) stem cell
  2. B) dissolves matrix
  3. C) mature bone cell
  4. D) secretes organic matrix
  5. E) immature bone cell

C) mature bone cell

17

17) Bone is composed of ________ percent cells.

  1. A) 25
  2. B) 10
  3. C) 2
  4. D) 15
  5. E) 50

C) 2

18

18) Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called

  1. A) osteocytes.
  2. B) osteoprogenitor cells.
  3. C) osteoblasts.
  4. D) osteoclasts.
  5. E) osteoid cells.

C) osteoblasts

19

19) ________ are squamous stem cells that develop into osteoblasts.

  1. A) Osteoclasts
  2. B) Osteocytes
  3. C) Osteomedullary cells
  4. D) Osteoprogenitor cells
  5. E) Osteoid cells

D) Osteoprogenitor cells

20

20) Through the action of osteoclasts,

  1. A) new bone is formed.
  2. B) an organic framework is formed.
  3. C) bony matrix is dissolved.
  4. D) osteoid is calcified.
  5. E) fractured bones regenerate

C) bony matrix is dissolved

21

21) The space occupied by an osteocyte is called

  1. A) Volkmann's canal.
  2. B) a lacuna.
  3. C) a trabecula.
  4. D) a Haversian canal.
  5. E) a canaliculus.

B) a lacuna

22

22) Which of the following chemicals is not present in bone?

  1. A) calcium phosphate
  2. B) collagen fibers
  3. C) calcium carbonate
  4. D) chondroitin sulfate
  5. E) hydroxyapatite

D) chondroitin sulfate

23

23) ________ account(s) for almost two-thirds of the weight of bone.

  1. A) Water
  2. B) Calcium carbonate
  3. C) Collagen fibers
  4. D) Fluoride
  5. E) Calcium phosphate

E) Calcium phosphate

24

24) ________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum.

  1. A) Osteocyte
  2. B) Osteoclast
  3. C) Osteoid
  4. D) Osteoprogenitor
  5. E) Osteolytic

D) Osteoprogenitor

25

25) The ________ interactions allow bone to be strong, somewhat flexible, and highly resistant to shattering.

  1. A) collagen-fiber
  2. B) protein-crystal
  3. C) mineral-crystal
  4. D) protein-protein
  5. E) hydroxyapatite-crystal

B) protein-crystal

26

26) The most abundant cell type in bone is

  1. A) osteoclasts.
  2. B) osteoblasts.
  3. C) osteolytes.
  4. D) osteoprogenitor cells.
  5. E) osteocytes.

E) osteocytes

27

27) The lacunae of osseous tissue contain

  1. A) blood cells.
  2. B) osteocytes.
  3. C) chondroblasts.
  4. D) bone marrow.
  5. E) capillaries.

B) osteocytes

28

28) How would removing hydroxyapatite from bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone?

  1. A) The bone would be less flexible.
  2. B) The bone would be stronger.
  3. C) The bone would be more brittle.
  4. D) The bone would be more flexible.
  5. E) The bone would be less compressible

D) The bone would be more flexible

29

29) The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are called

  1. A) central canals.
  2. B) lacunae.
  3. C) canaliculi.
  4. D) medullary cavities.
  5. E) foramina.

C) canaliculi

30

30) The central canal of an osteon contains

  1. A) bone marrow.
  2. B) osteocytes.
  3. C) concentric lamellae.
  4. D) blood vessels.
  5. E) lacunae.

D) blood vessels

31

31) The interconnecting tiny arches of bone tissue found in spongy bone are called

  1. A) osteons.
  2. B) trabeculae.
  3. C) concentric lamellae.
  4. D) interstitial lamellae.
  5. E) lacunae.

B) trabeculae

32

32) The type of bone that is adapted to withstand stresses that arrive from many directions is ________ bone.

  1. A) spongy
  2. B) osteon
  3. C) compact
  4. D) lamellar
  5. E) irregular

A) spongy

33

33) The structural units of mature compact bone are called

  1. A) trabeculae.
  2. B) osteocytes.
  3. C) osteons.
  4. D) canaliculi.
  5. E) lamellae

C) osteons.

34

34) Adipose tissue is stored within the

  1. A) medullary cavity.
  2. B) metaphysis.
  3. C) spongy bone.
  4. D) epiphysis.
  5. E) diaphysis

A) medullary cavity

35

35) Which of the following is a characteristic of bone?

  1. A) The bone matrix is very dense and contains deposits of calcium salts.
  2. B) The matrix of the bone contains osteoclasts and chondroblasts.
  3. C) Narrow channels pass through the matrix to allow for muscle attachment.
  4. D) The matrix of bone is mostly collagen with very little calcium.
  5. E) For strength, compact bone is organized into a meshwork of matrix called trabeculae

A) The bone matrix is very dense and contains deposits of calcium salts.

36

36) In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are

  1. A) radial.
  2. B) anterior.
  3. C) parallel.
  4. D) proximal.
  5. E) diagonal

C) parallel

37

37) The femur can withstand ________ times the body's weight without breaking.

  1. A) 3
  2. B) 5 to 10
  3. C) 8
  4. D) 10 to 15
  5. E) 30

D) 10 to 15

38

38) ________ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone.

  1. A) Blue
  2. B) Yellow
  3. C) White
  4. D) Gray
  5. E) Red

E) Red

39

39) The lining of the medullary cavity is called the

  1. A) endosteum.
  2. B) periosteum.
  3. C) epiosteum.
  4. D) mediosteum.
  5. E) paraosteum

A) endosteum

40

40) ________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles.

  1. A) Short
  2. B) Irregular
  3. C) Spongy
  4. D) Compact
  5. E) Long

C) Spongy

41

41) The layers of bone tissue immediately deep to the periosteum are

  1. A) circumferential lamellae.
  2. B) osteoid plates.
  3. C) trabeculae.
  4. D) concentric lamellae.
  5. E) epiphseal ridges

A) circumferential lamellae

42

42) Which statement is true regarding calcium in bone matrix?

  1. A) Calcium is found in crystals called hydroxyapatite.
  2. B) Calcium is secreted by osteoblasts into the matrix.
  3. C) Once deposited, calcium cannot be removed from bone.
  4. D) Calcium provides flexibility to the bone matrix.
  5. E) Calcium is the organic part of the matrix.

A) Calcium is found in crystals called hydroxyapatite

43

43) The trabeculae of spongy bone

  1. A) are organized parallel to the long axis of the bone.
  2. B) are organized along stress lines.
  3. C) are composed mostly of cartilage.
  4. D) will collapse under stress.
  5. E) are concentrated in the cortex of the diaphysis.

B) are organized along stress lines

44

49) The articular cartilage of a typical long bone is composed of what type of cartilage?

  1. A) elastic cartilage
  2. B) synovial cartilage
  3. C) hyaline cartilage
  4. D) fibrocartilage
  5. E) osseous cartilage

C) hyaline cartilage

45

50) The deposition of calcium salts in bone tissues is referred to as

  1. A) hardening.
  2. B) ossification.
  3. C) calcification.
  4. D) osteogenesis.
  5. E) remodeling.

C) calcification

46

51) Which of the following is formed by intramembranous ossification?

  1. A) roof of the skull
  2. B) carpal bones
  3. C) femur
  4. D) clavicle
  5. E) the roof of the skull and the clavicle

E) the roof of the skull and the clavicle

47

52) Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a(n)

  1. A) fibrous connective-tissue model.
  2. B) cartilage model.
  3. C) membranous model.
  4. D) calcified model.
  5. E) osteoid model.

B) cartilage model

48

53) The following are important steps in the process of endochondral ossification. What is the correct order for these events?

  1. Enlarged chondrocytes die.
  2. Osteoblasts replace calcified cartilage with spongy bone.
  3. Chondrocytes enlarge and the surrounding matrix begins to calcify.
  4. Blood vessels grow around the edges of the cartilage.
  5. Perichondrial cells become osteoblasts and produce a superficial layer of bone.
  1. A) 3, 1, 5, 4, 2
  2. B) 1, 3, 5, 4, 2
  3. C) 1, 5, 3, 4, 2
  4. D) 2, 3, 1, 5, 4
  5. E) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2

E) 3, 1, 4, 5, 2

49

54) Secondary ossification centers occur

  1. A) in the diaphysis.
  2. B) at the periosteum.
  3. C) in the epiphyses.
  4. D) in the metaphyses.
  5. E) in dermal bones

C) in the epiphyses

50

55) Intramembranous ossification begins with differentiation of ________ cells.

  1. A) osteoclast
  2. B) osteolytic
  3. C) mesenchymal
  4. D) osteoblast
  5. E) osteocyte

C) mesenchymal

51

56) Which of the following statements about Marfan's syndrome is false?

  1. A) It results in short, stubby fingers.
  2. B) It results from a mutation.
  3. C) It affects connective tissue structures.
  4. D) It affects epiphyseal cartilages.
  5. E) It may also cause cardiovascular problems

A) It results in short, stubby fingers

52

57) Bone growth in length occurs by mitosis of

  1. A) concentric lamellae.
  2. B) cartilage cells in the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis.
  3. C) growth of trabeculae.
  4. D) osteoblasts in the endosteum.
  5. E) cartilage cells in the diaphyseal side of the metaphysis

B) cartilage cells in the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis.

53

58) Intramembranous ossification

  1. A) produces flat bones, as in the bones of the roof of the skull.
  2. B) explains how a juvenile's bone can grow in length.
  3. C) occurs in the diaphysis of a long bone.
  4. D) occurs inside a bag of cartilage.
  5. E) occurs in all bones before birth

A) produces flat bones, as in the bones of the roof of the skull.

54

59) Primary ossification centers develop in long bones in the

  1. A) proximal epiphysis.
  2. B) periosteum.
  3. C) metaphysis.
  4. D) distal epiphysis.
  5. E) diaphysis.

E) diaphysis

55

60) Bone tissue formation begins when osteoblasts secrete

  1. A) protein fibers.
  2. B) mesenchyme.
  3. C) silica.
  4. D) hydroxyapatite.
  5. E) calcium.

A) protein fibers

56

61) Suppose that epiphyseal lines appear in a 10-year-old's long bones. Which of the following statements is, therefore, true?

  1. A) The epiphyseal plates have ossified and further growth in length is not possible.
  2. B) Administration of growth hormone will stimulate future bone growth in length.
  3. C) Osteoclasts will dissolve the metaphysis so length growth can continue until adulthood.
  4. D) More growth will occur during the teenage years as sex hormones stimulate rebuilding of growth plates.
  5. E) Intramembranous ossification will enable further growth in length.

A) The epiphyseal plates have ossified and further growth in length is not possible.

57

62) During appositional growth

  1. A) bones grow longer.
  2. B) bones grow wider.
  3. C) cartilage replaces bone.
  4. D) the epiphysis fuses with the diaphysis.
  5. E) compact bone replaces spongy bone

B) bones grow wider

58

63) When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,

  1. A) puberty begins.
  2. B) interstitial bone growth begins.
  3. C) appositional bone growth begins.
  4. D) long bones have reached their adult length.
  5. E) the bone becomes more brittle.

D) long bones have reached their adult length

59

64) When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones

  1. A) grow longer.
  2. B) grow wider.
  3. C) become shorter.
  4. D) become more porous and weaker.
  5. E) become thicker.

A) grow longer

60

65) Accelerated closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by

  1. A) high levels of vitamin D.
  2. B) too much calcium in the diet.
  3. C) elevated levels of estrogen.
  4. D) too little thyroxine.
  5. E) an excess of growth hormone

C) elevated levels of estrogen

61

66) When production of sex hormones increases at puberty, epiphyseal plates

  1. A) widen.
  2. B) become narrower.
  3. C) increase slowly.
  4. D) accelerate rapidly, but mostly in thickness.
  5. E) are hardly affected

B) become narrower

62

67) The following are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification:

  1. Clusters of osteoblasts form osteoid that becomes mineralized.
  2. Osteoblasts differentiate within mesenchymal connective tissue.
  3. Spicules of bone radiate out from the ossification centers.
  4. Mesenchymal cells aggregate.

What is the correct order for these events?

  1. A) 4, 1, 2, 3
  2. B) 2, 1, 3, 4
  3. C) 4, 2, 1, 3
  4. D) 2, 3, 1, 4
  5. E) 3, 4, 2, 1

C) 4, 2, 1, 3

63

73) In normal adult bones,

  1. A) there is no turnover of minerals.
  2. B) a portion of the protein and mineral content is replaced each year.
  3. C) osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity, once bone has been formed.
  4. D) osteoclasts continue to be active long after osteoblast activity ceases.
  5. E) exercise will have no effect on bone remodeling.

B) a portion of the protein and mineral content is replaced each year

64

74) A lack of exercise could

  1. A) cause bones to become thicker.
  2. B) cause bones to store more calcium.
  3. C) result in porous and weak bones.
  4. D) cause bones to become longer.
  5. E) cause bones to lose their medullary cavity

C) result in porous and weak bones

65

75) When stress is applied to a bone,

  1. A) the minerals in the bone produce a weak electrical field that attracts osteoblasts.
  2. B) osteoclast activity increases and osteoblast activity decreases.
  3. C) the bone becomes thin and brittle and ultimately fractures.
  4. D) the bone compensates by becoming thinner in the region of stress.
  5. E) blood supply through the nutrient artery diminishes and thus remodeling proceeds at a much slower rate.

A) the minerals in the bone produce a weak electrical field that attracts osteoblasts.

66

76) Excessive growth hormone prior to puberty could result in

  1. A) osteoporosis.
  2. B) osteopenia.
  3. C) rickets.
  4. D) gigantism.
  5. E) dwarfism.

D) gigantism

67

77) Factors that are necessary for proper bone formation include all of the following, except

  1. A) vitamin A.
  2. B) vitamin E.
  3. C) vitamin C.
  4. D) the hormone thyroxine.
  5. E) vitamin D.

B) vitamin E

68

78) Where in the body does the production of precursors for the synthesis of calcitriol occur?

  1. A) bone
  2. B) kidneys
  3. C) small intestine
  4. D) liver
  5. E) skin

E) skin

69

79) The most abundant mineral in the human body is

  1. A) sodium.
  2. B) potassium.
  3. C) phosphorus.
  4. D) calcium.
  5. E) hydrogen.

D) calcium

70

80) Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone

  1. A) calcitonin.
  2. B) thyroid hormone.
  3. C) parathyroid hormone.
  4. D) growth hormone.
  5. E) testosterone.

A) calcitonin

71

81) The hormone calcitonin functions to

  1. A) stimulate osteoclast activity.
  2. B) decrease the rate of calcium excretion.
  3. C) decrease the rate of calcium absorption.
  4. D) decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood.
  5. E) stimulate osteoblasts and inhibit osteoclasts.

D) decrease the level of calcium ion in the blood

72

82) Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the following ways except

  1. A) stimulating osteoclast activity.
  2. B) increasing the rate of calcium absorption.
  3. C) decreasing the rate of calcium excretion.
  4. D) raising the level of calcium ion in the blood.
  5. E) inhibiting calcitonin secretion

E) inhibiting calcitonin secretion

73

83) A child with rickets often has

  1. A) oversized facial bones.
  2. B) long fingers.
  3. C) frequent bruises.
  4. D) bowed legs.
  5. E) inadequate muscle development.

D) bowed legs

74

84) Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of

  1. A) potassium.
  2. B) iron.
  3. C) sulfate.
  4. D) calcium.
  5. E) sodium.

D) calcium

75

85) Hundreds of years ago, explorers often died of scurvy. How can this bone-related disease be prevented?

  1. A) Supplement the diet with more calcium from meat.
  2. B) Increase levels of testosterone to stimulate bone repair.
  3. C) Supplement the diet with fresh fruit rich in vitamin C.
  4. D) Drink more water to promote bone remodeling and repair.
  5. E) Amputate fractured limbs to prevent the spread of scurvy.

C) Supplement the diet with fresh fruit rich in vitamin C.

76

86) How is vitamin D (vitamin D3) related to calcium homeostasis in bone?

  1. A) Vitamin D provides a framework for calcium in the matrix.
  2. B) Vitamin D is regulated by osteoclast activity.
  3. C) Vitamin D is produced by osteoblasts during endochondral ossification.
  4. D) Vitamin D is involved in calcium absorption by the digestive tract.
  5. E) Vitamin D replaces calcium in the skeleton

D) Vitamin D is involved in calcium absorption by the digestive tract

77

87) The disease osteomalacia causes calcium loss from the skeleton, which would result in bones that are

  1. A) more resistant to compression.
  2. B) stronger and heavier.
  3. C) stronger and contain more spongy bone.
  4. D) weaker and more flexible.
  5. E) weaker and more brittle

D) weaker and more flexible

78

88) After a fracture of the diaphysis has healed, the thickened region that results is called the

  1. A) epiphyseal plate.
  2. B) external callus.
  3. C) dense tuberosity.
  4. D) condyle.
  5. E) fracture facet.

B) external callus

79

89) A fracture at the ankle involving both lower leg bones is often called a ________ fracture.

  1. A) compression
  2. B) Pott's
  3. C) displaced
  4. D) greenstick
  5. E) Colles

B) Pott's

80

90) While on a school skiing trip in Colorado, Heidi falls and breaks her tibia and fibula in a Pott's fracture. What would you expect as a prominent part of her clinical assessment several hours after the fall?

  1. A) hypertension
  2. B) tachycardia
  3. C) erythema
  4. D) hematoma
  5. E) cyanosis

D) hematoma

81

91) What is the correct sequence of steps in bone repair?

  1. Cartilage in the external callus is replaced by bone.
  2. A hematoma occurs.
  3. An internal callus forms at the site of injury.
  4. Osteoclasts and osteoblasts remodel the bone at the site of repair.
  5. A) 1, 2, 3, 4
  6. B) 2, 1, 3, 4
  7. C) 3, 1, 4, 2
  8. D) 4, 2, 3, 1
  9. E) 2, 3, 1, 4

E) 2, 3, 1, 4

82

92) Osteoclast-activating factor does all of the following except that it

  1. A) is released in large amounts early in life.
  2. B) increases the number of osteoclasts.
  3. C) increases the activity of osteoclasts.
  4. D) produces a severe osteoporosis.
  5. E) is released by some cancer tumors.

A) is released in large amounts early in life.

83

93) A condition in which bone becomes riddled with holes is called

  1. A) osteopenia.
  2. B) osteoporosis.
  3. C) osteomyelitis.
  4. D) osteitis.
  5. E) osteomalacia.

B) osteoporosis

84

94) The condition known as osteopenia

  1. A) affects mostly women.
  2. B) causes a gradual reduction in bone mass.
  3. C) is caused by too much vitamin D in the diet.
  4. D) is rarely seen as people age.
  5. E) only affects the femur.

B) causes a gradual reduction in bone mass.

85

95) If osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts, bones will become

  1. A) denser.
  2. B) thicker.
  3. C) osteopenic.
  4. D) stronger.
  5. E) calcified

C) osteopenic

86

96) Why does osteoporosis affect more women than men?

  1. A) Women typically do not get enough calcium in their diet.
  2. B) Men do not remodel the skeleton as fast as women.
  3. C) Pregnancy causes deossification of bones in women and will lead to osteoporosis.
  4. D) Men exercise more than women and therefore have less osteoporosis.
  5. E) Women have a decrease in sex hormones after menopause

E) Women have a decrease in sex hormones after menopause

87

97) Aging has what effect on the skeletal system?

  1. A) progressive loss of processes and tuberosities
  2. B) fusion of joints, especially in the vertebral column
  3. C) loss of calcium and collagen fibers from matrix
  4. D) increase in the number of cranial foramina
  5. E) increase in adipose tissue in epiphyses

C) loss of calcium and collagen fibers from matrix

88

98) If a tumor secretes high levels of osteoclast-activating factor, which of the following would you expect to occur as a result of this condition?

  1. A) increases in blood levels of calcium
  2. B) bone fragility
  3. C) decreased bone density
  4. D) increased osteoclast activity
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct.

89

99) Mary is 50 years old and has entered menopause. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone might she prescribe for Mary?

  1. A) thyroid hormone
  2. B) growth hormone
  3. C) estrogen
  4. D) parathyroid hormone
  5. E) calcitonin

C) estrogen

90

100) Mary is 50 years old and has entered menopause. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests nutritional therapy. What might she recommend for Mary?

  1. A) vitamin C
  2. B) vitamin D
  3. C) calcium supplements
  4. D) dairy products
  5. E) All of the answers are correct

E) All of the answers are correct

91

1) The shaft of long bones is called the

  1. A) epiphysis.
  2. B) metaphysis.
  3. C) diaphysis.
  4. D) paraphysis.
  5. E) endophysis

C) diaphysis

92

2) A ________ is a smooth, grooved bone process shaped like a pulley.

  1. A) tubercle
  2. B) trochanter
  3. C) trochlea
  4. D) tuberosity
  5. E) trabeculae

C) trochlea

93

3) A small rough bump on bone where a tendon attaches is called a

  1. A) tubercle.
  2. B) trochanter.
  3. C) trochlea.
  4. D) tuberosity.
  5. E) trabecula.

D) tuberosity

94

4) A chamber within a bone normally filled with air is a

  1. A) foramen.
  2. B) sinus.
  3. C) fossa.
  4. D) canal.
  5. E) meatus.

B) sinus

95

5) The expanded articular end of an epiphysis that is separated from the shaft by a narrower neck is called a

  1. A) head.
  2. B) crown.
  3. C) capitulum.
  4. D) corona.
  5. E) bulb.

A) head

96

6) A ________ is a rounded passageway for passage of blood vessels and/or nerves.

  1. A) sinus
  2. B) fossa
  3. C) meatus
  4. D) foramen
  5. E) cavernosa

D) foramen

97

7) The adult skeleton contains ________ major bones.

  1. A) 88
  2. B) 115
  3. C) 174
  4. D) 206
  5. E) 251

D) 206

98

8) In bone, the calcium phosphate forms crystals of

  1. A) osteoid matrix.
  2. B) calcium carbonate.
  3. C) hydroxyapatite.
  4. D) calcitriol.
  5. E) proteolytic enzymes

C) hydroxyapatite

99

9) Stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts are called ________ cells.

  1. A) osteopropagator
  2. B) osteoforming
  3. C) osteocreator
  4. D) osteotrophic
  5. E) psteoprogenitor

E) psteoprogenitor

100

10) Cells that free calcium from bone to maintain blood calcium levels are called

  1. A) osteolytics.
  2. B) osteoclasts.
  3. C) osteoblasts.
  4. D) osteogenics.
  5. E) osteocytes

B) osteoclasts

101

11) ________ prevents damaging bone-to-bone contact within movable joints.

  1. A) A synovial membrane
  2. B) Elastic cartilage
  3. C) A serous membrane
  4. D) Articular cartilage
  5. E) Serous fluid

D) Articular cartilage

102

12) Cells that are found in small depressions on the endosteal surfaces are the

  1. A) osteolytic cells.
  2. B) osteoclasts
  3. C) osteoblasts.
  4. D) osteocytes.
  5. E) osteogenic cells

B) osteoclasts

103

13) Cells that secrete protein fibers in bone are called

  1. A) osteolytic cells.
  2. B) osteoclasts.
  3. C) osteoblasts.
  4. D) osteocytes.
  5. E) osteogenic cells

C) osteoblasts

104

14) The organic component of the matrix in developing or repairing bone is called

  1. A) osteon.
  2. B) osteoid.
  3. C) hydroxyapatite.
  4. D) mesenchymal tissue.
  5. E) calcium phosphate

B) osteoid

105

15) Blood is distributed from the surface of a bone to deeper central canals through channels known as

  1. A) perforating canals.
  2. B) canaliculi.
  3. C) interstitial canals.
  4. D) concentric ducts.
  5. E) concentric canals

A) perforating canals

106

16) ________ fibers are stronger than steel when stretched.

  1. A) Calcium
  2. B) Mineral
  3. C) Elastic
  4. D) Carbon
  5. E) Collagen

E) Collagen

107

17) The superficial membrane of a bone is called the

  1. A) endosteum.
  2. B) ectosteum.
  3. C) cortical membrane.
  4. D) periosteum.
  5. E) osteoid collar

D) periosteum

108

18) During the process of ________, an existing tissue is replaced by bone.

  1. A) phosphorylation
  2. B) resorption
  3. C) ossification
  4. D) osteopropagation
  5. E) remodeling

C) ossification

109

19) A calcified skeletal muscle is an example of

  1. A) bone spurs.
  2. B) osteoporosis.
  3. C) heterotopic bone formation.
  4. D) osteodysplasia.
  5. E) osteomalacia.

C) heterotopic bone formation

110

20) What type of tissue is replaced in the embryo during endochondral ossification?

  1. A) connective tissue membranes
  2. B) fibrocartilage
  3. C) mesenchymal tissue
  4. D) hyaline cartilage
  5. E) Wharton's jelly

D) hyaline cartilage

111

21) The ongoing process of tearing down and rebuilding bone matrix is called

  1. A) restoration.
  2. B) osteolysis.
  3. C) resorption.
  4. D) ossification.
  5. E) remodeling.

E) remodeling

112

22) ________ hormones stimulate osteoblasts to produce bone matrix.

  1. A) Sex
  2. B) Growth
  3. C) Thyroid
  4. D) Parathyroid
  5. E) Pancreatic

A) Sex

113

23) Damage to a bone because of extreme load, sudden impact, or stresses applied from an unusual direction is called a

  1. A) dislocation.
  2. B) contortion.
  3. C) rupture.
  4. D) fragmentation.
  5. E) fracture

E) fracture

114

33) The natural age-related loss of bone mass is called

  1. A) osteogenesis imperfecta.
  2. B) osteoporosis.
  3. C) osteomalacia.
  4. D) osteodysplasia.
  5. E) osteopenia.

E) osteopenia


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