1) Which of following is a function of the skeletal system?
A) body support
B) calcium homeostasis
C) protection of internal organs
D) blood cell production
E) All of the answers are correct.
2) Which of the following are not components of the skeletal system?
3) Which of the following bones is classified as "irregular" in shape?
4) The proximal and distal ends of a long bone are called the
5) The carpal bones are examples of ________ bones.
7) The patella is an example of a(n) ________ bone.
8) Small bones that fill gaps between bones of the skull are called ________ bones.
9) ________ bones develop inside tendons, commonly near the knees, hands, and feet.
10) The humerus is an example of a(n) ________ bone.
11) A large proximal projection on a bone is called the
12) A hole through a bone is called a
13) The smooth, rounded articular process of a bone is termed a
14) A shallow depression on a bone is termed a
15) The region of a long bone between the end and the shaft is known as the
16) Which of the following labels best matches osteocyte?
18) Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called
19) ________ are squamous stem cells that develop into osteoblasts.
20) Through the action of osteoclasts,
21) The space occupied by an osteocyte is called
22) Which of the following chemicals is not present in bone?
23) ________ account(s) for almost two-thirds of the weight of bone.
24) ________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum.
25) The ________ interactions allow bone to be strong, somewhat flexible, and highly resistant to shattering.
26) The most abundant cell type in bone is
27) The lacunae of osseous tissue contain
28) How would removing hydroxyapatite from bone matrix affect the physical properties of a bone?
29) The narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes are called
30) The central canal of an osteon contains
31) The interconnecting tiny arches of bone tissue found in spongy bone are called
32) The type of bone that is adapted to withstand stresses that arrive from many directions is ________ bone.
33) The structural units of mature compact bone are called
34) Adipose tissue is stored within the
35) Which of the following is a characteristic of bone?
36) In relationship to the diaphysis of a long bone, the osteons are
37) The femur can withstand ________ times the body's weight without breaking.
38) ________ marrow is found between the trabeculae of spongy bone.
39) The lining of the medullary cavity is called the
40) ________ bone reduces the weight of the skeleton and reduces the load on muscles.
41) The layers of bone tissue immediately deep to the periosteum are
42) Which statement is true regarding calcium in bone matrix?
43) The trabeculae of spongy bone
49) The articular cartilage of a typical long bone is composed of what type of cartilage?
50) The deposition of calcium salts in bone tissues is referred to as
51) Which of the following is formed by intramembranous ossification?
52) Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a(n)
53) The following are important steps in the process of endochondral ossification. What is the correct order for these events?
54) Secondary ossification centers occur
55) Intramembranous ossification begins with differentiation of ________ cells.
56) Which of the following statements about Marfan's syndrome is false?
57) Bone growth in length occurs by mitosis of
58) Intramembranous ossification
59) Primary ossification centers develop in long bones in the
60) Bone tissue formation begins when osteoblasts secrete
61) Suppose that epiphyseal lines appear in a 10-year-old's long bones. Which of the following statements is, therefore, true?
62) During appositional growth
63) When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,
64) When cartilage is produced at the epiphyseal side of the metaphysis at the same rate as bone is deposited on the opposite side, bones
65) Accelerated closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by
66) When production of sex hormones increases at puberty, epiphyseal plates
67) The following are major steps in the process of intramembranous ossification:
What is the correct order for these events?
73) In normal adult bones,
74) A lack of exercise could
75) When stress is applied to a bone,
76) Excessive growth hormone prior to puberty could result in
77) Factors that are necessary for proper bone formation include all of the following, except
78) Where in the body does the production of precursors for the synthesis of calcitriol occur?
79) The most abundant mineral in the human body is
80) Elevated levels of calcium ion in the blood stimulate the secretion of the hormone
81) The hormone calcitonin functions to
82) Parathyroid hormone functions in all of the following ways except
83) A child with rickets often has
84) Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of
85) Hundreds of years ago, explorers often died of scurvy. How can this bone-related disease be prevented?
86) How is vitamin D (vitamin D3) related to calcium homeostasis in bone?
87) The disease osteomalacia causes calcium loss from the skeleton, which would result in bones that are
88) After a fracture of the diaphysis has healed, the thickened region that results is called the
89) A fracture at the ankle involving both lower leg bones is often called a ________ fracture.
90) While on a school skiing trip in Colorado, Heidi falls and breaks her tibia and fibula in a Pott's fracture. What would you expect as a prominent part of her clinical assessment several hours after the fall?
91) What is the correct sequence of steps in bone repair?
92) Osteoclast-activating factor does all of the following except that it
93) A condition in which bone becomes riddled with holes is called
94) The condition known as osteopenia
95) If osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts, bones will become
96) Why does osteoporosis affect more women than men?
97) Aging has what effect on the skeletal system?
98) If a tumor secretes high levels of osteoclast-activating factor, which of the following would you expect to occur as a result of this condition?
99) Mary is 50 years old and has entered menopause. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone might she prescribe for Mary?
100) Mary is 50 years old and has entered menopause. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests nutritional therapy. What might she recommend for Mary?
1) The shaft of long bones is called the
2) A ________ is a smooth, grooved bone process shaped like a pulley.
3) A small rough bump on bone where a tendon attaches is called a
4) A chamber within a bone normally filled with air is a
5) The expanded articular end of an epiphysis that is separated from the shaft by a narrower neck is called a
6) A ________ is a rounded passageway for passage of blood vessels and/or nerves.
8) In bone, the calcium phosphate forms crystals of
9) Stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts are called ________ cells.
10) Cells that free calcium from bone to maintain blood calcium levels are called
11) ________ prevents damaging bone-to-bone contact within movable joints.
12) Cells that are found in small depressions on the endosteal surfaces are the
13) Cells that secrete protein fibers in bone are called
14) The organic component of the matrix in developing or repairing bone is called
15) Blood is distributed from the surface of a bone to deeper central canals through channels known as
16) ________ fibers are stronger than steel when stretched.
17) The superficial membrane of a bone is called the
18) During the process of ________, an existing tissue is replaced by bone.
19) A calcified skeletal muscle is an example of
20) What type of tissue is replaced in the embryo during endochondral ossification?
21) The ongoing process of tearing down and rebuilding bone matrix is called
22) ________ hormones stimulate osteoblasts to produce bone matrix.
23) Damage to a bone because of extreme load, sudden impact, or stresses applied from an unusual direction is called a