MB: Exam 5

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1

The majority of cases of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome occur in

Menstruating women

2

A small puncture wound on a woman's arm has become swollen, hot to the touch, and intensely painful. there is tissue necrosis but it is not "gassy," and under the microscope Gram-positive cocci in chains are present. Which of the following microbes is likely to be responsible?

Streptococcus pyogenes

3

Trichomonas vaginalis is usually transmitted during sexual intercourse because it

cannot live long outside the body

4

Which of the following is characteristic of Yersinia pestis infection

Buboes

5

Diagnosis of hepatitis B infection is made by the observation of which of the following in the patient's body fluids?

Dane particles

6

A child is brought to the hospital with a high fever, nausea, and vomiting, and complaining of headache. The cerebrospinal fluid collected by spinal tap is cloudy and contains spherical cells which stain Gram-positive. These signs and symptoms are consistent with

Bacterial meningitis probably due to Streptococcus

7

Bordetella pertussis produces

dermonecrotic and adenylate cyclase toxins

8

"ringworm" is caused by

dermatophytes growing in upper dead tissue layers of the skin

9

which of the following methods of preserving food sterilizes it?

Gamma radiation

10

The highly destructive form of Hansen's disease is the result of

poor immune response to Mycobacterium leprae

11

A child has a rash on the face, arms, upper legs and torso that is splotchy, and intensifies after being in the sun. The child does not complain of fever or itchiness. The signs and symptoms are consistent with

Fifth disease

12

Which of the following diseases is a major problem for AIDS patients?

Toxoplasmosis

13

Necrotizing fasciitis is caused by

both Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus

14

When bacteria invade the kidney, the result can be

Pyelonephritis

15

The normal habitat of ______ is rodent, but humans bitten by fleas carrying the pathogen have fever, severely inflamed lymph nodes, and headaches. Later, areas of black, necrotic tissue may develop.

Yersinia pestis

16

A young man who works on a ranch and lives in the log bunkhouse experiences sudden fever with muscle aches. A few days later he begins to cough and have difficulty breathing, and goes to an urgent care clinic. A blood sample reveals a high leukocyte count and low platelets. A Gram-stain of sputum sample shows only a few small bacteria present. Which of the following is the most likely infecting agent?

Hantavirus

17

Some strains of the virus responsible for genital warts can cause the development of

cervical cancer

18

A baby arrives at an emergency room suffering from violent muscles spasms and difficulty breathing. The baby's body is so rigid a proper exam is difficult, but the staff note the baby is only a few weeks old and the umbilicus has not healed properly. The signs are consistent with which of the following diseases?

tetanus

19

What member of the human intestinal microbiota occasionally causes life-threatening disease?

Clostridium difficile

20

A sample from an abscess is stained and examined under the microscope. A gram stain appears uniformly pink, but a GMS stain reveals brownish filaments in the sample. These findings suggest

pheohyphomycosis

21

Ultraviolet illumination is the quickest way to diagnose infection of which of the following?

Malassezia furfur

22

A nursing student develops a positive reaction to the tuberculin skin test. A history reveals possible exposure to patients with tuberculosis. A sputum sample is acid-fast negative. When asked for vaccination records, the student reports that childhood vaccination records were lost when the family emigrated from a southeast Asian country. What is the best explanation for the test results?

The student has been exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis or was vaccinated with BCG vaccine

23

Which of the following is/are antiphagocytic?

protein A, M protein, and leukocidin

24

Accessory organ infections are caused by

mumps virus

25

A young woman being treated for serious burns develops severe diarrhea accompanied by intense abdominal pain. She passes several watery, foul-smelling, bloody stools a day. A colonoscopy reveals patches of yellowish lesions in the large intestine. The probably causative agent is

Clostridium difficile

26

Which of the following sets of characteristics describes the highest level of threat potential from biological weapons?

a human pathogen easily produced as an aerosol and transmissible by respiratory aerosols

27

The major sign of Haemophilus ducreyi infection is similar to the initial sign of infection by

treponema pallidum

28

which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the common cold?

Cold viruses are frequently spread by contaminated fomites

29

Limiting exposure to rodents and their waste materials is an important means of preventing

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

30
card image

The presence of the specimen shown in the figure in a vaginal discharge is evidence of infection with

Candida albicans

31

A rash characterized by macules which swell, fill with fluid and then pus, the rupture and becomes crusty lesions, is characteristic of

poxvirus infection

32

The intracellular parasite usually acquired in contaminated drinking water that causes a persistent watery diarrhea is

Cryptosporidium parvum

33

Even though mycoplasmas [ass through filters that normally trap bacteria, they are known to be bacteria, not viruses, because they

contain both DNA and RNA and divide by binary fission

34

which of the following may result from eating shellfish?

Paralysis

35

the rash described as "teardrops on rose petals" is characteristic of

Chickenpox

36

infection of the lymphatic vessels is known as

lymphangitis

37

botulism toxin disrupts motor control by

blocking the release of acetylcholine by motor neurons

38

The typical signs and symptoms of flu are largely a result of

Cytokines released as part of the immune response

39

Schizogony is an important aspect of which of the following pathogens?

Plasmodium species

40

which of the following contributes to the invasiveness of Treponema pallidum?

hyaluronidase

41

which of the following is a common cause of otitis media?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

42

During the spring calving season, a ranch hand begins to run a fever and feeling nauseous and achy. After he develops a headache and vomiting, he goes to a clinic. A microscopic exam of a urine sample reveals long thin microbes which move very rapidly in a corkscrewing pattern. The man may have contracted

Leptospirosis

43

Variant Creutzfedt-Jakob disease can be prevented by avoiding

consumption of contaminated meat

44

blood is found in the _____ of the heart just before it is pumped into the lungs

right ventricle

45

a person is brought to the emergency room with constant high fever, extensive edema, low blood pressure, and petechiae. from which of the following may the person be suffering?

septicemia

46

the disease known as cryptococcal meningitis

results from exposure to bird droppings and begins as a lung infection

47

which of the following structures allows the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the fetal blood and the mother's blood?

the placenta

48

Care in the handling and disposal of diapers in day care centers may prevent the spread of which of the following?

Giardia intestinalis

49

what Is the primary determinant of virulence in streptococcus pneumoniae?

the presence of a polysaccharide capsule

50

which of the following infectious diseases is currently of greatest concern as a biological weapon?

smallpox

51

diagnosis of syphilis is usally made by

the MHA-TP test

52

which of the following is TRUE of foodborne botulism?

it is an intoxication disorder

53

tapeworms are usually transmitted to humans through ingestion of

cysticerci

54

a pneumonia caused by Gram-positive diplococci is known as

pneumococcal pneumonia

55

which of the following can mimic gonorrhea infections?

chlamydia

56

which of the following statements concerning rabies is FALSE?

All mammals can serve as a reservoir for the diesease

57

a man is suffering severe foot pain in the area of what looks like a large wart. He reports he has had the wart for some time, and the pain and swelling have developed slowly. A sample from the lesion shows that the pus contains large cells that stain a golden brown color. The man is likely suffering from

chromoblasomycosis

58

which of the following statements is TRUE regarding tuberculosis?

it remains viable in dried aerosol droplets for up to eight months

59

which of the following conditions usually results in severe acute liver damage?

co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis delta viruses

60

syphilis can be transmitted

both by sexual contact and from mother to fetus

61

smallpox was the first human disease to be

globally eradicated

62

how does tetanospasmin affect motor control

it blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS

63

a young woman develops a fever after a recent trip to a Caribbean island. she also experiences severe headache and pain "in the bones." after a few days, she also develops a rash. which of the following did she most likely contract?

dengue virus

64

the type of bacterial meningitis that becomes epidemic among young adults is caused by

Neisseria meningitidis

65

the disorder _____ is a complication of systemic infections with Streptococcus in which antigen-antibody complexes form in the blood and get trapped in the kidneys

glomerulonephritis

66
card image

The appearance of this rash is characteristic of infections with which of the following?

Borrelia burgdorferi

67

inhalation anthrax is frequently fatal even with antibiotic therapy because

the anthrax toxin triggers severe edema of the lungs

68

which of the following vessels carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body?

the aorta

69

an indication of infection with Human herpesvirus 4 is

high fever and sore throat

70

the primary treatment for viral gastroenteritis is

rehydration therapy

71

of the following, who is most likely to develop a chronic infection with hepatitis B virus?

newborns

72

Neisseria gonorrhoeae of the reproductive tract in women

is usually initially asymptomatic

73

the eukaryote _____ is a common food contaminant that can lead to foodborne illness.

Toxoplasma gondii

74

the condition known as "pinkeye" may be the result of infection with

Haemophilus influenzae

75

Nasal or ocular contact with water containing _____ may result in primary amebic meningoencephalitis

both Acanthomoeba and Naegleria

76

soy sauce is made using

Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus

77

Bordetella pertussis causes whopping cough by

interfering with the activity of ciliated epithelial cells in the trachea

78

a pigment produced by an opportunistic pathogen that contributes to tissue damage is

pyocyanin

79

some microbes gain access to the normally axenic central nervous system by

Either damaging the blood-brain barrier or by axonal transport from infected peripheral neurons

80

which of the following statements is TRUE regarding genital herpes?

Acyclovir is effective in reducing the occurrence of lesions, but is not a cure

81

a young man who is an avid outdoorsman goes to see his doctor complaining of fever with chills, headache, nausea, and diarrhea. blood tests show that he has low levels of leukocytes and platelets. he may have contracted

ehrlichiosis

82

croup is often a result of infection with which of the following?

respiratory syncytial virus

83

which of the following diseases is currently vaccine-preventable in humans?

yellow fever

84

which of the following causes of meningitis can be spread by the fecal-oral route?

coxsackie A virus

85

the presence of Gram-negative diplococci in pus from an inflamed penis is diagnostic for infection by

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

86

which of the following statements concerning the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is correct?

it is a measurement of the amount of oxygen that aerobic bacteria require to fully metabolize organic wastes in water

87

one summer, bird watchers and zookeepers in a major city notice that more birds than usual are dying. at the same time reports of human encephalitis cases increase sharply. The cerebrospinal fluid of human patients is clear. similar enveloped RNA virus particles are detected in samples from both birds and humans. which of the following might be responsible for this outbreak?

an arbovirus

88

which of the following is becoming rarer as a result of childhood vaccinations?

subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

89

slow deterioration of muscle function occurring over many years occurs in

postpolio syndrome

90

which of the following is a notable symptom of giardiasis?

foul-smelling "rotten egg" stools

91
card image

A person reports to a clinic complaining of fever and abdominal pain. the abdominal pain. the abdomen is swollen, and blood tests indicate kidney damage. a stool sample is examined under a microscope and found to contain the egg shown in the figure. the indications are consistent with infections with

Schistosoma mansoni

92

a young adult shows up at a free clinic complaining of painful swellings in the groin. The young woman has a history of occasional casual sex, but denies noticing any genital sores or experiencing painful urination. the young woman is most likely infected with

Chlamydia trachomatis

93

Which of the following statements is TRUE concerning diphtheria?

the signs and symptoms of the disease are directly caused by a bacterial toxin

94

why are nearly all AIDS patients at risk of developing Pneumocystis pneumonia?

Pneumocystis jiroveci is a common member of the respiratory microbiota in humans and opportunistic pathogen

95

some strains of Papillomavirus are oncogenic due to their ability to

integrate into the host cell DNA

96

infection with some Salmonella enterica serotypes can progress to typhoid fever when the bacteria

enter the blood and are engulfed by phagocytes

97

Condylomata acuminate are associated with infections of which of the following?

papillomaviruses

98

what was the first substance produced by microorganisms to be used pharmaceuticually?

penicillin

99

chlorinated water contains

a decreased microbial load

100

which of the following microorganisms is the most commonly used indicator organism for water quality testing?

Escherichia coli

101

Anthrax derives its name from which of the following aspects of the disease?

the appearance of eschars on the skin

102

A diagnosis of genital herpes is confirmed by the

detection of herpesvirus DNA by PCR

103

viral meningitis is also called "aseptic meningitis"

to indicate no bacteria are involved

104

which of the following forms of leishmaniasis is typically fatal?

visceral

105

Plasmodium falciparum produces proteins that cause _____ in addition to the anemia due to erythrocyte destruction.

capillary damage

106

staphylococcal food poisoning is called an intoxication disorder because

toxins produced by the bacteria growing in the food are ingested along with the food.

107

Peritonitis may develop in severe cases of

typhoid

108

lyme disease becomes chronic because

Borrelia changes its surface antigens frequently

109

Which of the following is known to be teratogenic?

cytomegalovirus

110

the noninfective, obligately intracellular forms of chlamydia are called

initial bodies

111

During treatment of water to make it potable, about 90% of the microbes are removed

in the filtration step

112

a herpetic lesion on the finger or hand is known as a

whitlow

113

the Gram-positive diplococcus _____ is commonly found in the pharynx but may invade the central nervous system inside cells where it survives after endocytosis.

Streptococcus pneumoniae

114

Pathogenic streptococci of the upper respiratory tract (such as Streptococcus pyogenes) are distinguished from non-pathogenic streptococci by

beta hemolytic activity

115

shingles, or herpes zoster, is a reactivation of the virus that causes

chickenpox

116

The pleomorphic bacterium _____ is an obligate parasite ue to its requirement for NAD+ and heme.

Haemophilus influenzae

117

Infection known as _____ frequently begins as an injury that rapidly becomes red, swollen, hot to the touch, and intensely painful.

necrotizing fasciitis

118

The virulence factor of Vibrio cholera, which is primarily responsible for the signs and symptoms of cholera, is

its ability to produce a potent exotoxin

119

A woman goes to her gynecologist and reports that she is experiencing pain during intercourse and frequently has an unusual vaginal discharge that is increased in quantity and sort of foamy. A vaginal smear shows normal appearing epithelial cells along with small leaf-shaped cells with prominent oval nuclei. what disease is the woman experiencing?

trichomoniasis

120

common skin warts are the result of infection with

papillomaviruses

121

the resistance of pseudomonas to a wide variety of antimicrobial drugs is due, in part, to its

ability to pump drugs out of the cell

122

Where in a tapeworm would you expect to find fertilized eggs?

at the end of the strobila

123

why does taking antibacterial medications put women at risk for candidiasis?

Antibacterials deplete the normal bacterial microbiota, resulting in a change of pH

124

How does Borrelia burgdorferi evade the body's defenses?

it is capable of antigenic variation and has manganese-containing enzymes

125

"Swimmer's itch" is an initial symptom of which of the following?

schistosomiasis

126

which of the following statements is TRUE regarding infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae?

The causative agent attaches to ciliated cells in the respiratory tract

127

A woman who breeds parrots develops a fever and cough, and begins to have difficulty breathing. Small Gram-negative bacteria are detected inside cells

ornithosis

128

A researcher studying the impact of agricultural pesticides on native plants discovers a bacterium capable of degrading small amounts of a specific pesticide. The researcher then modifies the bacterial species in the lab to increase the rate of pesticide degradation. This research represents

both applied microbiology and environmental microbiology

129

another name for brucellosis is _____ fever

undulant

130

the typical sign of primary syphilis is

a chancre at the site of infection

131

which of the following is an opportunistic infection?

legionellosis

132

Diphtheria toxin kills cells by interfering with which of the following processes?

protein synthesis

133

most peptic ulcers are the result of colonization of the stomach by

Helicobacter pylori

134

Bacterial agents of meningitis which can survive phagocytosis include

both Neisseria meningitides and Streptococcus pneumoniae

135

Which of the following statements is TURE regarding gonorrhea?

the causative agent can grow on most mucous membranes of the body

136

the skin is an effective barrier against invading microbes because

the outer layers are dead and covered in salt

137

Which of the following statements is true with regard to oral herpes?

lesions can be triggered by emotional stress of physiologic changes

138

a distinctive feature of secondary syphilis is

a widespread rash that can include the palms and soles

139

Listeria monocytogenes pathogenesis is directly related to its ability to

live and reproduce inside its host's cells

140

A man reports to his doctor that he is tired all the time and his urine has become darker in color. he has not experienced fever or vomiting recently. the physician notes that his eyes are yellowish and his abdomen is swollen. the man has a history of kidney transplant and recently returned from an overseas trip. the man may be infected with

hepatitis E virus

141

which of the following statements concerning Toxoplasma infection is CORRECT?

it is typically contracted by eating undercooked meat

142

The major symptoms of cholera are attributable to which of the following?

activation of adenylate cyclase

143

Ornithosis, a disease of birds that can be transmitted to humans, is caused by

Chlamydophila psittaci

144

Chronic infection with _____ may progress to hepatic cancer.

both HBV and HCV

145

which of the following statements is CORRECT regarding the incidence of STDs?

Viral STDs in the U.S. are considered epidemic

146

the majority of cases of pneumonia are caused by

Streptococcus pneumoniae

147

Rickettsias are obligate intracellular parasites because they

lack the glycolytic pathway

148

Potable water is water that

contains low amounts of microorganisms and is considered safe to drink

149

Which of the following factors is primarily responsible for the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to survive long periods of time in dried droplets of respiratory aerosols?

the presence of mycolic acid in the cell wall

150

Disseminated intravascular coagulation is a complication resulting from the

release of lipid A from dying Gram-negative bacteria

151
card image

The illustration is of a Gram-negative bacterium frequently responsible for meningitis. what virulence factor(s) of the bacterium is/are illustrated?

a capsule, fimbriae, and a membrane containing LOS

152

Exposure to large accumulations of bird dropping may result in which of the following mycoses?

histoplasmosis

153

Eating sashimi (uncooked fish) is a risk factor for infection with

Anisakis simplex

154

Rodents are the natural hosts for the virus that causes

Venezuelan equine encephalitis

155

which of the following is an application of proteases?

meat tenderizer

156

Fever, difficulty breathing, extreme fatigue, and elevated heart rate are characteristics of

endocarditis

157

a recently retired man appears at his doctor's office complaining of difficulty breathing, body aches and fatigue. he is also running a high fever and has a dry cough. he reports having just returned from a trip to the Middle East where he visited several historical sites. test results are negative for a rapid test for influenza A. no bacteria are visible in a microscopic exam of his sputum. which of the following is a likely explanation?

coronavirus respiratory syndrome

158
card image

Observation of the specimens in the figure is diagnostic for

Enterobius vermicularis

159

Streptokinase is useful for which of the following?

dissolving blood clots

160

spreading black necrosis, swelling, pain and froth or bubbles are characteristic of

gas gangrene

161

which of the following statements is CORRECT concerning tularemia?

the causative agents is an intracellular bacterial parasite

162

Which of the following is a characteristic of bacterial vaginosis frequently used to confirm diagnosis?

the presence of clue cells

163

Dengue hemorrhagic fever is the result of

a hyperimmune response to reinfection with dengue virus

164

a large number of people experience a high fever with a rash during the summer months in a small country. epidemiologists suspect an emerging disease. both Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes are endemic to the country. Researchers are able to detect +ssRNA in the blood of fever victims and in some mosquitoes. what type of pathogen might be responsible for the epidemic?

a flavivirus

165

African sleeping sickness is fatal if not treated because the parasite

evades destruction by the immune system by changing surface antigens

166

which of the following can cause birth defects

rubella

167

a common source of antibiotics is

streptomyces

168

primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus is known as

infectious monocucleosis

169

a specific example of bioremediation is

the degradation of crude oil spilled into the Gulf of Mexico

170

Dust storms in arid regions of the Southwestern U.S. may lead to outbreaks of

valley fever

171

Food contaminated with _____ may contain a potent neurotoxin

Listeria monocytogenes

172

Shigellosis can be differentiated from salmonellosis by the fact that Shigella

multiplies in the host cell's cytosol

173

Which of the following causes of viral meningitis is transmitted by the fecal-oral route?

echovirus

174

A series of nodular lesions on an arm that fill with pus and ulcerate through the skin is characteristic of infection with the fungus

Sporothrix schenckii

175

A new vaccine for the upcoming flue season is developed fro an influenza isolate designated A/Shanghai/2/2013(H7N9). This nomenclature means the isolate is

a type A with antigens HA7 and NA9 isolated in Shanghai in February 2013

176

Which of the following is a common childhood parasite in the United States?

Enterobius vermicularis

177

Epstein-Barr virus infections are typically asymptomatic in _____ because of incomplete development of adaptive immunity.

young children

178

A new industrial park in your community dumps its wastewater into a large aerated pond, to which nutrients are added. The water from this pond makes its way into a nearby marsh, which eventually drains into a slow-moving stream. this is an example of

natural bioremediation

179

A reddening of the skin of the face that intensifies when exposed to the sun is characteristic of

erythema infectiosum

180

Human infestation with Taenia saginata results from ingesting _____ in undercooked intermediate host.

cysticerci

181

A child complains of intensely itchy "pimples" on the hands and wrists. The lesions are small inflamed streaks, but do not appear to contain pus. The child's condition may be the result of infection with

Sarcoptes scabiei

182

the chambers and valves of the heart are lined by the

endocardium

183

Newborns exposed to the Gram-positive bacterium _____ during vaginal birth are at risk of developing neonatal meningitis

Streptococcus agalactiae

184
card image

Observation of the microbes shown in the figure from a vaginal discharge specimen is diagnostic for

trichomoniasis

185

the most common cause of traveler's diarrhea is

Escherichia coli

186

which of the following is classified as a spongiform encephalopathy?

variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

187

An intracellular parasite primarily transmitted as an STD is the agent of _____, which may cause enough damage to result in blindness

trachoma

188

Blastomycosis results from

inhalation of fungal spores

189

The _____ is a layer of tough fibers and fat cells that anchors the skin to the deeper tissues.

hypodermis

190

Which of the following bacteria is a common soil bacterium that may cause disease in humans?

Bacillus anthracis

191

A young man is experiencing fever and severe headaches, and is having difficulty staying awake. he reports having spent time in Africa on a missionary trip several months ago. Recently he spent time in a park where he went swimming in the lake and was bitten by a bat he attempted to catch. His cerebrospinal fluid is nearly clear, and contains long, slender, mobile cells. this description indicates infection with

Trypanosoma brucei

192

Under some circumstances, _____ is beneficial, but inder other conditions the bacteria become overabundant leading to inflammation of hair follicles.

Propionibacterium acnes

193

Cycles of fever, chills, anemia and headache along with passage of dark colored urine are the symptoms of infections with

P. falciparum

194

A large number of people in a community experience diarrhea with fever. Public health authorities investigate and find that the people are passing dark urine, and some have yellowish skin. Furthermore, all of the affected individuals recently ate at a new restaurant in town known for its wide variety of fresh imported vegetables. which of the following is the most likely causative agent?

hepatitis A virus

195

Chancroid is caused by

Haemophilus ducreyi

196

Legionella pneumophila is an opportunistic pathogen that

survives in the environment as an intracellular parasite of a protozoan

197

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is primarily associated with which of the following foods?

ground beef

198

tetanus vaccine contains

inactivated tetanospasmin

199

which of the following statements is TRUE with regard to Entamoeba histolytica?

it may invade the peritoneal cavity, causing serious disease

200

Which of the following transmits leptospirosis?

infected animal urine


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