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Exam 3-N

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1

What best distingishes living things from nonliving matter?

The ability of organisms to produce more of their own kind

2

Cell division

Reproduction of cells

3

What does cell division enable multicellular eukaryotes to do?

Develop from a single cell and once fully grown, to renew, repair, or replace its cells as needed

4

Cell cycle

The life of a cell from formation to its own division

5

Most cell divions result in

The distribution of identical genetic material-DNA-to two daughter cells

6

DNA is passed from one generation of cells to the next with?

Remarkable fidelity

7

Genome

All of the DNA in a cell

8

What can a genome consist of?

A single DNA molecule which is common in prokaryotic cells, or a number of DNA molecules which is common in eukaryotic cells

9

Chromosomes

DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into this

10

Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of what?

Chromatin

11

Chromatin

A complex of DNA and protein

12

Somatic cells

Nonreproductive cells that have two sets of chromosomes

13

Gametes

Sex cells that have one set of chromosomes

14

What happens in preparation for cell division?

DNA is replicated and the chromosomes condense

15

Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids... what are those?

Joined identical copies of the orignal chromosome

16

Centromere

Where the two chromatids are most closely attached

17

What happens to the two sister chromatids during cell division?

The two sister chromatids of each duplicated chromosome separate and move into two nuclei and once they are seperate, the chromatids are called chromosomes

18

What does eukaryotic cell division consist of?

Mitosis and cytokinesis

19

Mitosis

The division of the genetic material in the nucleus

20

Cytokinesis

The division of the cytoplasm

21

what are gametes produced by?

Meiosis

22

What does meiosis yield?

Nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes, half as many as thhe parent

23

What two pahses alternate?

The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle

24

What two phases does the cell cycle consist of?

The Mitotic phase including mitosis and cytokinesis and the

Interphase which includes cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division

25

Interphase

About 90% of the cell cycle can be divided into subphases

26

What are the three phases of interphase?

G1 phase, G2 phase, S phase

27

Although the cells grow during all three phases, what phase are chromosomes duplicated strictly in?

The S phase

28

What five phases is mitosis divided into?

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

29

Mitotic spindle

Structure made of microtubules and associated proteins which controls movement during mitosis

30

In animal cells, where does the assembly of spindle microtubules begin?

In the centrosome which is the microtubule organizing center

31

Prophase

A bunch of sister chromatids just hanging out

32

Aster

radial array of short microtubules that extends from each centrosome

33

Prometaphase

Some spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of chromsomes and begin to move the chromosomes

34

Kinetochores

Protein complexes that assemble on sections of DNA at a centromere

35

Metaphase

The centromeres of all the chromosomes are at the metaphase plate which is an imaginary structure at the midway point between the spindle's two poles

36

Anaphase

Sister chromatids seperate and move along the kinetochore microtubules towards opposite ends of the cell

37

What are chromosmes reeled in by in anaphase?

Motor proteins at spindle poles

38

How does the cell elongate during mitosis?

Nonkinetochore micrtubules from opposite poles overlap and push against each other

39

What happens at the end of anaphase?

Dulpicate groupds of chromosomes have arrived at opposite ends of the elongated parent cell and cytokinesis begins during anaphase or telophase and the spindle eventually dissasembles

40

How does cytokinesis form in animal cells

By cleavage forming a cleavage furrow

41

What forms in plants during cytokinesis?

cell plate

42

What is the eukaryotic cell cycle regulated by?

A molecular control system that varies with each type of cell

43

Sequential events of the cell cycle are directed by what?

A distinct cell cycle control system which is similar to a timing device of a washing machine

44

Checkpoints

Where the cell cycle stops until a go-ahead signal is recieved

45

What checkpoint is the most important?

G1

46

cyclins

Set of regulatory proteins and protein complexs that regulate the cell cycle

47

density dependent inhbition

Crowded cells stop dividing

48

anchorage dependece

Where animal cells must be attached to a substratum in order to divide

49

Cancer cells quick points

-Do not respond to sgnals that nromally regulate the cell cycle

-May ned growth factors to grow and divide

-Make their own growth factor

-Convey a growth factor's signal without the presence of the growth factor

-May have an abnormal cell cycle control system

50

Transformation

When a normal cell is converted to a cancerous cell

51

Cancers that are not eliminated by the immune system form what?

Tumors, masses of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue

52

Benign tumor

An abnormal cell remaining at original site

53

Malignant tumor

Invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body where they form additional tumors

54

What best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?

Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, whereas respiration releases it

55

Generation of proton gradients across membranes occurs during

bot photosynthesis and respiration

56

Reactions that require CO₂ take place in

Calvin cycle

57

Where does the Calvin cycle take place?

Stroma of the chloroplast

58

If the power fails and the lights go dark, what will happen to CO₂ levels?

CO2 will rise as a result of both animal and human respiration

59

Where are the molecules of the electron transport chain found in plant cells?

Thylakoids in the chloroplast

60

Which of the following are directly associated with photosystem I?

Recieving electrons from the thylakoid membrane ETC

61

A plant has a unique photosynthetic pigment. The leaves of this plant appear to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are being absorbed by this pigment?

Blue and violet

62

Photorespiration lowers the efficiency of photosynthesis by

3-phosphoglycerate molecules

63

What wavelength of light in the figure is most effective in driving photosynthesis?

420mm

64

Which of the following statements is a correct distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs?

Autotrophs, unlike heterotrops have the ability to nourish themselves beginning with CO2 and other inorganic nutrients

65

Which of the following are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?`

ATP and NADPH

66

In autotrophic bacteria, where are the enzymes located that can carry on carbon fixation (reduction of carbon dioxide to carbohydrate)?

In the cytosol

67

What is the primary function of the Calvin cycle?

synthesize simple sugars from CO2

68

Some photosynthetic bacteria (e.g., purple sulfur bacteria) have only photosystem I, whereas others (e.g., cyanobacteria) have both photosystem I and photosystem II. Which of the following might this observation imply?

Photosystem I photosynthesis is more ancestral

69

In the process of carbon fixation, RuBP attaches a CO₂ to produce a six-carbon molecule, which is then split to produce two molecules of 3-phosphoglycerate. After phosphorylation and reduction produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), what more needs to happen to complete the Calvin cycle?

regeneration of NAD+

70

Where do the enzymatic reactions of the Calvin cycle take place?

stroma of the chloroplast

71

CAM plants keep stomata closed in daytime, thus reducing loss of water. They can do this because they

Fix CO2 into organic acids throughout the night

72

What does the chemiosmotic process in chloroplasts involve?

establishment of proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane

73

Plants photosynthesize only in the light. Plants respire

both in the light nd dark

74

Which of the following sequences correctly represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?

H2O -> NADPH -> Calvin cycle

75

If atmospheric CO₂ concentrations increase twofold or more, how will plants be affected, disregarding any changes in climate?

C3 plants will have faster growth an C4 plants will be minimally affected

76

Which of the events listed below occurs in the light reactions of photosynthesis?

light is absorbed and funneled to reaction center chlorophyll a

77

In thylakoids, protons travel through ATP synthase from the thylakoid space to the stroma. Therefore, the catalytic "knobs" of ATP synthase would be located

Facing the stroma

78

The splitting of carbon dioxide to form oxygen gas and carbon compounds occurs during

Niether photosynthesis or repiration

79

Which of the following does not occur during the Calvin cycle?

Release of oxygen

80

The alternative pathways of photosynthesis using the C₄ or CAM systems are said to be compromises. Why?

Both minimize photosynthesis but expend more ATP during carbon fixation

81

78) A particular cell has half as much DNA as some other cells in a mitotically active tissue. The cell in question is most likely in

G1

82

74) One difference between cancer cells and normal cells is that cancer cells

Continue to divide even when tightly packed together

83

16) For anaphase to begin, which of the following must occur?

Cohesion must be cleaved enzymatically

84

10) Taxol is an anticancer drug extracted from the Pacific yew tree. In animal cells, Taxol disrupts microtubule formation by binding to microtubules and accelerating their assembly from the protein precursor, tubulin. Surprisingly, this stops mitosis. Specifically, Taxol must affect

The formation of the mitotic spinle

85

50) For a chemotherapeutic drug to be useful for treating cancer cells, which of the following is most desirable?

It interferes with rapidly dividing cells

86

11) Which of the following are primarily responsible for cytokinesis in plant cells but not in animal cells?

Golgi derived vesicles

87

71) When the cell has just completed telophase, which of the following does he see?

Two small cells with chromatin

88

9) Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in both plant and animal cells?

Centrosome

89

1) The centromere is a region in which

Chromatids remain attached to one another unless its anaphase

90

76) In the cells of some organisms, mitosis occurs without cytokinesis. This will result in

Cells with more than one nucleus

91

46) All cell cycle checkpoints are similar in which way?

They activate or inactivate certain proteins

92

23) What is a cleavage furrow?

A groove in the plasma membrane between daughter nuclei

93

Several organisms, primarily protists, have what are called intermediate mitotic organization.

They show some,but not all evolutionary steps to go through and complete mitosis

94

preliminary observations showed them that the cell line did not exhibit either density-dependent inhibition or anchorage dependence. What could they conclude right away?

They show characteristics of tumors

95

3) If there are 20 chromatids in a cell, how many centromeres are there?

10

96

20) During which phase of mitosis do the chromatids become chromosomes?

Telophase

97

37) Density-dependent inhibition is explained by which of the following?

As cells become more numerous, the cell surface proteins of one cell contact the adjoining cells and they stop dividing.

98

6) At which phase are centrioles beginning to move apart in animal cells?

Prophase

99

77) Which of the following does not occur during mitosis?

replication of DNA

100

Heredity

Transmission of traits from one generation to the next

101

Cariation

Demonstarted by the diferences in appearance that ofspring sow from parents and siblngs

102

Genetics

The study of heredity and variation

103

Genes

The units of heredity and are made of segments of DNA

104

Ofsspringfpring acquire genes from?

Parents by inheriting chromosomes

105

How many somatic cells do humans have?

46 chromomes or 23 pairs

106

Homologous chromosomes

Two chromosomes in each pair and they are the same length, and shapre and carry genes controlling the same inherited characters

107

Human females

XX

108

Human males

XY

109

How many autosomes are there?

22

110

Gamete (sperm and egg) contains what?

A single set of chromosomes and is haploid

111

Human haploid number

23

112

How are gametes produced?

Meiosis

113

What alternate in sexual life cycles?

Meiosis and fertilization

114

Plants and some algae undergo an alternation of generation

This life cycle contains both diploid and haploid multicellular stage and the diploid organism called the sporophyte makes haploid spores by meisois

115

What kind of cells undergo meiosis?

Diploid

116

Since meiosis undergoes two sets of clel divisions unlike mitosis, what is the end result?

Four daughter cells instead of two

117

First half of meiotic divison

Homologous paris of chromosomes pair and seperate

118

Second half of meitotic division

Sister chromatids of each chromosome seperate

119

Prophase I

Occupies more than 90% of the time required for meiosis

Chromosomes begin to condense

Crossing over occurs

120

Metaphase I

Chromosomes line up atthe metaphase plate, with one chromosome facing each pole

121

Anaphase I

Pairs of homologous chromosomes seperate and move towards each pole

122

Telophase I

Each half of the cell has a haploid set of chromosomes; each chromosome still consists of two sister chromatids

123

Meiosis II is very similar to mitosis and occurs in the same four phases

Prophase II

Metaphase II

Anaphase II

Telophase II

124

Prophase II

A spindle apparatus forms then chromosomes move towards the meta phase plate

125

Metaphase II

Sister chromatids are rearranged at the metaphase plate

126

At the end of meiosis

There are four daughter cells, each with a haploid set of unduplicated chromosomess

127

Three events that are unique to meiosis

Synapsis and crossing over in prophase I this is where chromosomes physically connect and exchange informtion

Homologous pairs at the metaphase plate: homologous pairs of chromosomes are positioned in metaphase I

Seperation of homologs during anaphase I

128

What is the original source of genetic diversity?

Mutations

129

Three mechanisms that contribute to genetic variation

-Independent assortment of chromosomes

-Crossing over

-Random fertilization

130

Main site of photosynthesis

Leaves

131

Where are chloroplats mainly found?

In the mysophyll

132

Photosynthesis reaction

6CO2 + 12H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6H2O + ^O2

133

What is reduced in photosynthesis?

CO2

134

What is oxidized in photosynthesis?

H2O

135

Where do light reactions occur?

In the thylakoids

136

Where does the calvin cycle take place?

In the stroma


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