1) Olfactory glands
2) Olfactory information is first received by which part of the brain?
3) Before an olfactory receptor can detect an odorant, it has to
4) Which of the following is true of olfactory discrimination?
5) All of the following are true of olfactory pathways except which one?
6) Some neural tissues retain stem cells and thus the capacity to divide and replace lost neurons. Which of these special senses can replace its damaged neural receptors?
7) A normal, relaxed inhalation carries about ________ of the inhaled air to the olfactory organs.
8) How would a molecule that mimics cAMP affect an olfactory receptor?
9) Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribriform plate. They synapse on neurons in the
10) Gustatory receptors are located
11) The function of gustatory receptors parallels that of
12) Which of the following lingual papillae has the largest number of taste buds?
13) Destruction to your left glossopharyngeal nerve would result in
14) Stimulation of nociceptive receptors within the trigeminal nerve might produce a perception of
15) Taste receptors are distributed in which of the following places?
16) An adult has approximately ________ taste buds.
17) All of the following are terms describing the epithelial projections found on the tongue except ________ papillae.
18) Taste buds are monitored by which cranial nerve(s)?
19) A patient who experienced head trauma has lost the ability to taste spicy food. You should expect damage to cranial nerve
20) Which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations?
21) The taste sensation that is triggered by the amino acid glutamate is known as
22) Which of the following is false concerning lacrimal glands?
23) All of the following are true of the fibrous tunic of the eye except that it
24) What structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision?
25) Which of the following is true of the vascular tunic of the eye?
26) The palpebrae
27) The palpebrae are connected at the
28) The space between the iris and ciliary body and the lens is the
29) The neural tunic of the eye
30) The human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by
31) A structure that is located at the medial canthus and contains glands that contribute to a gritty deposit is the
32) Which of the following produces a lipid-rich secretion that prevents the upper and lower eyelids from sticking together at their edges?
33) The vitreous body
34) The space between the cornea and the iris is the
35) The shape of the lens is controlled by the
36) The ________ covers most of the exposed surface of the eye.
37) The transparent portion of the fibrous tunic is the
38) The part of the eye that determines eye color is the
39) The opening in the iris through which light passes is the
40) In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the
41) The ciliary muscle contracts to
42) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term aqueous humor?
43) Which of the following is true concerning a sty?
44) Which of the following is a function of tears?
45) An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the
46) Which of the following description applies to the term myopia?
47) A ray of light entering the eye will encounter the following structures in which order?
48) The cornea is part of the
49) The gelatinous material that gives the eyeball its basic shape is the
50) Pupillary muscle groups are controlled by the ANS. Parasympathetic activation causes pupillary ________, and sympathetic activation causes ________.
51) If your vision is 20/15, this means that you can see
52) Trace the circulation of aqueous humor from the site of production to the site of where it is reabsorbed.
53) Why must accommodation occur to view objects closer than 20 feet from the eye?
54) During accommodation, the ciliary muscle ________ and the suspensory ligaments become ________ which, in turn, cause the lens to become ________.
55) What structure regulates the amount of light that passes to the photoreceptors of the eye?
56) The optic disc is a blind spot because
57) During accommodation, the ciliary muscle ________ causing the ciliary body to move ________ and apply ________ tension on the lens.
63) A sudden increase of light into the eye would cause
64) When a rod is stimulated by light,
65) In the light-adapted state,
66) Under which condition would the release of neurotransmitter by photoreceptors be greatest?
67) There are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. These cones are designated
68) The cell of the retina that produces an action potential that goes to the brain is a(n)
69) When all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive
70) The first step in the process of photoreception is
71) Visual pigments are derivatives of the compound
72) A pigment synthesized from vitamin A is
73) The following steps occur in rods when they are excited by photons of light. What is the proper sequence for these steps?
74) Which of the following is true about rhodopsin?
75) Which of the following statements about the retina is true?
76) Having to adjust to a dark room after walking in from bright light is because
77) Where are the visual pigments located in the rods and cones?
78) The ________ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the ________ ear, which contains auditory ossicles.
79) The external acoustic meatus ends at the
80) Which of the following anatomical sequences is correct?
81) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term basilar membrane?
82) The ________ convey(s) information about head position with respect to gravity.
83) A sound with a frequency of 12,000 hertz would
84) A loud noise causes
85) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term otoliths?
86) The auditory ossicles connect the
87) The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the
88) The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the
89) The senses of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors in the
90) The structure that forms the "roof" of the organ of Corti is the
91) The structure that supports the organ of Corti is the
92) Gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the
93) When an external force bends the stereocilia of the inner ear hair cells,
94) The sensory receptors of the semicircular canals are located in the
95) The region of the ampulla that contains the receptors for rotational (dynamic) equilibrium are called
96) The superficial hard part of the inner ear is called the ________ and contains ________.
97) Movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals
98) The structure attached to the oval window that transmits vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear is the
99) Low frequency sounds stimulate hair cells on which part of the basilar membrane?
100) The energy from a pressure wave in the cochlear fluids is released by the bulging and stretching of the
101) The function of the auditory tube is to
102) Standing still in an elevator that suddenly lowers will stimulate receptors in the
103) An infection that damages the vestibular nerve could result in a loss of
104) The hair cells of the utricle and saccule are clustered in
105) The frequency of a perceived sound depends on
106) The following is a list of the steps that occur in the production of an auditory sensation. What is the proper sequence for these steps?
107) Perception of gravity and linear acceleration depends on
108) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term malleus?
109) Sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the
110) The cell bodies of sensory neurons that innervate the hair cells of the cochlea form the ________ ganglion.
111) The vestibular nuclei at the boundary of the pons and the medulla function in all of the following except
112) Which of the following descriptions best matches the term stereocilia?
1) Olfactory organs are located in the nasal cavity inferior to the perforated bony structure known as the
2) The olfactory organ consists of the ________ and the lamina propria.
3) Which of the following statements about smell is true?
4) The olfactory receptors are highly modified
5) Olfactory glands secrete a thick, pigmented ________ that absorbs water.
6) The sense of taste is also known as
7) The membrane structures that respond to chemical stimuli to produce sweet, bitter, and umami sensations are called
8) Taste buds are clusters of individual
9) Each gustatory cell extends ________ (called hairs) into the surrounding fluids through a narrow taste pore.
10) Taste buds on the tongue are often associated with epithelial projections called
11) A typical gustatory cell survives for only about ________ day(s) before it is replaced.
12) Modified sebaceous glands located along the margin of the eyelid that secrete a lipid-rich product are called ________ glands.
13) A(n) ________ is an infection in one of the glands on the eyelids.
14) The abnormality that develops when a lens loses its transparency is known as
15) ________ cells connect photoreceptors to ganglion cells.
16) Amacrine and ________ cells facilitate or inhibit communication between photoreceptors and ganglion cells.
17) ________ cells adjust sensitivities at the synapses between photoreceptor cells and ganglion cells.
18) When light encounters a medium of different density, it is
19) ________, or pinkeye, results from damage to or irritation of the conjunctival surface.
20) Where the eyelids join at the medial or lateral edge is called the
21) An irregularity in curvature in the cornea or lens, called ________, causes a reduction in visual acuity.
22) A person suffering from ________ can see objects that are close, but distant objects appear blurred.
23) A person suffering from ________ can see distant objects more clearly than those that are close.
24) A type of farsightedness that results from a loss of lens elasticity with age is
25) The visible spectrum for humans extends between a wavelength of
26) A young child has been diagnosed with a recessive hereditary disease that results in destruction of the geniculate nucleus. The result of this would be
27) Photoreceptor cells that are most useful in dim light are
28) Photoreceptors that convey our ability to see color are
29) Color blindness is a(n)
E) infection of the retina, resulting in destruction of the cones
30) The purpose of the two small muscles, the tensor tympani and the stapedius, in the ear is to
31) The secretion commonly called earwax is produced by ________ glands.
32) The elevated ridges within the ampullae of the semicircular canals that support the hair cells are known as
33) ________ fills the membranous labyrinth.
34) The ________ is a region of dense bone that surrounds and protects the membranous labyrinth.
35) ________ is a fluid similar to cerebrospinal fluid that fills the space between the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth
36) The hair cells of the cochlear duct are located in the
37) ________ deafness results from conditions in the outer or middle ear that block the transfer of vibrations from the environment to the tympanic membrane or to the oval window.
38) ________ deafness occurs because of a problem in the cochlea or somewhere along the auditory pathway.
39) Abnormal jumpy eye movements that may appear after brain stem or inner ear damage are called
40) The formal term for the sense of balance and equilibrium is the ________ sense.
41) ________ sensations inform us of the position of the head in space by monitoring gravity, linear acceleration, and rotation.
42) When you spin quickly, you may feel dizzy. Which component of the inner ear generates the sensations that can lead to this feeling?