Chapter 1 - The Human Body: An Orientation

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1

True or False:

Anatomy is the study of body structures and their relationships.

True

2

True or False:

Physiology is the science of how body parts function.

True

3

Name the 3 major subdivision of anatomy.

  • gross anatomy
  • microscopic anoatomy
  • developmental anatomy
4

Physiology concerns the ________________ of specific organs organ systems.

functioning

5

What 2 principles explain Physiology?

  1. Chemical Principle
  2. Physical Principle
6

The ______________ principle explains the reasoning why anatomy and physiology are inseparable.

  • complementary of structure and function

Anatomy and physiology are inseparable: What a body can do depends on the unique architecture of its parts.

7

Name the levels of structural organization of the body, from simplest to the most complex.

  1. chemical
  2. cellular
  3. tissue
  4. organ
  5. organ system
  6. organism
8

Name the 11 organ systems of the body.

  • integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive.

The immune system is a functional system closely associated with the lymphatic system.

9

Name the 7 vital functional activities necessary of life.

  • maintenance of boundaries
  • movement
  • responsiveness, digestion
  • metabolism
  • excretion
  • reproduction
  • growth
10

Name the 5 survival needs necessary for life.

  • nutrients
  • water
  • oxygen
  • appropriate temperature
  • atmospheric pressue
11

True or False:

Homeostasis is NOT a dynamic equilibrium of the internal environment.

False

  • Homeostasis is a dynamic equilibrium of the internal environment. All body systems contribute ot homeostasis, by the nervous and endocrine systems are most important. Homeostasis is necessary for health.
12

Name the 3 control mechanisms of the body that work together during homeostasis.

  1. receptor(s)
  2. control center
  3. effector(s)
13

__________ __________ _________ reduce the effect of the original stimulus, and are essential for maintaining homeostatic control

  • Negative feedback mechanisms

Body temperature, heart rate, breathing rate and depth, and blood levels of glucose and certain irons are regulated by negative feedback mechanisms.

14

_________ ____________ __________ intensify the initial stimulus, leading to an enhancement of the response during homeostatic control.

  • Positive feedback mechanisums

Positive feedback mechanisms rarely contribute to homeostasis, but blood clotting and labor contraction are regulated by such mechanisms.

15

True or False:

With age, efficiency of negative feedback mechanisms declines. These change underlie certain disease conditions.

True

16

What position is represented by: the body erect, facing forward, feet slightly apart, arms at sides with palms facing forward

  • Anatomical position
17
card image

Name the Orientation and directional term.

  • Superior (cranial)

toward the head end or upper part of thea structure or the body; above - head is superior to the abdomen.

18
card image

Name the Orientation and directional term.

  • Inferior (caudal)

Away from the head end or oward the lower part of a structur or the body, below - the navel is inferior o the chin.

19
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Name the Orientation and directional term.

  • Anterior (ventral)

Toward or at the front of the body; in front of - the breastbone is anterior to the spine.

20
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Name the Orientation and directional term.

  • Posterior (dorsal)

Toward or at the back of the body; behind - the heart is posterior to the breastbone.

21
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Name the Orientation and directional term.

  • Medial

Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of - the heart is medial to the arm.

22
card image

Name the Orientation and directional term.

  • Lateral

Away from the mid-line of the body; on the outer side of - the arms are lateral to the chest.

23
card image

Name the Orientation and directional term.

  • Intermediate

Between a more medial and a more lateral structure - the collarbone is intermediate between the breastbone and the shoulder.

24
card image

Name the Orientation and directional term.

  • Proximal

Closer to the origin of the body part or attachment of a limb to th ebody ttrunk - the elbow is proximal to the wrist.

25
card image

Name the Orientation and directional term.

  • Distal

Farther from the origin of a body part - the knee is distal to the thigh.

26
card image

Name the Orientation and directional term.

  • Superficial (external)

toward or at the body surface - the skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles.

27
card image

Name the Orientation and directional term.

  • Deep (internal)

Away from the body surface; more internal - the lungs are deep to the skin

28
card image

Name the plan in the picture.

  • Frontal (coronal) plane

divide the body into anterior and posterior parts

29
card image

Name the plan in the picture.

  • Median (midsagittal) Plane

A sagittal plane that lies EXACTLY in the midline

30
card image

Name the plan in the picture.

  • Transverse (horizontal) Plane
31

What plane consist of cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical planes

  • Oblique sections
32

A vertical plane that divides the body into right and left sections is refereed to as what?

  • Sagittal Plane
33
card image

Name four abdominoplevic quadrants.

card image
  • Right upper
  • Right lower
  • Left upper
  • Left lower
34

Name the 9 regions of the Ventral body cavity

card image
  • Right hypochondriac region
  • epigastic region
  • Left hypochondriac region
  • Right lumbar region
  • Umbilical region
  • Left lumbar region
  • Right iliac (inguinal) region
  • Hypogastiric (pubic) region
  • Left iliac (inguinal) region
35

Name the 2 cavities located in the Dorsal body cavity.

  • Cranial cavity (contains brain)
  • Vertebral cavity (contains spinal cord)
36

Name the 2 major subdivisions of the Ventral body cavity.

  • Thoracic cavity - surrounded by the ribs and muscle of the chest
  • Abdominoplelvic cavity - inferior cavity seperated by the diaphragm
37

Which body cavity contains the heart and lungs?

  • Thoracic
38

The liver is located in which adbominoplevic region?

  • Right hypochondriac region
39

The gallbladder is locate in which adbominoplevic region?

  • Right hypochondriac region
40

The ascending colon of the large intestine is locate in which adbominoplevic region?

  • Right lumbar region
41

The appedix is locate in which adbominoplevic region?

  • Right iliac (inguinal) region
42

The stomach is locate in which adbominoplevic region?

  • Epigastic region
43

The transverse colon of large intestine is locate in which adbominoplevic region?

  • Umbilical region
44

The urinary bladder is locate in which adbominoplevic region?

  • Hypogastic (pubic) region
45

The diaphragm and sleen are locate in which adbominoplevic region?

  • Left hypochondriac region
46

The descending colon of large intestine is locate in which adbominoplevic region?

  • Left lumbar region
47

The initial part of sigmoid colon is locate in which adbominoplevic region?

  • Left iliac (inguinal) region
48

Bones and cartilages are part of the ___________ system

  • Skeletal system
49

The nasal cavity, lungs, and trachea are __________ system organs.

  • Respiratory
50

_____________ is a term that encompasses all the chemical reaction that occur in the body cells.

  • Metabolism

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