Chapter 16 The Endocrine System Exam

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Figure 16.1

Using Figure 16.1, match the following:

1) Produces the hormones that promote the development of the female secondary sexual
characteristics at puberty.

2) Storehouse for the hormones produced by the hypothalamus of the brain.

3) Produces the hormones that direct the production of the secondary male sex characteristics.

4) Produce steroid hormones and glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids.

5) Produces hormones and is considered a neuroendocrine organ.

1. Answer: D

2. Answer: B

3. Answer: E

4. Answer: C

5. Answer: A

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Figure 16.2

Using Figure 16.2, match the following hypothalamic hormones with the pituitary hormone targets:

6) Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH).

7) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

8) Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH).

9) Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).

10) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH).

6. Answer: A

7. Answer: C

8. Answer: B

9. Answer: E

10. Answer: D


Match the following:

A) Pituitary dwarfism
B) Diabetes mellitus
C) Addisonʹs disease
D) Gravesʹ disease
E) Acromegaly

11) An autoimmune problem
involving the thyroid gland.

12) Hyposecretion of growth

13) Hyposecretion of the

14) Hyposecretion of the adrenal

15) Hypersecretion of growth

11) D
12) A
13) B
14) C
15) E


Match the following:

A) Cretinism
B) Myxedema
C) Cushingʹs disease
D) Acromegaly

16) Hyposecretion of the thyroid
in adults.

17) Hypersecretion of the adrenal

18) Hypersecretion of growth

19) Hyposecretion of the thyroid
in infants.

16) B
17) C
18) D
19) A


Match the following:

A) Parathyroid
B) Adrenal medulla
C) Pancreas
D) Thyroid
E) Hypophysis

20) The size and shape of a pea;
produces hormones that
stimulate other endocrine

21) The gland that controls the
fight-or-flight reaction.

22) Produces hormones that
regulate glucose levels in the

23) Produces a hormone that
controls blood levels of
calcium and potassium by
their removal from bone

24) Produces the bodyʹs major
metabolic hormones.

20) E
21) B
22) C
23) A
24) D


True/False Questions
1) In humans, melatonin may inhibit sexual maturation.

Answer: TRUE


2) The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are calcitonin-parathormone.

Answer: TRUE


3) The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin.

Answer: FALSE


4) The endocrine structure that develops from the nervous system is the anterior pituitary.

Answer: FALSE


5) Both ʺturn onʺ factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and ʺturn offʺ factors (feedback
inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system.

Answer: TRUE


6) ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones.

Answer: TRUE


7) LH is also referred to as a gonadotropin.

Answer: TRUE


8) The only known effect of prolactin in humans is to produce impotence in males.

Answer: FALSE


9) Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions.

Answer: TRUE


10) Follicle cells of the thyroid gland produce thyroglobulin, while follicle cells of the parathyroid
produce calcitonin.

Answer: FALSE


11) The thyroid gland is embedded in the parathyroid tissue.

Answer: FALSE


12) The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis.

Answer: TRUE


13) The beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin.

Answer: TRUE


14) Most Type II diabetics do not produce insulin.

Answer: FALSE


15) Peptide hormones enter the target cells and elicit a response by mediating neurotransmitter

Answer: FALSE


16) Calcitonin is a peptide hormone that has destructive effects on the skeletal system.

Answer: FALSE


17) Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid produced in the adrenals but the least

Answer: FALSE


18) Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the
urinary excretion of sodium.

Answer: TRUE


19) While glucagon is a small polypeptide, it is nevertheless very potent in its regulatory effects.

Answer: TRUE


20) The thyroid gland is a large gland that controls metabolic functions throughout the life of an

Answer: TRUE


21) Many hormones synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract are chemically identical to brain

Answer: TRUE


22) All of the following hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis: ACTH, FSH, and LH.

Answer: TRUE


23) Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine.

Answer: TRUE


24) The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is
the parathyroid.

Answer: FALSE


25) Growth hormone always exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce

Answer: FALSE


26) Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus are both caused by a genetic mutation involving the
synthesis of insulin.

Answer: FALSE


27) The stimulus for calcitonin release is usually excessive amounts of growth hormone synthesis

Answer: FALSE


28) Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually enhance the immune responses when an
individual is suffering from severe stress.

Answer: FALSE


29) Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system.

Answer: FALSE


30) All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA.

Answer: TRUE


31) All adenohypophyseal hormones except GH affect their target cells via a cyclic AMP

Answer: TRUE


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