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Chapter 16 Special Senses

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1

Interoceptors respond to stimuli ____

from internal organs

2

List the components of the lacrimal apparatus

lacrimal gland and lacrimal ducts

3

Receptors called _____ nerve endings consist of nerve fibers surrounded by glial cells or a connective tissue covering.

encapsulated

4

List the ossicles of the middle ear in order starting from the tympanic membrane to the oval window.

malleus

incus

stapes

5

Name the type of receptor that detects specific molecules.

chemoreceptor

6

Color blindness results from abnormality in or lack of ______, a type of photoreceptor protein.

photopsin

7

Which of the following sensations result from input by exteroceptors?

Pain in the skin, touch, vision, and hearing

8

The ____ point of vision refers to the closest an object can be to the eyes and still be focused.

near

9

Describe endogenous opioids such as endorphins.

They are released by organs during states of stress or exercise.

10

The vestibular nerves lead to four vestibular nuclei that are located ____ and _____.

medulla oblongata and pons

11

The primary function of a sensory receptor:

Transduction

12

Equilibrium refers to perception of:

balance, coordination, and orientation in space

13

______ is a sensation mediated by specialized receptors called nociceptors.

pain

14

The photoreceptor cell only produces images in shades of gray, and is responsible for night vision:

rod cell

15

Place the following events in the correct order.

Odorant molecules bing to receptors on olfactory hair

G protein is activated leading to the formation of cAMP

Ion channels open in the olfactory cell membrane

Influx of sodium or calcium ions, depolarizing the olfactory cell

Receptor potential is transmitted into the brain

16

Chose the three terms that describe senses that utilize receptors widely distributed throughout the body.

Somesthetic senses, somatosensory senses, and general senses

17

The ____ duct connects the lacrimal apparatus to the nasal cavity.

nasolacrimal

18

_____ is the visual pigment present in cones.

photopsin

19

The _____ layer (tunic) of the eye contains the retina.

inner

20

When eyes are focusing on far away objects, the eyes are in a state of ___

emmetropia

21

List the type of photoreceptor cells.

ganglion cells, cones, and rods

22

The tympanic membrane can also be referred to as the _____

eardrum

23

Identify the fluid-filled cochlear chambers that contain perilymph.

scala vestibuli and scala tympani

24

Amplitude measures the _____ of a sound.

loudness

25

The visible bumps on the tongue are not taste buds but ___ papillae.

lingual

26

List the steps in order involved in generating a nerve signal within the macula utriculi and sacculi starting with movement of the head.

Tilt or acceleration of the head

Shift of the otolithic membrane

Bending stereocilia

Action potential

27

Identify the three regions of the vascular layer (tunic).

Ciliary body, choroid, and iris

28

Describe olfactory cells

Neurons

29

Any audible vibration of molecules creates ______ and can be detected by one of your special senses

sound

30

The sens of ____ is the perception of objects resulting from detection of the light they emit or reflect.

vision

31

List the areas of the ear that function to transmit sound vibrations.

Outer and middle ear

32

Indicate which of the following are examples of sensory modalities.

hearing and vision

33

_____ senses utilize receptors that are specific to a particular area of the body.

special

34

Identify the range of frequency of light that is visible to the human eye.

400-700 nm

35

A _________ is a receptor that is stimulated by touch, pressure, stretching, or vibration.

mechanoreceptor

36

Order the sequence of events that stimulate the crista ampullaris.

Rotation of semicircular canals

Lagging behind of endolymph

Pressure on cupula

Bending stereocilia

Action potential

37

Identify the two sections of the fibrous layer of the eye.

cornea and sclera

38

A ______ is the conscious perception of a stimulus.

sensation

39

The _____ ducts of the inner ear detect acceleration.

semicircular

40

____ is the sensation of taste that results from the action of chemicals stimulating the taste buds.

gustation

41

Name the type of receptor that detects pain.

nociceptor

42

List the components of the near response for close vision.

Constriction of the pupil, accommodation of the lens, and convergence of the eyes

43

The ____ ear is the area between the tympanic membrane an the oval window of the cochlea.

middle

44

Name the function of the tympanic membrane.

transmit sound vibrations to the auditory ossicles

45

Pain that results from convergent neutral pathways that leads to visceral pain mistakenly thought to originate from the skin is called ______ pain.

referred

46

Identify the two components of rhodopsin, the visual pigment found in rods.

retinal and opsin

47

Identify the significance the sensory projection pathway.

the ability to discern a specific area of stimulus on a receptor

48

The ________ is the translucent anterior section of the fibrous layer of the eye while _____ is the white of the eye

cornea, sclera

49

An area of tissue called the olfactory ____ contains the sensory epithelium for olfaction in the nose.

mucosa

50

Death of hair cells results in a type of deafness called _____ deafness.

sensorineural

51

List the neural components of the eye.

retina and optic nerve

52

______ sense the position and movements in body parts

proprioceptors

53

The receptive field is the _____

area of stimulus detected by a single sensory neuron

54

Describe the external acoustic meatus.

external opening of the auditory canal

55

The _____ within the eye is actually part of the diencephalon of the brain.

retina

56

By definition, _______ is the bending of light rays as they pass through objects of different density.

refraction

57

Which of the following sensations result from input by interoceptors?

visceral pain and bladder pressure

58

A ___ refers to any structure capable of detecting a stimulus.

receptor

59

Identify the modality that triggers photoreceptors.

light

60

A(n) _________ is a substance or mechanism that has pain relieving properties.

analgesic

61

Starting with the optic nerve, list the steps in conduction of a nerve impulse from the eyes to the brain.

Hemidecussation in optic chaism

Optic tracts

Processing in lateral geniculate nucleus of thalamus

Optic radiations

Primary visual cortex in occipital lobe

62

Axons from hair cells of the spiral organ form the ________ nerve

cochlear

63

Which site contains the most taste buds?

lingual papillae

64

The _____ extends from the external acoustic meatus through the temporal bone to the tympanic membrane.

auditory canal

65

Identify the four types of information transmitted by sensory receptors.

modality, intensity, location, and duration

66

_____ is a protective, sticky secretion of the ceruminous and sebaceous glands in the ear canal which waterproofs the ear canal and inhibits bacterial growth

cerumen

67

Sensory receptors may be accompanied by accessory tissues that facilitate transduction of a stimulus, together forming a:

sense organ

68

Stereoscopic vision provides for:

depth perception

69

The _______ layer is the outermost tunic of the eye.

fibrous

70

Which of the following are examples of somesthetic senses?

pressure, touch, stretch, and pain

71

Place the following events in order starting with the vibration of the oval window and ending with the depolarization of hair cells.

Increased pressure in perilymph of scala vestibuli

Pressure wave depresses basilar membrane

Inner hair cells move closer to tectorial membrane

Stereocilia bend

Tip-link proteins open K+ channels

K+ ions enter hair cells causing depolarization

72

______ is the result or irregularity of the lens or cornea of the eye which prevents the ability to focus on light rays that enter on different planes.

astigmatism

73

Identify the three modalities detected by free nerve endings.

nociceptors, cold receptors, and pain receptors

74

Name the three components of the vestibular apparatus.

semicircular ducts, utricle, and saccule

75

The _____ is the opening within the iris of the eye

pupil

76

The ____ chamber of the eye is located between the iris and the lens.

posterior

77

____ are spots of sensory epithelium within the utricle and saccule

macula

78

A _____ is a variable change in membrane voltage produced by a stimulus acting on a receptor cell which will generate an action potential upon reaching threshold.

receptor potential

79

Describe how the location of a stimulus is determined.

by which nerve fibers send the signal to the brain

80

Looking at the anterior view of the eye through the palpebral fissure, list the parts of the eye that are visible.

sclera, pupil, iris, and cornea

81

_______-order fibers carry somatosensoy information from the head to the brainstem

first

82

Identify the two characteristics of a tonic receptor.

adapts slowly to a stimulus and steady, prolonged nerve signal

83

The _____ membranes of the maculae sacculi and utricli are important in sensing gravity and motion

otolithic

84

The _____ extends from the external acoustic meatus through the temporal bone to the tympanic membrane

auditory canal

85

The olfactory ______ carry sensory information from the olfactory bulbs to the primary olfactory cortex.

tracts

86

Taste cells within taste buds are what type of cell?

epithelial cells

87

List some characteristic of the conjunctiva

a thin transparent membrane, a mucus membrane, and highly vascularized

88

Identify the three types of cones

short, medium, and long wavelength

89

Explain the function of the stapedius and the tensor tympani

reduce the amplitude of sounds

90

_______ cells are first-order neurons that synapse with photoreceptors.

bipolar

91

Spinal gating is the blockage of pain signals from nociceptors at the ______ horn of the spinal cord

posterior

92

The lens is located in between the _____ and ______. Identify two structures below.

vitreous humor and posterior chamber

93

_______ is the serous fluid secreted by the ciliary body that fills the anterior cavity of the eye

aqueous humor

94

A _________ is a receptor that responds to temperature

thermoreceptor

95

The suspensory ligament attaches the ________ of the eye to the ciliary body

lens

96

_______ equilibrium refers to the perception of the orientation of the head when the body is stationary

static

97

Identify the effects of light exposure on rhodopsin

cis-retinal converted to trans isoform and retinal and opsin separate

98

Macula utriculi are oriented ______ on the floor of the utricle

horizontally

99

The vitreous body, or humor, is a jelly-like substance located between the

lens and the retina

100

By definition, _____ is the reduced ability to accomodate for near vision that commonly occurs with aging

presbyopia

101

Identify the receptors that are unencapsulated nerve endings

hair receptors, free nerve endings, and tactile (merkel discs)

102

The ___ muscles of the eye are responsible or eye movement

extrinsic

103

_______ is a batericidal enzyme found in he tears and other body secretions

lysozyme

104

The ______ tube is a flattened tube which, when opened by actions such as yawning or swallowing, equalizes pressure in the tympanic cavity

eustachian

105

Tears are produced by the ____ gland

lacrimal

106

The comparison of signals from both the right and left ears that allows for the identification of the direction from which a sound is coming is called

binaural hearing

107

List some characteristics of the perception of taste

depends upon food molecules dissolving in mucus, is influenced by the combination of five primary receptors stimulated, and is influenced by factors such as aroma, texture, and temperature

108

Identify the four modalities detected by lamellar (pacinian) corpuscles

tickle, deep pressure, vibration, and stretch

109

The duration of a stimulus is encoded as

the duration of how long a stimulus lasts

110

Name the structure that connects the nasopharynx to the middle ear

auditory tube

111

Half of the fibers from each optic nerve cross over to the opposite side of the brain. The term for half cross over is _______

hemidecussation

112

Name the cranial bone that contains the body (osseous) labyrinth

temporal

113

The three visual pigments found in the ______ cells allow us to perceive different colors

cone

114

Describe the location of the olfactory tracts

underneath the frontal lobe

115

Identify the three characteristics of the choroid

part of the vascular tunic (layer), contains numerous capillaries, and highly pigmented

116

Identify some naturally occurring analgesics (endogenous opiods)

enkephalins, endoprhins, and dynorphins

117

Identify the types of encapsulated nerve endings responsible for detecting light touch and texture

tactile (meissner) courpuscles and end bulbs

118

The myoepithelial cells within the pupillary dilator are innervated by the _____ nervous system

sympathetic

119

Similar to tactile corpuscles, which moalities are detected by end bulbs (krause corpuscles)?

light touch and texture

120

Individuals with ______ have difficulty focusing on objects that are further away

nearsightedness

121

Name the area of the retina that is lacking photoreceptors and is therefore referred to as the "blind spot"

optic disc

122

______ is the conversion of one form of energy to another. In biological terms it is the conversion of external stimuli into a nerve signal

transduction

123

Hair cells of the spiral organ are what type of cell?

epithelial cells

124

The ______ epithelium of the retina absorbs stray light

pigment

125

The crista ampullarius is comprised of receptors that detect ______ equilibrium

dynamic

126

Which unencapsulated nerve endings would be most likely to be the first to sense the presence of a mosquito on your arm

hair receptors

127

The pupillary constrictor muscle is stimulated by the ______ nervous system

parasympathetic

128

_______ corpuscles consist of flattened elongated capsules capable of detecting heavy touch, stretching of the skin and joint movement

bulbous (ruffini)

129

The ________ organ of the inner ear converts vibrations into nerve impulses

spiral

130

The perception of color vision is based upon the

mixture of signals from short, medium, and long wavelength cones

131

Name the six extrinsic eye muscles

lateral rectus, medial rectus, superior oblique, superior rectus, inferior rectues, and inferior oblique

132

Sensory adaptation refers to the ____ in perceived sensation over time despite the continuation of the stimulus

decrease

133

The ciliary body is part of the ______ tunic of the eye

vascular

134

Having two eyes with overlapping visual fields provides for

depth perception and stereoscopic vision

135

An apocrine sweat gland secretion contains compounds called ______ that may affect human sexual behavior

copulines

136

The ____ is stimulated by rotational acceleration

cupula

137

Identify the modalities detected by tactile (merkel) discs

light touch and pressure

138

The taste buds located on the vallate papillae in the back of the mouth are most sensitive to which taste?

bitter

139

_____ is the most potent stimulant of pain receptors (nociceptors).

bradykinin

140

Pitch is expressed in

hertz (Hz)

141

An area with a higher two-point touch discrimination will have a _____ number o receptor fields

higher

142

The ______ nuclei are located on either side of the pons and medulla oblongata, and serve to process signals regarding position and movement of the body

vestibular

143

First-order somatosensory fibers carrying signals from below the head enter the central nervous system at the level of the

spinal cord

144

The portion of the retina that produces the greatest visual acuity (sharpness of image) is the ______. It is located within a patch of cells posterior to the center of the lens is called the ______.

fovea centralis an macula lutea

145

____-order fibers carry information from the brainstem to the contralateral side of the thalamus

second

146

Identfity the two nerves that send motor fibers to the tensor tympani and stapeius muscles

V3 and VII

147

Describe the projection of pain occurring in the head

first-order neurons synapse with second order neurons in the medulla

second-order neurons ascend to the thalamus where they synapse third order neurons

third-order neurons convey signals from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex

148

Sensory receptors that are "naked" sensory dendrites, lacking connective tissue coverings, are referred to as _____ receptors. They include free nerve endings, tactile (merkel) discs, and hair receptors

unencapsulated

149

The central pillar of bone within the cochlea of the inner ear is called the _____

modiolus

150

Name the photoreceptor cell type that functions to regulate pupil diameter and circadian rhythms

ganglion cells

151

____ pain is the pain that results from stretch receptors, chemical irritants or ischemia to the abdominal organs

visceral

152

The retina is examined with an _____ which illuminates and magnifies the retina

ophthalmoscope

153

_____ cells demonstrate extensive neural convergence resulting in spatial summation, useful for low light vision

rod

154

The _____ reflex refers to the ability of both pupils to respond to the intensity of the light

photopupillary

155

The transformation of cis-retinal to trans-retinal after absorption of light is called ______

bleaching

156

List some properties of descending analgesic fibers

block pain signals from traveling up the cord to the brain and induce the release of enkephalins by spinal interneurons

157

Identify the function of the scleral venous sinus

reabsorbs aqueous humor

158

The visual adjustment that is made when you go from a dark or dimly lit area to a brighet area is called _____ adaptation

light

159

Cones are capable of acute color perception because their signal ____ experience extensive neural convergence when synapsing with bipolar cells

does not

160

Red-green color blindness is a _____-linked recessive trait

sex

161

_____ and amacrine cells from horizontal connections between rods, cones, and bipolar cells

horizontal

162

Within somatosensory projection pathways, most third-order fibers synapse with the second-order fibers in the

thalamus

163

Identify the cranial nerves involved in collecting sensory information from taste buds

vagus (CN X), glossopharyngeal (CN IX), and facial (CN VII)

164

The _____ membrane separates the scala media from the scala vestibuli

vestibular

165

Odorant molecules stimulate olfactory cells via

second-messenger system

166

Pain fibers that are _____ conduct signals 12-30 m/sec and produce fast (first) pain

myelinated

167

The _____ version of retinal is bound to opsin until exposure to light

cis

168

The _____ hair cells of the spiral organ adjust the response of the cochlea to various pitches of sound

outer

169

Identify the fluid which fills the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear

endolymph

170

Pain fibers that are ____ conduct impulses that travel 0.5-2 m/sec and produce the slow (second) pain

unmyelinated

171

The area of the brain responsible for identification and discrimination of odors is the area of the cerebral cortex called the ____ cortex

orbitofrontal

172

Describe the location of the paired olfactory bulbs

beneath the frontal lobes of the brain

173

Within the olfactory bulb, olfactory fibers synapse with dendrites of these two types of neurons

mitral cells and tufted cells

174

Each olfactory glomerulus can respond to ____ odorant moleculues

a single

175

Cochlear tuning is a function of the ____ hair cells

outer

176

Which of the following is the projection pathway for pain from below the neck responsible for carrying most of the somatic pain information?

spinothalamic tract

177

By definition, ____ is double vision resulting from failure of convergence

diplopia

178

Human ears are most sensitive to frequencies within which range?

1500 to 5000 Hz

179

Constriction of the pupil facilitates focusing of an image by the lens because:

lenses cannot refract light at their edges

180

The cochlea is capable of discerning differences in the loudness of stimuli because specific amplitude of sound

causes variation of vibration through out the entire cochlea

181

Identify the most abundant lingual papillae

filiform papillae

182

The tarsal glands secrete _____ that coats the eye and reduce evaporation

oil

183

Identify the superior chamber of the cochlea

scala vestibuli

184

The ora serrata is a point of attachment for the ____ to the interior of the eye wall

retina

185

Aqueous humor is reabsorbed from the anterior chamber into the blood via the

scelral venous sinus

186

Identify the type of lingual papillae that do not contain taste buds

filiform papillae

187

Name the structure of the eye that secreted an oil that reduces tear evaporation

tarsal gland

188

Identify the projection pathway for pain below the neck responsible for eliciting the emotional response to pain including fear and nausea

spinoreticular tract

189

The cochlea is capable of discerning difference in the pitch of sound because different frequencies of sound

vibrate different areas of the basilar membrane which stimulates different positions along the spiral organ


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