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Chapter 17 Endocrine

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1

Thyroid hormone accelerates the ____ of carbs, fats, and proteins.

breakdown

2

The pituitary hormone that stimulates the testes to secrete testosterone is

luteinizing hormone

3

List the hormones secreted by the ovary

Inhibin, progesterone, and estradiol

4

When peptides and catecholamines bind to the target cell, they stimulate its physiology indirectly using:

second messenger systems

5

_____ is a potent glucocorticoid that stimulates fat and protein catabolism, gluconeogensis, and release of fatty acids into the blood.

Cortisol

6

List three types of interactive effects hormones can have on their target organs.

Synergistic, antagonistic, and permissive

7

The thick outer layer of the adrenal gland is called the adrenal _____

cortex

8

List the hormones that are classified as steroid hormones

Testosterone and cortisol

9

Steroid hormones enter the target cell nucleus and act directly on the ___, changing target cell physiology by either activating or inhibiting transcription.

genes

10

The study of the glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones is called:

endocrinology.

11

The hormone that stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormone is

thyroid-stimulating hormone

12

Name the mechanisms by which cell-to-cell communication can be accomplished.

Neurotransmitters, pacarines, hormones, and gap junctions

13

The hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland that helps maintain blood pressure and blood volume is:

aldosterone

14

The endocrine gland called the ____ is an elongated, spongy, gland located below and behind the stomach, and is primarily an exocrine digestive gland.

pancreas

15

Monoamine hormones include catecholamines. List some examples.

Dopamine and nonepinephrine.

16

The ovaries and testes are considered ____ glands because they secrete whole cells (the egg and the sperm).

Exocrine

17

List examples of peptide hormones.

Insulin, oxytocin, and follicle stimulating hormone

18

List, in the order of occurence, the stage of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).

1) alarm reaction

2) stage of resistance

3) stage of exhaustion

19

The pancreas is located retreperitoneal and ____

posterior to the stomach.

20

Describe a hormone receptor.

A specific protein or glycoprotein embedded in the plasma membrane

21

The region of the adrenal gland indicated by the RED arrow in the figure is the adrenal ____

Cortex

22

The cell type somatotropes produces

growth hormone

23

The cell type lactotropes produces

prolactin

24

The cell type corticotropes produces

adrenocorticotropic hormone

25

The cell type gonadotropes produces

follicle-stimulating hormone

26

Monoamine hormones and neurotransmitters are derived from:

amino acids.

27

The hormone called _______ hormone stimulates the secretion of ovarian sex hormones and the development of the ovarian follicles.

follicle-stimulating

28

List the substances secreted by pancreatic islets cells.

Glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin.

29

The endocrine gland called the ____ may play a role in establishing 24-hour circadian rhythms synchronized with light and dark.

Pineal gland

30

Name the brain area that closely regulates pituitary function.

Hypothalamus

31

The kidneys secrete the hormones

Erythropoietin and calcitriol

32

List the second-messenger system actions in the order the occur.

1) hormone receptor binding activates G-protein

2) G protein activates adenylate cyclase

3) adenylate cyclase produces cAMP

4) cAMP activates protein kinases

33

Steroid hormones diffuse through the phospholipid regions of the target cell membrane and into the ___ where they bind to a receptor.

nucleus

34

Name the endocrine gland housed in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone (also called the hypophyseal gland):

pitutary

35

Parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland secrete _____ in response to rising blood calcium.

calcitonin

36

The hormones that antagonizes the effects of glucagon by suppressing the breakdown of glycogen is ____

insulin

37

It is difficult for steroids and thyroid hormone to travel through the blood because they are ____

hydrophobic

38

The kidney secretes the enzyme ____ which acts to convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.

renin

39

List the catecholamines secreted by the adrenal medulla.

Epinephrine, dopamine, and nonepinephrine.

40

The gland located immediately below the larynx that is shaped like a butterfly is the ____ gland.

thyroid

41

The hormone ___ directly stimulates development of the male reproductive system, secondary sexual characteristics, and sustains sperm production and the sex drive throughout adult life.

Tesosterone

42

List several hypergycemic hormones.

Glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol.

43

Name the two hormones that are stored and released by the posterior pituitary.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin (OT)

44

Cells and organs that have specific receptors for hormones are referred to as ___ cells and organs.

target

45

The groups of hormones from the adrenal cortex called ____ have various developmental and reproductive functions.

Sex steroids

46

The pituitary gland is composed of two structures: the posterior is called the neurohypophysis and the anterior is called the

adenohypohysis

47

Glands that secrete their product by way of a duct directly onto an epithelial surface are called _____ glands.

exocrine

48

Weak adrenal cortical androgens which possess little biological activity are converted to the much more potent androgen called ____

testosterone

49

The hormone that is secreted by the kidneys and liver and which stimulates red blood cell production is

erythropoietin

50

List the target cells of inuslin.

Adipose, skeletal muscle, and liver.

51

Name the hormones that are produced by the thyroid

Triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)

52

Any agent, such as a hormone or drug, that opposed another is acting as an ___

antagonist

53

Name the glands that secretes steroid hormones.

Adrenal cortex, testes, and ovary.

54

The pituitary hormone that functions to reduce urine volume and increase blood volume is:

antidiuretic hormone

55

After synthesis in the skin, the version of Vitamin D called ____ is converted in the liver and then sent to the kidneys to be converted to calcitriol.

cholecalciferol

56

Unlike the other pituitary hormones, this hormone does not target just one or a few organs, but has widespread effects on the body.

Growth hormone

57

The anterior pituitary hormones, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are classified as _____ hormones because they target and stimulate the release of hormones from the gonads.

gonadotropin

58

The hormone secreted from alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood glucose is ____

glucagon

59

The roles of estrogen and progesterone include:

regulation of menstrual cycle, contribute to the development of the reproductive system, and promote adolescent bone growth.

60

The adrenal cortex is composed of ____ layers of tissue which differ in their histology and hormone output.

3

61

List the hormones produced by the liver.

Erythropoietin, insulin-like growth factor, and hepcidin

62

Immunity is depressed by long-term exposure to the stress hormone

cortisol

63

Functions of testosterone include:

sex drive, development of male physique, and development of the male reproductive system.

64

Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone are both synthesized in the ____ and released from the posterior pituitary.

Hypothalamus

65

Describe the fate of hormones.

They are degraded by the liver and kidneys

66

Local hormone substances called ______ do not travel to their target cells by way of the blood, but diffuse from their source to nearby cells in the same tissue.

Paracrine messengers

67

In childbirth, the hormone _____ stimulates labor contractions. In lactating mothers, it stimulates the flow of milk from the mammary gland to the nipple.

Oxytocin

68

The gland that is attached to the roof of the third ventricle of the brain, beneath the posterior end of the corpus callosum is the ____ gland.

pineal

69

The ovoid glands partially embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid are the ______ glands.

parathyroid

70

During and immediately following a carbohydrate rich meal, the beta cells of the pancreas secrete the hormone ____.

Insulin

71

Effects in which one hormone enhances the target organ's response to a second hormone that is secreted later are called _____ effects.

Permissive

72

List the hormones produced by the heart.

Atrial natriuetic peptide and brain natriuetic peptide

73

Name a hypoglycemic hormone

insulin

74

List the functions of transport proteins

Protect hormones from enzyme breakdown and from filtering by kidneys

75

The reaction to stress is mediated mainly by:

both the endocrine system and the sympathetic nervous system

76

Endocrine secretions interact with their target cells and lead to:

intracellular changes

77

The chemical class of hormones that are synthesized from cholesterol and differ mainly in the functional groups attached to the four-ringed backbone are classified as _____ hormones.

Steroid

78

Name the glands that secretes steroid hormones.

ovary, testes, and adrenal cortex

79

The SPECIFIC target for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is the _________

adrenal cortex

80

Hypothalamic hormones inhibit the release of hormones from the ____ _____ gland.

anterior pituatary

81

PTH is secreted in response to low levels of the mineral

calcium

82

The hormone ____ stimulates mitosis and cellular differentiation and thus promotes tissue growth throughout the body.

growth hormone

83

Target cells can become less sensitive to a hormone by decreasing the number of receptors in a process called:

down-regulation

84

Growth hormone (GH) is produced throughout your lifetime. During which period are its effects most evident?

Childhood

85

Once arachidonic acid is liberated from the plasma membrane, it is converted by cycooxygenase to three eicosanoids:

thromboxaned, prostaycyclin, and prostaglandins

86

The growth if public and axillary hair during puberty is associated with the group of adrenal cortical hormones called:

androgens

87

The main adrenal estrogen is ____ which has minor importance to women of reproductive age because its quantity is small compared with estrogen from the ovaries

estradiol

88

The thyroid gland is composed of sacs called ______, which are filled with a protein-rich colloid

follicles

89

List the three mechanisms used to regulate the timing and amount of pituitary secretion.

Hypothalamus control, control by brain centers other than hypothalamus, and feedback from target organs

90

The hormone that inhibits osteoclast activity and thus prevents an increase in blood calcium levels is ____

calcitonin

91

The gland that secretes several hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulate the development and activity and T cells is the

thymus

92

Pancreatic beta cells secrete ____ during and immediately following a meal.

insulin

93

The ____ system has widespread effects while the ____ innervates one organ at a time.

endocrine, nervous

94

In addition to providing fetal nutrition and waste removal, estrogen from the ____ inhibits the mammary glands from responding to prolactin; thus milk is not secreted until birth.

placenta

95

The ____ acts as both an endocrine gland and as a ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system.

adrenal medulla

96

List the hormones secreted by the thymus gland.

Thymopoietin and thymulin

97

The thymus is located:

in the mediastinum

98

The nervous system is similar to the endocrine system in both work through chemical messengers to affect physiological responses. However, the nervous system is _____ in its response.

faster

99

The gland that is a site of maturation for T lymphocytes (cells that are critically important for immune defense) is the ____

thymus

100

The endocrine and nervous system are alike in that:

both use chemical messengers for communication

101

The two lobes of the thyroid gland are joined by a narrow anterior bridge of tissue called the _____

isthmus

102

Increased heat production is called a ____ effect.

calorigenic

103

Name the endocrine organ that is located in the scrotum.

Testis

104

List an example of two hormones that work as synergists.

FSH and testosterone

105

The pituitary stimulates another endocrine gland to secrete its hormone. Then, this second hormone signals the pituitary to inhibit further secretion of the initial pituitary hormone. This is an example of ____ feedback inhibition.

negative

106

Describe the physiological basis for gigantism and dwarfism.

Gigantism results from hypersecretion of GH, while dwarfism results from hyposecretion of GH

107

One hormone molecule can stimulate the synthesis of hundreds of other enzyme molecules. This is known as:

signal amplification

108

The thyroid gland contains areas of C (clear) cells, also called ____ cells, between the follicles.

parafollicular

109

Growth hormone stimulates the liver and other tissues to produce growth stimulants called insulin-like growth factors. These are also called:

somatomedins

110

The body's reaction to stress is fairly consistent. It is called a ____ or a stress response.

general adaptation syndrome

111

The term that refers to the blood glucose concentration is

glycemia

112

Located between the seminiferous tubules are clusters of ____ cells. These cells are the source of testosterone and the other sex steroids.

interstitial

113

The catecholamine ____ is said to have a glucose-sparing effect because it inhibits the secretion of insulin. This effect promotes utilization of glucose by muscle or liver.

epinephrine

114

Glands that secrete their products into interstitial fluid or blood are called ___ glands.

endocrine

115

Many of the functions of the ____ are carried out by way of the pituitary gland, which is closely associated with it both anatomically and physiologically.

hypothalamus

116

The source of mineralocorticoids is the zona ____ from the adrenal cortex.

glomerulosa

117

Steroid hormones and thyroid hormone are ___ and must bind to hydrophillic transport proteins to their destination.

hydrophobic

118

The function of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) can best be described as:

stimulating the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids.

119

Cells calld spongiocytes are found withing the zona ____ of the adrenal cortex.

fasciculata

120

The _____ gland is unique in that it is large in the fetus and infant, but is a small remnant in the elderly.

thymus

121

The pancreas produces insulin and digestive enzymes. What can be said about its function

It has both endocrine and exocrine functions.

122

The ovaries are located

retroperitoneal in the pelvic cavity

123

_____ is the term for the condition in which all the receptor molecules are occupied by hormone molecules

saturation

124

The two layers of the adrenal gland that secrete glucocorticoids and androgens are the zona _________ and the zona __________.

fasciculata and reticluaris

125

Define bound hormone

A bound hormone is one attached to a transport protein

126

The pancreatic hormone that inhibits some digestive enzyme secretion and nutrient absorption is

somatostatin

127

The more abundant hormone secreted by the thyroid gland is:

thyroxine (T4)

128

A monoamine synthesized from tryptophan is

melatonin

129

Adipose tissue secretes the hormone _____ which has effects on the appetite center of the hypothalamus.

leptin

130

How does cortisol function in the stage of resistance?

Promotes the breakdown of fat and protein

131

The phase of the general adaptation syndrome that is dominated by cortisol is

the stage of resistance

132

How do thromboxanes function?

They stimulate vasoconstriction and clotting


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