When peptides and catecholamines bind to the target cell, they stimulate its physiology indirectly using:
_____ is a potent glucocorticoid that stimulates fat and protein catabolism, gluconeogensis, and release of fatty acids into the blood.
List three types of interactive effects hormones can have on their target organs.
Steroid hormones enter the target cell nucleus and act directly on the ___, changing target cell physiology by either activating or inhibiting transcription.
Name the mechanisms by which cell-to-cell communication can be accomplished.
The hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland that helps maintain blood pressure and blood volume is:
The endocrine gland called the ____ is an elongated, spongy, gland located below and behind the stomach, and is primarily an exocrine digestive gland.
The ovaries and testes are considered ____ glands because they secrete whole cells (the egg and the sperm).
List, in the order of occurence, the stage of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS).
The region of the adrenal gland indicated by the RED arrow in the figure is the adrenal ____
The hormone called _______ hormone stimulates the secretion of ovarian sex hormones and the development of the ovarian follicles.
The endocrine gland called the ____ may play a role in establishing 24-hour circadian rhythms synchronized with light and dark.
List the second-messenger system actions in the order the occur.
Steroid hormones diffuse through the phospholipid regions of the target cell membrane and into the ___ where they bind to a receptor.
Name the endocrine gland housed in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone (also called the hypophyseal gland):
Parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland secrete _____ in response to rising blood calcium.
The hormones that antagonizes the effects of glucagon by suppressing the breakdown of glycogen is ____
It is difficult for steroids and thyroid hormone to travel through the blood because they are ____
List the catecholamines secreted by the adrenal medulla.
The gland located immediately below the larynx that is shaped like a butterfly is the ____ gland.
The hormone ___ directly stimulates development of the male reproductive system, secondary sexual characteristics, and sustains sperm production and the sex drive throughout adult life.
Name the two hormones that are stored and released by the posterior pituitary.
Cells and organs that have specific receptors for hormones are referred to as ___ cells and organs.
The groups of hormones from the adrenal cortex called ____ have various developmental and reproductive functions.
The pituitary gland is composed of two structures: the posterior is called the neurohypophysis and the anterior is called the
Glands that secrete their product by way of a duct directly onto an epithelial surface are called _____ glands.
Weak adrenal cortical androgens which possess little biological activity are converted to the much more potent androgen called ____
The hormone that is secreted by the kidneys and liver and which stimulates red blood cell production is
The pituitary hormone that functions to reduce urine volume and increase blood volume is:
After synthesis in the skin, the version of Vitamin D called ____ is converted in the liver and then sent to the kidneys to be converted to calcitriol.
Unlike the other pituitary hormones, this hormone does not target just one or a few organs, but has widespread effects on the body.
The anterior pituitary hormones, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are classified as _____ hormones because they target and stimulate the release of hormones from the gonads.
The hormone secreted from alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood glucose is ____
The roles of estrogen and progesterone include:
The adrenal cortex is composed of ____ layers of tissue which differ in their histology and hormone output.
Functions of testosterone include:
Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone are both synthesized in the ____ and released from the posterior pituitary.
Local hormone substances called ______ do not travel to their target cells by way of the blood, but diffuse from their source to nearby cells in the same tissue.
In childbirth, the hormone _____ stimulates labor contractions. In lactating mothers, it stimulates the flow of milk from the mammary gland to the nipple.
The gland that is attached to the roof of the third ventricle of the brain, beneath the posterior end of the corpus callosum is the ____ gland.
The ovoid glands partially embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid are the ______ glands.
During and immediately following a carbohydrate rich meal, the beta cells of the pancreas secrete the hormone ____.
Effects in which one hormone enhances the target organ's response to a second hormone that is secreted later are called _____ effects.
List the functions of transport proteins
The reaction to stress is mediated mainly by:
The chemical class of hormones that are synthesized from cholesterol and differ mainly in the functional groups attached to the four-ringed backbone are classified as _____ hormones.
Hypothalamic hormones inhibit the release of hormones from the ____ _____ gland.
The hormone ____ stimulates mitosis and cellular differentiation and thus promotes tissue growth throughout the body.
Target cells can become less sensitive to a hormone by decreasing the number of receptors in a process called:
Growth hormone (GH) is produced throughout your lifetime. During which period are its effects most evident?
Once arachidonic acid is liberated from the plasma membrane, it is converted by cycooxygenase to three eicosanoids:
The growth if public and axillary hair during puberty is associated with the group of adrenal cortical hormones called:
The main adrenal estrogen is ____ which has minor importance to women of reproductive age because its quantity is small compared with estrogen from the ovaries
The thyroid gland is composed of sacs called ______, which are filled with a protein-rich colloid
List the three mechanisms used to regulate the timing and amount of pituitary secretion.
The hormone that inhibits osteoclast activity and thus prevents an increase in blood calcium levels is ____
The gland that secretes several hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulate the development and activity and T cells is the
The ____ system has widespread effects while the ____ innervates one organ at a time.
In addition to providing fetal nutrition and waste removal, estrogen from the ____ inhibits the mammary glands from responding to prolactin; thus milk is not secreted until birth.
The ____ acts as both an endocrine gland and as a ganglion of the sympathetic nervous system.
The nervous system is similar to the endocrine system in both work through chemical messengers to affect physiological responses. However, the nervous system is _____ in its response.
The gland that is a site of maturation for T lymphocytes (cells that are critically important for immune defense) is the ____
The endocrine and nervous system are alike in that:
The two lobes of the thyroid gland are joined by a narrow anterior bridge of tissue called the _____
The pituitary stimulates another endocrine gland to secrete its hormone. Then, this second hormone signals the pituitary to inhibit further secretion of the initial pituitary hormone. This is an example of ____ feedback inhibition.
Describe the physiological basis for gigantism and dwarfism.
One hormone molecule can stimulate the synthesis of hundreds of other enzyme molecules. This is known as:
The thyroid gland contains areas of C (clear) cells, also called ____ cells, between the follicles.
Growth hormone stimulates the liver and other tissues to produce growth stimulants called insulin-like growth factors. These are also called:
The body's reaction to stress is fairly consistent. It is called a ____ or a stress response.
Located between the seminiferous tubules are clusters of ____ cells. These cells are the source of testosterone and the other sex steroids.
The catecholamine ____ is said to have a glucose-sparing effect because it inhibits the secretion of insulin. This effect promotes utilization of glucose by muscle or liver.
Glands that secrete their products into interstitial fluid or blood are called ___ glands.
Many of the functions of the ____ are carried out by way of the pituitary gland, which is closely associated with it both anatomically and physiologically.
Steroid hormones and thyroid hormone are ___ and must bind to hydrophillic transport proteins to their destination.
The function of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) can best be described as:
The _____ gland is unique in that it is large in the fetus and infant, but is a small remnant in the elderly.
The pancreas produces insulin and digestive enzymes. What can be said about its function
_____ is the term for the condition in which all the receptor molecules are occupied by hormone molecules
The two layers of the adrenal gland that secrete glucocorticoids and androgens are the zona _________ and the zona __________.
The pancreatic hormone that inhibits some digestive enzyme secretion and nutrient absorption is
Adipose tissue secretes the hormone _____ which has effects on the appetite center of the hypothalamus.
The phase of the general adaptation syndrome that is dominated by cortisol is