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Micro Bio Chp 14 Exam 4

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Medical Micro Kingwood Tx

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1

Which of the following is NOT an example of symbiosis?

microbes passing across the placenta to the fetus

2

Mutualism is a relationship

that sometimes provides benefits for both members such that one or both parties cannot live without the other.

3

A protozoan and its resident bacteria invade the body of a worm. The bacteria releases toxins and exoenzymes that immobile and digest the worm, and the protozoan and bacteria absorb the nutrients produced. the relationship between the protozoan and the bacteria would best be described as

mutualism

4

the fungus Pneumocystis jiroveci is found in the lungs of most people in low numbers, but in immunocompromised people it overgrows resulting in severe respiratory problems. The fungus is best described as

both resident microbiota and opportunistic pathogen

5

Chagas' disease is transmitted by a but with mouthparts that penetrate blood vessels. Which type of exposure does this represent?

parenteral route

6

Symptoms are

subjective characteristics of a disease that only the patient can feel

7

The close contact between newborns and family members allow them to become ____ with microbes that become established as their microbiota.

contaminated

8

In which of the following do the mucous membranes serve as a portal of entry for disease?

A pathogen is introduced into the body when the person rubs the eye with contaminated fingers and the pathogen is washed into the nasal cavity by the way of tears.

9

Which of the following statements regarding the demonstration of the etiology of disease is FALSE?

The suspect agent must be the only potential pathogen present in disease cases.

10

Which of the following situations is NOT a way in which a baby acquires normal microbiota?

Microbes cross the placenta during pregnancy.

11

Which of the following situations might cause normal microbiota to become opportunistic pathogens?

treatment of a cancer patient with radiation

12

Which of the following is considered part of the indigenous microbiota of the female reproductive system?

both Candida and Lactobacillus

13

Which of the following is an example of an exotoxin?

neurotoxin

14

Among the virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus aureus are hemolysin, coagulase, hyaluronidase, and enterotoxin. Which of these factors contribute to the ability of S. aureus to invade the body?

hyaluronidase

15

Which of the following stages of an infectious disease is the most severe?

the illness period

16

Which of the following is transmitted by the parenteral route?

yellow fever

17

Which of the following is considered a mechanical vector transmission?

cockroach transmission of Shigella

18

Which of the following is a sign of disease?

fever

19

A nosocomial disease if a a disease acquired

in a health care facility

20

Diseases that are induced by modern medical procedures are referred to as _____ infections.

iatrogenic

21

the bacterium that causes tuberculosis can be expelled fro the lungs by a cough and remain viable in the air for an hour or more. If a person inhales the bacteria from the air, what type of transmission has occurred?

airborne

22

a person is exposed to desert air containing fungus spores and develops valley fever as a result. Valley fever is an example of a ______ disease.

noncommunicable

23

In early spring 2009, the CDC reported several dozen cases of novel H1N1 influenza (swine flu) in the united states. By the summer, the number of confirmed cases was reported as over 40,000. The pattern of novel H1N1 cases in the United States represents an ________ disease.

epidemic

24

the incidence of tuberculosis in the year 2000 in the United States was 12.43/100,000 cases. this means

there were 12.43 new cases of tuberculosis for every 100,000 people in the United States in the year 2000

25

A strain of Neisseria gonorrhea has a mutation which has caused it to lose the ability to produce fimbriae and become less virulent as a consequence. What function has this pathogen lost?

the ability to adhere to cells of the body

26

In the wake of the cyclone that his Myanmar (southeast asia) in 2008, there were widespread reports of typhoid fever. Which of the following was the most likely mode of transmission?

contaminated water

27

Which of the following types of epidemiology applies Koch's postulates to study a disease?

experimental

28

Aerosols may be involved in _____ transmission of pathogens.

droplet

29

Fomites are

inanimate objects involved in the indirect contact transmission of pathogens.

30

Which of the following pairings of microbe and disease was disproven using Koch's postulates?

Haemophilus influenzae and the flu

31

Which of the following diseases may be reduced by improved public sanitation measures?

cholera

32

Which of the following is the correct sequence of a disease process?

incubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescence

33

Two children attend the same daycare, but one child is at daycare in the morning and the other child attends the daycare facility in the afternoon. Both children become ill with fifth disease within a day of each other. How might the pathogen have infected both children?

fomite transmission

34

treatment with high doses of antibiotics may lead to which type of nosocomial infection?

endogenous infection

35

Which of the following combinations of pathogen and virulence factor is correct?

Streptococcus pyogenes and protein M

36

A pathogen is best described as

any microorganism that causes disease

37

Microbes known as transient microbiota are

organisms that remain in the body for a short time.

38

The taxonomic approach to classifying disease is based on the

type of microbe that causes the disease

39

Organisms that are resident microbiota are best described as

microorganisms that remain with the person throughout life.

40

A new influenza strain appears and is spreading rapidly. What measures might be taken by public health agencies to stop the spread?

educate the public, promote vaccination, and treat those who are infected.

41

Commensalism is best described as a

relationship between two organisms where only one member benefits and the other is unharmed.

42

The condition called parasitism is characterized as a

relationship between two organisms where one member harms the other.

43

An axenic environment is one

that is free of microbes

44

the condition known as microbial antagonism may be defined as

an unsuccessful microbial invasion due to the presence of preexisting microbes.

45

A reservoir is

a source of microbial contamination

46

Toxins that affect the lining of the gastrointestinal tract are (endotoxins/ enterotoxins/ exotoxins).

enterotoxins

47

The degree to which a microbe is able to cause disease is know as its (morbidity/ virulence/ toxicity).

virulence

48

Places in the body where there is no normal microbiota are referred to as (sterile/ aseptic/ axenic).

Axenic

49

nervous system function may be impaired by the action of (endotoxins/ neurotoxins/ cytotoxins).

neurotoxins

50

the (incubation/ morbidity/ prodromal) period is the time between infection and the occurrence of the first symptoms or signs of the disease.

incubation

51

Staphylococcus bacteria are commonly present in the human nasal cavity but rarely cause disease of the upper respiratory system. this situation is an example of (commensalism/ mutualism/ parasitism).

commensalism

52

Lipid A is an (cytotoxin/ endotoxin/ exotoxin) that stimulates the body to release chemicals that cause fever, inflammation, diarrhea, hemorrhaging, shock, and blood coagulation.

endotoxin

53

Persons with asymptomatic infections may be (contaminants/ reservoirs/ zoonoses) of disease.

reservoirs

54

Spread of pathogens from one host to another by fomites is an example of (vehicle/ direct/ indirect) contact transmission.

indirect

55

Biological (sources/ vectors/ carriers) not only transmit pathogens, but also serve as hosts for the manipulation of the pathogen during some phase of the pathogens life cycle.

vectors

56

The bacterium that causes cholera is capable of living independently in freshwater. As a consequence, cholera epidemics primarily involve (nonliving/ animal/ zoonotic) reservoirs.

nonliving

57

the study of the cause of disease is known as (epidemiology/ etiology).

etiology

58

The hepatitis C virus normally establishes a (latent/ chronic/ subclinical) infection and may be asymptomatic for a decade.

latent

59

the study of when and where diseases occur is known as (analytical/ descriptive/ experimental) epidemiology.

descriptive

60

Visions attach to target host cell by means of (capsules/ receptors/ ligands).

ligands

61

The large population of pathogenic microbes found in health care settings contribute to (nosocomial/ iatrogenic/ epidemic) infections.

nosocomial


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