Chapter 10 - Muscles that Move the Scapula and Arm

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Pectoralis Minor

Draws scapula forward and down


Serratus Anterior

  • Moves scapula upwards, out (abduction) and forward.
  • “boxers muscle”


Stabilizes, raises (shrug shoulder), retracts (adduct), rotates scapula. Also extend head and neck


Levator Scapulae

Elevates/adducts the scapula


Rhomboids (Major & Minor)

Retracts, adducts and depresses scapula (moves scapula back, together, and down) like downward motion of paddling a canoe

squaring shoulders


Pectoralis Major

Prime mover of arm flexion and adduction; rotates forearm medially;

Can help in climbing, throwing, and pushing


Latissimus Dorsi

Prime mover of arm extension and adduction;

M edially rotates arm at shoulder.

Bringing the arm down in a power stroke (striking a blow, hammering, swimming, and rowing)



Prime mover of arm abduction when all fibers active

Front fibers: arm flexion. Back fibers: arm extension. (arms during walking)


List the Rotator Cuff Muscles



Teres Minor



Rotator Cuff Muscles

Main function is to Reinforce the capsule of the shoulder joint to prevent dislocation of the humerus.

Sports that involve a lot of shoulder rotation put these muscles under stress à pitching, bowling, swimming


Teres Major

Extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus

synergist of latissimus dorsi

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