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Ch. 24 - Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation

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1

Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state? Question options:

No metabolism occurs.

Catabolic processes exceed anabolic ones.

Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.

Only glucose metabolism occurs.

Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.

2

Heat-loss mechanisms do not include ________. Question options:

reducing activity

vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels

the evaporation of sweat

behavior measures such as wearing light, loose clothing

vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels

3

Which of the following is not a function of LDLs? Question options:

influence cholesterol synthesis in tissue cells

regulate cholesterol synthesis in tissue cells

transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver

make cholesterol available to tissue cells for membrane or hormone synthesis

transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver

4

Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor? Question options:

the way skeletal muscles break down glycogen

the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body

an individual's body weight

the way an individual metabolizes fat

the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body

5

Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance? Question options:

A negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining homeostasis.

It is a condition usually caused by having a diet low in fish and meat.

It occurs when amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and carried to the bloodstream.

Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.

Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.

6

Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________. Question options:

glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors

glycogen is broken down to release glucose

glucose is converted into carbon dioxide and water

glycogen is formed

glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors

7

Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________. Question options:

converted to urea

transferred to a keto acid

transferred to acetyl CoA

converted to ammonia

transferred to a keto acid

8

Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________. Question options:

liver

blood

muscles

kidneys

liver

9

Lipogenesis occurs when ________. Question options:

excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane

there is a shortage of fatty acids

glucose levels drop slightly

cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

10

Glucose can be obtained from ________. Question options:

glycogenolysis

lipogenesis

protein anabolism

triglyceride anabolism

glycogenolysis

11

Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________. Question options:

postabsorptive state

period when the metabolic rate is lowest

starvation period

absorptive state

absorptive state

12

When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________. Question options:

glycogen

lactic acid

fatty acids

amino acids

fatty acids

13

The term metabolism is best defined as ________. Question options:

the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats

biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy

a measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories

the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day

biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy

14

Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center? Question options:

increase in ADH production

sympathetic sweat gland activation

vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels

release of epinephrine

release of epinephrine

15

Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________. Question options:

builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state

causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies

elevates glucagon levels

breaks down complex structures to simpler ones

breaks down complex structures to simpler ones

16

In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state. Question options:

pyruvic acid

glyceraldehyde

ammonia

oxaloacetic acid

oxaloacetic acid

17

What is the outcome of ketosis? Question options:

metabolic alkalosis

glucogenesis

water retention and edema

metabolic acidosis

glycogen buildup

metabolic acidosis

18

Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized? Question options:

vitamins and minerals

fats

proteins

foods and beverages high in caffeine

fats

19

Which of the following is the most important function of the liver? Question options:

carbohydrate and lipid metabolism

processing of drugs and hormones and activation of vitamin D

protein metabolism

synthesis of bile salts

protein metabolism

20

Which of the choices below is not a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body?

conversion to a nucleic acid

lipogenesis

glycogenesis

amino acid synthesis

ATP production

conversion to a nucleic acid

21

Which of the following is not true of beta oxidation?

Fatty acids are broken into acetic acid fragments.

Every second carbon is reduced.

It involves the anabolism of fats.

It occurs in the mitochondrion.

It involves the anabolism of fats.

22

Which of the choices below is not a major route of heat exchange?

evaporation

radiation

conduction/convection

shivering

shivering

23

Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration? Question options:

oxidation reactions

substrate-level phosphorylation

oxidation-reduction reactions

oxidative phosphorylation

oxidative phosphorylation

24

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________. Question options:

all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization

most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

very few foods contain vitamins

vitamins provide protection against the common cold

most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

25

Oxidation reduction reactions ________. Question options:

occur via the gain of hydrogen or the loss of oxygen

may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons

are rarely coupled together

utilize hydrogenases

may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons

26

Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria? Question options:

electron transport

formation of malic acid from fumaric acid

Krebs cycle

glycolysis

glycolysis

27

Select the correct statement about proteins. Question options:

Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis.

Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids.

Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.

Proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present.

Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.

28

Which of the following molecules are considered key molecules at metabolic crossroads? Question options:

glucose-6-phosphate, pyruvic acid, acetyl CoA

acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, ATP

ATP, pyruvic acid, lactic acid

glucose-6-phosphate, lactic acid, acetyl CoA

glucose-6-phosphate, pyruvic acid, acetyl CoA

29

When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly________. Question options:

acetyl CoA

ketone bodies

urea

ammonia

urea

30

When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may ________. Question options:

shiver

exhibit vasodilation of skin vessels

pant

perspire heavily

shiver

31

The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________. Question options:

muscle mass and metabolism decline with age

they spend most of the day at rest, and their food will quickly turn to fat

they have a higher metabolic rate and do not need large amounts of food

their appetite begins to diminish

muscle mass and metabolism decline with age

32

Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________. Question options:

conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water

formation of sugar

conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water

conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid

conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid

33

Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________. Question options:

enters the glycolytic pathway without being altered

is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones

helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation

helps provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs

is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones

34

The term metabolic rate reflects the ________. Question options:

loss of energy to perspiration

loss of organic molecules in urine

energy needed to make all organic molecules

energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities

energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities

35

The most abundant dietary lipids are ________. Question options:

cholesterol

fatty acids

triglycerides

phospholipids

triglycerides

36

Dietary fats are important because they ________. Question options:

help prevent the common cold

help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins

contribute significantly to the health of the skin

keep blood pressure normal

help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins

37

Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state? Question options:

thyroid hormone

growth hormone

insulin

epinephrine

insulin

38

Loss of heat in the form of infrared waves is termed ________. Question options:

evaporation

conduction

radiation

convection

radiation

39

Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement? Question options:

The amino acid pool is the body’s total supply of amino acids in the body’s proteins.

Amino acids can be used to supply energy only after being converted to a carbohydrate intermediate.

Fats and carbohydrates are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy.

Excess carbohydrate and fat can be stored as such, whereas excess amino acids are oxidized for energy or converted to fat or glycogen for storage.

The amino acid pool is the body’s total supply of amino acids in the body’s proteins.

40

Anabolism includes reactions in which ________. Question options:

structural proteins are used as a potential energy source

ketone bodies are formed

carbohydrate utilization increases

larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

41

Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ________. Question options:

adequate fat calories to provide adequate ATP formation

ammonia combining with oxygen to form urea

adequate essential amino acids

excessive amounts of protein in the diet

excessive amounts of protein in the diet

42

As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids. Question options:

liver

brain

spleen

pancreas

brain

43

The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________. Question options:

provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals

determine the amount of heat needed by the human body

break down food molecules and generate ATP

efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body

break down food molecules and generate ATP

44

The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR. Question options:

thyroxine

norepinephrine

prolactin

ADH

thyroxine

45

What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work? Question options:

cellular respiration

glycolysis

phosphorylation

beta oxidation

phosphorylation

46

In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ________. Question options:

production of energy

formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes

production of some hormones

production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies

production of energy

47

Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state? Question options:

catabolism of cellular protein

absorption of glucose from the GI tract

glycogenolysis in the liver

lipolysis in adipose tissues and the liver

absorption of glucose from the GI tract

48

Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by which of the following enzymes? Question options:

synthetases and lipases

kinases and phosphorylases

phosphatases and kinases

dehydrogenases and oxidases

dehydrogenases and oxidases

49

Which of the following statements best describes complete protein? Question options:

derived from meat and fish only

meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet

must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth

derived only from legumes and other plant material

must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth

50

In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose. Question options:

glucagon

glyceraldehyde

glycerol

glycogen

glycerol

51

Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)? Question options:

glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain

gluconeogenesis, Krebs cycle, lipolysis

lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation

glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation

52

The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________. Question options:

lipolysis

gluconeogenesis

lipogenesis

fat utilization

lipolysis

53

Which of the following is correct? Question options:

Oxidation of FADH2 eventually yields four ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.

Glycolysis relies on substrate-level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway.

Most of the ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.

Most ATP from cellular respiration are produced directly in the Krebs cycle.

Oxidation of FADH2 eventually yields four ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.

54

Prostaglandins play a role in ________. Question options:

control of blood pressure

skeletal muscle contraction

noninflammatory responses

control of blood volume

control of blood pressure

55

Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins? Question options:

lima beans, kidney beans, nuts, and cereals

corn, cottonseed oil, soy oil, and wheat germ

eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish

egg yolk, fish roe, and grains

eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish


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