Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state? Question options:
No metabolism occurs.
Catabolic processes exceed anabolic ones.
Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.
Only glucose metabolism occurs.
Heat-loss mechanisms do not include ________. Question options:
vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels
the evaporation of sweat
behavior measures such as wearing light, loose clothing
Which of the following is not a function of LDLs? Question options:
influence cholesterol synthesis in tissue cells
regulate cholesterol synthesis in tissue cells
transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver
make cholesterol available to tissue cells for membrane or hormone synthesis
Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor? Question options:
the way skeletal muscles break down glycogen
the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body
an individual's body weight
the way an individual metabolizes fat
Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance? Question options:
A negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining homeostasis.
It is a condition usually caused by having a diet low in fish and meat.
It occurs when amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and carried to the bloodstream.
Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.
Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________. Question options:
glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors
glycogen is broken down to release glucose
glucose is converted into carbon dioxide and water
glycogen is formed
Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________. Question options:
converted to urea
transferred to a keto acid
transferred to acetyl CoA
converted to ammonia
Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________. Question options:
Lipogenesis occurs when ________. Question options:
excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane
there is a shortage of fatty acids
glucose levels drop slightly
cellular ATP and glucose levels are high
Glucose can be obtained from ________. Question options:
Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________. Question options:
period when the metabolic rate is lowest
When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________. Question options:
The term metabolism is best defined as ________. Question options:
the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats
biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules for energy
a measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories
the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day
Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center? Question options:
increase in ADH production
sympathetic sweat gland activation
vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels
release of epinephrine
Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________. Question options:
builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state
causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies
elevates glucagon levels
breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state. Question options:
What is the outcome of ketosis? Question options:
water retention and edema
Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized? Question options:
vitamins and minerals
foods and beverages high in caffeine
Which of the following is the most important function of the liver? Question options:
carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
processing of drugs and hormones and activation of vitamin D
synthesis of bile salts
Which of the choices below is not a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body?
conversion to a nucleic acid
amino acid synthesis
Which of the following is not true of beta oxidation?
Fatty acids are broken into acetic acid fragments.
Every second carbon is reduced.
It involves the anabolism of fats.
It occurs in the mitochondrion.
Which of the choices below is not a major route of heat exchange?
Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration? Question options:
It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________. Question options:
all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization
most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
very few foods contain vitamins
vitamins provide protection against the common cold
Oxidation reduction reactions ________. Question options:
occur via the gain of hydrogen or the loss of oxygen
may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons
are rarely coupled together
Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria? Question options:
formation of malic acid from fumaric acid
Select the correct statement about proteins. Question options:
Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis.
Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids.
Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
Proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present.
Which of the following molecules are considered key molecules at metabolic crossroads? Question options:
glucose-6-phosphate, pyruvic acid, acetyl CoA
acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, ATP
ATP, pyruvic acid, lactic acid
glucose-6-phosphate, lactic acid, acetyl CoA
When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly________. Question options:
When a person's hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body temperature is below that level, the person may ________. Question options:
exhibit vasodilation of skin vessels
The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________. Question options:
muscle mass and metabolism decline with age
they spend most of the day at rest, and their food will quickly turn to fat
they have a higher metabolic rate and do not need large amounts of food
their appetite begins to diminish
Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________. Question options:
conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water
formation of sugar
conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water
conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
Cholesterol, though it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________. Question options:
enters the glycolytic pathway without being altered
is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation
helps provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs
The term metabolic rate reflects the ________. Question options:
loss of energy to perspiration
loss of organic molecules in urine
energy needed to make all organic molecules
energy the body needs to perform only its most essential activities
The most abundant dietary lipids are ________. Question options:
Dietary fats are important because they ________. Question options:
help prevent the common cold
help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins
contribute significantly to the health of the skin
keep blood pressure normal
Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state? Question options:
Loss of heat in the form of infrared waves is termed ________. Question options:
Which of the following statements is a false or incorrect statement? Question options:
The amino acid pool is the body’s total supply of amino acids in the body’s proteins.
Amino acids can be used to supply energy only after being converted to a carbohydrate intermediate.
Fats and carbohydrates are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy.
Excess carbohydrate and fat can be stored as such, whereas excess amino acids are oxidized for energy or converted to fat or glycogen for storage.
Anabolism includes reactions in which ________. Question options:
structural proteins are used as a potential energy source
ketone bodies are formed
carbohydrate utilization increases
larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ________. Question options:
adequate fat calories to provide adequate ATP formation
ammonia combining with oxygen to form urea
adequate essential amino acids
excessive amounts of protein in the diet
As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________ continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids. Question options:
The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________. Question options:
provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals
determine the amount of heat needed by the human body
break down food molecules and generate ATP
efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body
The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR. Question options:
What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work? Question options:
In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following except ________. Question options:
production of energy
formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes
production of some hormones
production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies
Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state? Question options:
catabolism of cellular protein
absorption of glucose from the GI tract
glycogenolysis in the liver
lipolysis in adipose tissues and the liver
Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by which of the following enzymes? Question options:
synthetases and lipases
kinases and phosphorylases
phosphatases and kinases
dehydrogenases and oxidases
Which of the following statements best describes complete protein? Question options:
derived from meat and fish only
meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet
must meet all the body's amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth
derived only from legumes and other plant material
In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose. Question options:
Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)? Question options:
glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain
gluconeogenesis, Krebs cycle, lipolysis
lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation
The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________. Question options:
Which of the following is correct? Question options:
Oxidation of FADH2 eventually yields four ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.
Glycolysis relies on substrate-level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway.
Most of the ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.
Most ATP from cellular respiration are produced directly in the Krebs cycle.
Prostaglandins play a role in ________. Question options:
control of blood pressure
skeletal muscle contraction
control of blood volume