GROSS ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEY

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1

The kidneys lie on either side of the spine in the _____________ space between the parietal _________ and the posterior ______________, well protected by muscle, fat, and ribs.

retroperitoneal; peritoneum; abdominal wall

2

They are roughly the size of your fist, and the male kidney is typically a bit _______ than the female kidney.

larger

3

The kidneys are well ___________, receiving about _____ of the cardiac output at rest.

vascularized; 25%

4

The left kidney is located at about the ________ vertebrae, whereas the right is lower owing to slight displacement by the liver.

T12 to L3

5

Upper portions of the kidneys are somewhat protected by the _________________ ribs (Figure 21.6).

eleventh and twelfth

6

Each kidney weighs about __________g in males and _______ g in females.

125–175; 115–155

7

Kidneys are about ______ cm in length, _ cm wide and _ cm thick,

11–14;

6;

4

8

Kidneys are directly covered by a fibrous capsule composed of _______________ connective tissue that helps to hold their shape and protect them.

dense irregular

9

This capsule is covered by a shock-absorbing layer of adipose tissue called the _____________, which in turn is encompassed by a tough renal fascia.

renal fat pad

10

The fascia and, to a lesser extent, the overlying peritoneum serve to firmly anchor the kidneys to the posterior abdominal wall in a ____________ position.

retroperitoneal

11

On the superior aspect of each kidney is the adrenal gland. The _______________ directly influences renal function through the production of the hormone aldosterone to stimulate Na+ reabsorption.

adrenal cortex

12

frontal section through the kidney reveals an outer region called the ______________ and an inner region called the ___________ (Figure 21.7).

renal cortex; medulla

13

The_____________ are connective tissue extensions that radiate downward from the cortex through the medulla to separate the most characteristic features of the medulla, the ____________, and ____________

renal columns; renal pyramids, renal papillae

14

The _____________ are bundles of collecting ducts that transport urine made by nephrons to the __________ of the kidney for excretion.

renal papillae; calyces

15

The renal columns also serve to divide the kidney into ____________ lobes and provide a supportive framework for vessels that enter and exit the cortex.

six to eight

16

The _________ and renal columns taken together constitute the kidney lobes.

pyramids

17

The _______________ is the entry and exit site for structures servicing the kidneys: vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and ureters. The medial-facing hila are tucked into the sweeping convex outline of the cortex.

renal hilum

18

Emerging from the hilum is the _______________, which is formed from the major and minor calyxes in the kidney.

renal pelvis

19

The smooth muscle in the renal pelvis funnels urine via _________ into the ureter.

peristalsis

20

The renal arteries form directly from the _______________, whereas the renal veins return cleansed blood directly to the ____________. The artery, vein, and renal pelvis are arranged in an anterior-to-posterior order.

descending aorta; inferior vena cava

21

The renal artery first divides into _________ arteries, followed by further branching to form _________ arteries that pass through the renal columns to reach the cortex (Figure 21.8).

segmental; interlobar

22

The_______ arteries, in turn, branch into __________ arteries, ___________ arteries, and then into afferent arterioles.

interlobar; arcuate; cortical radiate;

23

The afferent arterioles service about ___________________ in each kidney

1.3 million nephrons

24

____________ are the “functional units” of the kidney; they cleanse the blood and balance the constituents of the circulation.

Nephrons

25

The afferent arterioles form a tuft of high-pressure capillaries about 200 µm in diameter, the ______________.

glomerulus

26

The rest of the nephron consists of a continuous sophisticated tubule whose proximal end surrounds the glomerulus in an intimate embrace (this is _________________).

Bowman’s capsule

27

The glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule together form the ______________.

renal corpuscle

28

glomerular capillaries filter the blood based on particle size. After passing through the renal corpuscle, the capillaries form a second arteriole, the ________________ (Figure 21.9). These will next form a capillary network around the more distal portions of the nephron tubule, the _____________________ before returning to the venous system

efferent arteriole; peritubular capillaries andvasa recta,

29

As the glomerular _________ progresses through the _______, these capillary networks recover most of the solutes and water, and return them to the circulation. As a capillary bed (the glomerulus) drains into a vessel that in turn forms a second capillary bed, the definition of a _________ is met.

filtrate; nephron; portal system

30

In a dissected kidney, it is easy to identify the cortex; it appears_______ in color compared to the rest of the kidney. All of the renal corpuscles as well as the ____ and ____ are found here.

lighter; PCTs; DCTs

31

Some nephrons have a short ___________ that does not dip beyond the cortex. These nephrons are called _____________.

loop of Henle; cortical nephrons

32

About 15% of nephrons have long loops of Henle that extend deep into the medulla and are called ____________________.

juxtamedullary nephrons

33

the structure of the kidney is divided into ____ principle regions (the peripheral rim of cortex and the central medulla).

two

34

The two kidneys receive about ___ of cardiac output.

25%

35

Kidneys are protected in the ______________ by the renal fat pad and overlying ribs and muscle.

retroperitoneal space

36

Ureters, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves enter and leave at the renal ______.

hilum

37

The renal __________ arise directly from the aorta, and the renal _______ drain directly into the inferior vena cava.

arteries; veins

38

Kidney function is derived from the actions of about 1.3 million nephrons per kidney; these are the “_____________”

functional units.

39

A capillary bed, the glomerulus, filters blood and the filtrate is captured by _____________.

Bowman’s capsule

40

A ____________ is formed when the blood flows through a second capillary bed surrounding the PCTs and DCTs and the loop of Henle

portal system

41

Most water and solutes are recovered by this ______________.

second capillary bed

42

filtrate is processed and finally gathered by collecting ducts that drain into the minor ________, which merge to form major calyces; the filtrate then proceeds to the ________ and finally the ______.

calyces; renal pelvis; ureters


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