The kidneys lie on either side of the spine in the _____________ space between the parietal _________ and the posterior ______________, well protected by muscle, fat, and ribs.
They are roughly the size of your fist, and the male kidney is typically a bit _______ than the female kidney.
The kidneys are well ___________, receiving about _____ of the cardiac output at rest.
The left kidney is located at about the ________ vertebrae, whereas the right is lower owing to slight displacement by the liver.
Upper portions of the kidneys are somewhat protected by the _________________ ribs (Figure 21.6).
Kidneys are directly covered by a fibrous capsule composed of _______________ connective tissue that helps to hold their shape and protect them.
This capsule is covered by a shock-absorbing layer of adipose tissue called the _____________, which in turn is encompassed by a tough renal fascia.
The fascia and, to a lesser extent, the overlying peritoneum serve to firmly anchor the kidneys to the posterior abdominal wall in a ____________ position.
On the superior aspect of each kidney is the adrenal gland. The _______________ directly influences renal function through the production of the hormone aldosterone to stimulate Na+ reabsorption.
frontal section through the kidney reveals an outer region called the ______________ and an inner region called the ___________ (Figure 21.7).
The_____________ are connective tissue extensions that radiate downward from the cortex through the medulla to separate the most characteristic features of the medulla, the ____________, and ____________
The _____________ are bundles of collecting ducts that transport urine made by nephrons to the __________ of the kidney for excretion.
The renal columns also serve to divide the kidney into ____________ lobes and provide a supportive framework for vessels that enter and exit the cortex.
The _______________ is the entry and exit site for structures servicing the kidneys: vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and ureters. The medial-facing hila are tucked into the sweeping convex outline of the cortex.
Emerging from the hilum is the _______________, which is formed from the major and minor calyxes in the kidney.
The renal arteries form directly from the _______________, whereas the renal veins return cleansed blood directly to the ____________. The artery, vein, and renal pelvis are arranged in an anterior-to-posterior order.
The renal artery first divides into _________ arteries, followed by further branching to form _________ arteries that pass through the renal columns to reach the cortex (Figure 21.8).
The_______ arteries, in turn, branch into __________ arteries, ___________ arteries, and then into afferent arterioles.
____________ are the “functional units” of the kidney; they cleanse the blood and balance the constituents of the circulation.
The afferent arterioles form a tuft of high-pressure capillaries about 200 µm in diameter, the ______________.
The rest of the nephron consists of a continuous sophisticated tubule whose proximal end surrounds the glomerulus in an intimate embrace (this is _________________).
glomerular capillaries filter the blood based on particle size. After passing through the renal corpuscle, the capillaries form a second arteriole, the ________________ (Figure 21.9). These will next form a capillary network around the more distal portions of the nephron tubule, the _____________________ before returning to the venous system
As the glomerular _________ progresses through the _______, these capillary networks recover most of the solutes and water, and return them to the circulation. As a capillary bed (the glomerulus) drains into a vessel that in turn forms a second capillary bed, the definition of a _________ is met.
In a dissected kidney, it is easy to identify the cortex; it appears_______ in color compared to the rest of the kidney. All of the renal corpuscles as well as the ____ and ____ are found here.
Some nephrons have a short ___________ that does not dip beyond the cortex. These nephrons are called _____________.
About 15% of nephrons have long loops of Henle that extend deep into the medulla and are called ____________________.
the structure of the kidney is divided into ____ principle regions (the peripheral rim of cortex and the central medulla).
Kidneys are protected in the ______________ by the renal fat pad and overlying ribs and muscle.
The renal __________ arise directly from the aorta, and the renal _______ drain directly into the inferior vena cava.
Kidney function is derived from the actions of about 1.3 million nephrons per kidney; these are the “_____________”
A capillary bed, the glomerulus, filters blood and the filtrate is captured by _____________.
A ____________ is formed when the blood flows through a second capillary bed surrounding the PCTs and DCTs and the loop of Henle