Cancel
© 2016 pictureone.ru
card-image

GROSS ANATOMY OF THE KIDNEY

Set Details Share
Helpfulness: 0
created 3 years ago by Erica_M__Brown
103 views

Cryder

show more
1

The kidneys lie on either side of the spine in the _____________ space between the parietal _________ and the posterior ______________, well protected by muscle, fat, and ribs.

retroperitoneal; peritoneum; abdominal wall

2

They are roughly the size of your fist, and the male kidney is typically a bit _______ than the female kidney.

larger

3

The kidneys are well ___________, receiving about _____ of the cardiac output at rest.

vascularized; 25%

4

The left kidney is located at about the ________ vertebrae, whereas the right is lower owing to slight displacement by the liver.

T12 to L3

5

Upper portions of the kidneys are somewhat protected by the _________________ ribs (Figure 21.6).

eleventh and twelfth

6

Each kidney weighs about __________g in males and _______ g in females.

125–175; 115–155

7

Kidneys are about ______ cm in length, _ cm wide and _ cm thick,

11–14;

6;

4

8

Kidneys are directly covered by a fibrous capsule composed of _______________ connective tissue that helps to hold their shape and protect them.

dense irregular

9

This capsule is covered by a shock-absorbing layer of adipose tissue called the _____________, which in turn is encompassed by a tough renal fascia.

renal fat pad

10

The fascia and, to a lesser extent, the overlying peritoneum serve to firmly anchor the kidneys to the posterior abdominal wall in a ____________ position.

retroperitoneal

11

On the superior aspect of each kidney is the adrenal gland. The _______________ directly influences renal function through the production of the hormone aldosterone to stimulate Na+ reabsorption.

adrenal cortex

12

frontal section through the kidney reveals an outer region called the ______________ and an inner region called the ___________ (Figure 21.7).

renal cortex; medulla

13

The_____________ are connective tissue extensions that radiate downward from the cortex through the medulla to separate the most characteristic features of the medulla, the ____________, and ____________

renal columns; renal pyramids, renal papillae

14

The _____________ are bundles of collecting ducts that transport urine made by nephrons to the __________ of the kidney for excretion.

renal papillae; calyces

15

The renal columns also serve to divide the kidney into ____________ lobes and provide a supportive framework for vessels that enter and exit the cortex.

six to eight

16

The _________ and renal columns taken together constitute the kidney lobes.

pyramids

17

The _______________ is the entry and exit site for structures servicing the kidneys: vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and ureters. The medial-facing hila are tucked into the sweeping convex outline of the cortex.

renal hilum

18

Emerging from the hilum is the _______________, which is formed from the major and minor calyxes in the kidney.

renal pelvis

19

The smooth muscle in the renal pelvis funnels urine via _________ into the ureter.

peristalsis

20

The renal arteries form directly from the _______________, whereas the renal veins return cleansed blood directly to the ____________. The artery, vein, and renal pelvis are arranged in an anterior-to-posterior order.

descending aorta; inferior vena cava

21

The renal artery first divides into _________ arteries, followed by further branching to form _________ arteries that pass through the renal columns to reach the cortex (Figure 21.8).

segmental; interlobar

22

The_______ arteries, in turn, branch into __________ arteries, ___________ arteries, and then into afferent arterioles.

interlobar; arcuate; cortical radiate;

23

The afferent arterioles service about ___________________ in each kidney

1.3 million nephrons

24

____________ are the “functional units” of the kidney; they cleanse the blood and balance the constituents of the circulation.

Nephrons

25

The afferent arterioles form a tuft of high-pressure capillaries about 200 µm in diameter, the ______________.

glomerulus

26

The rest of the nephron consists of a continuous sophisticated tubule whose proximal end surrounds the glomerulus in an intimate embrace (this is _________________).

Bowman’s capsule

27

The glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule together form the ______________.

renal corpuscle

28

glomerular capillaries filter the blood based on particle size. After passing through the renal corpuscle, the capillaries form a second arteriole, the ________________ (Figure 21.9). These will next form a capillary network around the more distal portions of the nephron tubule, the _____________________ before returning to the venous system

efferent arteriole; peritubular capillaries andvasa recta,

29

As the glomerular _________ progresses through the _______, these capillary networks recover most of the solutes and water, and return them to the circulation. As a capillary bed (the glomerulus) drains into a vessel that in turn forms a second capillary bed, the definition of a _________ is met.

filtrate; nephron; portal system

30

In a dissected kidney, it is easy to identify the cortex; it appears_______ in color compared to the rest of the kidney. All of the renal corpuscles as well as the ____ and ____ are found here.

lighter; PCTs; DCTs

31

Some nephrons have a short ___________ that does not dip beyond the cortex. These nephrons are called _____________.

loop of Henle; cortical nephrons

32

About 15% of nephrons have long loops of Henle that extend deep into the medulla and are called ____________________.

juxtamedullary nephrons

33

the structure of the kidney is divided into ____ principle regions (the peripheral rim of cortex and the central medulla).

two

34

The two kidneys receive about ___ of cardiac output.

25%

35

Kidneys are protected in the ______________ by the renal fat pad and overlying ribs and muscle.

retroperitoneal space

36

Ureters, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves enter and leave at the renal ______.

hilum

37

The renal __________ arise directly from the aorta, and the renal _______ drain directly into the inferior vena cava.

arteries; veins

38

Kidney function is derived from the actions of about 1.3 million nephrons per kidney; these are the “_____________”

functional units.

39

A capillary bed, the glomerulus, filters blood and the filtrate is captured by _____________.

Bowman’s capsule

40

A ____________ is formed when the blood flows through a second capillary bed surrounding the PCTs and DCTs and the loop of Henle

portal system

41

Most water and solutes are recovered by this ______________.

second capillary bed

42

filtrate is processed and finally gathered by collecting ducts that drain into the minor ________, which merge to form major calyces; the filtrate then proceeds to the ________ and finally the ______.

calyces; renal pelvis; ureters


Related pages


the common ancestor of all animals was probably arhodospirillum rubrum shapehats by lekoanatomy and physiology of spineap psychology quizeschromatid picturee coli motility testdisjoint in statisticskaryotype chromosomesrefractory phase of the cardiac cyclerespiratory system anatomy quizvalancy of carbontreaty of paris 1783 apushintercarpal articulationsthe stage called ovulationchapter 12 economics quizletproteins in muscle contractionpalisade parenchyma cellswhich is true of transmission electron microscopeswhat is the role of mrna codonwhat are bacteria using for nutrients in nutrient agarlesser tubercle of humerustibiofemoral joint classificationorigin of gastrocnemius musclel alphabet en francaisatlanto occipital joint classificationmedical suffix for enlargementair entrainment devicemedical term for bowleggedwhich of the following does not stimulate erythrocyte productionreticular cartilagenervous system quizletnatural pacemaker of the heartwhat is a template strandsympathetic division stimulation causessubarachnoid space functionpaternal chromosomemcgraw hill biology testless elastic demandwhat vein drains the liverlegal terminology flash cardsquiz biochemistrymost numerous leukocytedefine tundra climateb2h6 compound nameparts of a brightfield microscopemicrobiology glossaryswim bladdersdefine phagocyteswhat cavity are the lungs located ineasy notecards reproductive systemcountertransference reactionsin e coli the lac operon controls thethe anatomy of the human digestive system answer keypinacocytes definitiondiabetes insipidus is caused by hyposecretion ofoff spring tv showwhat is the role of pyruvate in cellular respirationlight reflecting and transmission characteristics of a mineralthe leukocytes called natural killer lymphocytesthe suffix centesis meansassisting in orthopedic medicinestandard methods of sterilization are not effective in inactivatingcoenocytic conditionantonym for resentmentfree hesi entrance exam study guideligaments of the ovaryap chemistry crash coursewhere is the cerebrum locatedhematopoiesis red marrow yellow marrow spongy bone