Biology Final Intro to Bio 2

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1

The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a
A) unicellular chytrid.
B) unicellular yeast.
C) multicellular algae.
D) multicellular fungus.
E) flagellated protist.

E)

2

Which of the following genetic processes may be most helpful in accounting for the Cambrian explosion?
A) binary fission
B) mitosis
C) random segregation
D) gene duplication
E) chromosomal condensation

D)

3

What is the probable sequence in which the following clades of animals originated, from earliest to most recent?

1. tetrapods
2. vertebrates
3. deuterostomes
4. amniotes
5. bilaterians

A) 5 → 3 → 2 → 4 → 1
B) 5 → 3 → 2 → 1 → 4
C) 5 → 3 → 4 → 2 → 1
D) 3 → 5 → 4 → 2 → 1
E) 3 → 5 → 2 → 1 → 4

B)

4

Soon after the coelom begins to form, a researcher injects a dye into the coelom of a deuterostome embryo. Initially, the dye should be able to flow directly into the
A) blastopore.
B) blastocoel.
C) archenteron.
D) pseudocoelom.

C)

5

At which developmental stage should one be able to first distinguish a diploblastic embryo from a triploblastic embryo?
A) fertilization
B) cleavage
C) gastrulation
D) coelom formation
E) metamorphosis

B)

6

What distinguishes a coelomate animal from a pseudocoelomate animal is that coelomates
A) have a body cavity, whereas pseudocoelomates have a solid body.
B) contain tissues derived from mesoderm, whereas pseudocoelomates have no such tissue.
C) have a body cavity completely lined by mesodermal tissue, whereas pseudocoelomates do not.
D) have a complete digestive system with mouth and anus, whereas pseudocoelomates have a digestive tract with only one opening.
E) have a gut that lacks suspension within the body cavity, whereas pseudocoelomates have mesenteries that hold the digestive system in place.

C)

7

The blastopore is a structure that first becomes evident during
A) fertilization.
B) gastrulation.
C) the eight-cell stage of the embryo.
D) coelom formation.
E) cleavage.

B)

8

The most ancient branch point in animal phylogeny is that between having
A) radial or bilateral symmetry.
B) a well-defined head or no head.
C) diploblastic or triploblastic embryos.
D) true tissues or no tissues.
E) a body cavity or no body cavity.

D)

9

A sponge's structural materials (spicules, spongin) are manufactured by the
A) pore cells.
B) epidermal cells.
C) choanocytes.
D) amoebocytes.

D)

10

The members of which clade in the phylum Cnidaria occur only as polyps?
A) Hydrozoa
B) Scyphozoa
C) Anthozoa
D) Cubozoa

C)

11

What would be the most effective method of reducing the incidence of blood flukes in a human population?
A) reduce the mosquito population
B) reduce the freshwater snail population
C) purify all drinking water
D) avoid contact with rodent droppings
E) carefully wash all raw fruits and vegetables

B)

12

While sampling marine plankton in a lab, a student encounters large numbers of fertilized eggs. The student rears some of the eggs in the laboratory for further study and finds that the blastopore becomes the mouth. The embryo develops into a trochophore larva and eventually has a true coelom. These eggs probably belonged to a(n)
A) chordate.
B) echinoderm.
C) mollusc.
D) nematode.
E) arthropod.

C)

13

Nematode worms and annelid worms share which of the following features?
A) use of fluid in the body cavity as a hydrostatic skeleton
B) ecdysis
C) presence of a circulatory system
D) presence of segmentation
E) absence of species with parasitic lifestyles

A)

14

Among the invertebrate phyla, phylum Arthropoda is unique in possessing members that have
A) a cuticle.
B) a ventral nerve cord.
C) open circulation.
D) wings.
E) segmented bodies.

D)

15

What distinguishes complete metamorphosis from incomplete metamorphosis in insects?
A) the presence of wings in the adult, but not in earlier life stages
B) the presence of sex organs in the adult, but not in earlier life stages
C) the radically different appearance between adults and earlier life stages
D) Three of these responses are correct.
E) Two of these responses are correct.

C)

16

1) Chordate pharyngeal slits appear to have functioned first as
A) the digestive system's opening.
B) suspension-feeding devices.
C) components of the jaw.
D) gill slits for respiration.
E) portions of the inner ear.

B)

17

Which extant chordates are postulated to be most like the earliest chordates in appearance?
A) lancelets
B) adult tunicates
C) amphibians
D) reptiles
E) chondrichthyans

A)

18

Lampreys differ from hagfishes in
A) lacking jaws.
B) having a cranium.
C) having pharyngeal clefts that develop into pharyngeal slits.
D) having a notochord throughout life.
E) having a notochord that is surrounded by a tube of cartilage.

E)

19

The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are associated with which function?
A) reproduction
B) feeding
C) locomotion
D) defense
E) respiration

B)

20

Which group's members have had both lungs and gills during their adult lives?
A) sharks, skates, and rays
B) lungfishes
C) lancelets
D) amphibians
E) ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs

B)

21

Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?
A) It has a shell that increases gas exchange.
B) It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
C) It prolongs embryonic development.
D) It provides insulation to conserve heat.
E) It permits internal fertilization to be replaced by external fertilization.

B)

22

Which of the following are the only extant animals that descended directly from dinosaurs?
A) lizards
B) crocodiles
C) snakes
D) birds
E) tuataras

D)

23

In which vertebrates is fertilization exclusively internal?
A) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and mammals
B) amphibians, mammals, and reptiles
C) chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and reptiles
D) reptiles and mammals
E) reptiles and amphibians

D)

24

Arrange the following taxonomic terms from most inclusive (most general) to least inclusive (most specific).

1. hominoids
2. hominins
3. Homo
4 anthropoids
5. primates

A) 5, 1, 4, 2, 3
B) 5, 4, 1, 2, 3
C) 5, 4, 2, 1, 3
D) 5, 2, 1, 4, 3
E) 5, 2, 4, 1, 3

B)

25

Which of the following are considered hominoids?
A) lorises
B) New World monkeys
C) Old World monkeys
D) orangutans
E) tarsiers

D)

26

Which of the following is the most inclusive (most general) group, all of whose members have fully opposable thumbs?
A) apes
B) Homo
C) anthropoids
D) hominins
E) primates

C)

27

Which structure is incorrectly paired with its tissue system?
A) root hairdermal tissue
B) palisade parenchymaground tissue
C) guard celldermal tissue
D) companion cellground tissue
E) tracheidvascular tissue

D)

28

Which part of a plant absorbs most of the water and minerals taken up from the soil?
A) taproots
B) root hairs
C) the thick parts of the roots near the base of the stem
D) storage roots
E) sections of the root that have secondary xylem

B)

29

ascular plant tissue includes all of the following cell types except
A) vessel elements.
B) sieve cells.
C) tracheids.
D) companion cells.
E) cambium cells.

E)

30

Which cells are no longer capable of carrying out the process of DNA transcription?
A) tracheids
B) mature mesophyll cells
C) companion cells
D) meristematic cells
E) glandular cells

A)

31

CO₂ enters the inner spaces of the leaf through the
A) cuticle.
B) epidermal trichomes.
C) stoma.
D) phloem.
E) walls of guard cells.

C)

32

Which of the following cells transport sugars over long distances?
A) parenchyma cells
B) collenchyma cells
C) sclerenchyma cells
D) tracheids and vessel elements
E) sieve-tube elements

E)

33

The vascular bundle in the shape of a single central cylinder in a root is called the
A) cortex.
B) stele.
C) endodermis.
D) periderm.
E) pith.

B)

34

A student examining leaf cross sections under a microscope finds many loosely packed cells with relatively thin cell walls. The cells have numerous chloroplasts. What type of cells are they?
A) parenchyma
B) xylem
C) endodermis
D) collenchyma
E) sclerenchyma

A)

35

Plants contain meristems whose major function is to
A) attract pollinators.
B) absorb ions.
C) photosynthesize.
D) divide.
E) produce flowers.

D)

36

Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots?
A) endodermis
B) phloem
C) cortex
D) epidermis
E) pericycle

E)

37

Which of the following is a true statement about growth in plants?
A) Only primary growth is localized at meristems.
B) Some plants lack secondary growth.
C) Only stems have secondary growth.
D) Only secondary growth produces reproductive structures.
E) Monocots have only primary growth, and eudicots have only secondary growth.

B)

38

According to the ABC model of floral development, which genes would be expressed in a showy ornamental flower with multiple sepals and petals but no stamens or carpels?
A) A genes only
B) B genes only
C) C genes only
D) A and B genes only
E) A and C genes only

D)

39

The polarity of a plant is established when
A) the zygote divides.
B) cotyledons form at the shoot end of the embryo.
C) the shoot-root axis is established in the embryo.
D) the primary root breaks through the seed coat.
E) the shoot first breaks through the soil into the light as the seed germinates.

A)

40

All of the following have an effect on water potential (Ψ) in plants except

A) physical pressure.
B) water-attracting matrices.
C) dissolved solutes.
D) osmosis.
E) DNA structure.

E)

41

Which of the following statements about xylem is incorrect?
A) It conducts material from root tips to leaves.
B) The conducting cells are part of the apoplast.
C) It transports mainly sugars and amino acids.
D) It typically has a lower water potential than is found in soil.
E) No energy input is required for transport

C)

42

Root hairs are most important to a plant because they
A) anchor a plant in the soil.
B) store starches.
C) increase the surface area for absorption.
D) provide a habitat for nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
E) contain xylem tissue

C)

43

A water molecule could move all the way through a plant from soil to root to leaf to air and pass through a living cell only once. This living cell would be a part of which structure?
A) the Casparian strip
B) a guard cell
C) the root epidermis
D) the endodermis
E) the root cortex

D)

44

Which of the following is responsible for the cohesion of water molecules?
A) hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atoms of a water molecule and cellulose in a vessel cell
B) covalent bonds between the hydrogen atoms of two adjacent water molecules
C) hydrogen bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen atom of another water molecule
D) covalent bonds between the oxygen atom of one water molecule and a hydrogen atom of another water molecule
E) low concentrations of charged solutes in the fluid

C)

45

The opening of stomata is thought to involve
A) an increase in the osmotic concentration of the guard cells.
B) a decrease in the solute concentration of the stoma.
C) active transport of water out of the guard cells.
D) decreased turgor pressure in guard cells.
E) movement of K+ from the guard cells

A)

46

Which of the following is a correct statement about sugar movement in phloem?
A) Diffusion can account for the observed rates of transport.
B) Movement can occur both upward and downward in the plant.
C) Sugar is translocated from sinks to sources.
D) Only phloem cells with nuclei can perform sugar movement.
E) Sugar transport does not require energy

B)

47

Water flows into the source end of a sieve tube because
A) sucrose has diffused into the sieve tube, making it hypertonic.
B) sucrose has been actively transported into the sieve tube, making it hypertonic.
C) water pressure outside the sieve tube forces in water.
D) the companion cell of a sieve tube actively pumps in water.
E) sucrose has been transported out of the sieve tube by active transport

B)

48

For this pair of items, choose the option that best describes their relationship.

(A) The average size of particles that constitute silt
(B) The average size of particles that constitute clay

A) Item (A) is greater than item (B).
B) Item (A) is less than item (B).
C) Item (A) is exactly or very approximately equal to item (B).
D) Item (A) bears no relationship to item (B).

B)

49

Most of the water taken up by a plant is
A) used as a solvent.
B) used as a hydrogen source in photosynthesis.
C) lost during transpiration.
D) converted to CO₂.
E) used to keep cells turgid

C)

50

Which of the following is not true of micronutrients in plants?
A) They are elements required in relatively small amounts.
B) They are required for a plant to grow from a seed and complete its life cycle.
C) They generally help in catalytic functions in the plant.
D) They are the essential elements of small size and molecular weight.
E) Deficiencies vary widely by soil type

D)

51

Nitrogen fixation is a process that
A) recycles nitrogen compounds from dead and decaying materials.
B) converts ammonia to ammonium.
C) releases nitrate from the rock substrate.
D) converts nitrogen gas into ammonia.
E) recycles nitrogen compounds from dead and decaying materials, and converts ammonia to ammonium

D)

52

Carnivorous plants have evolved mechanisms that trap and digest small animals. The products of this digestion are used to supplement the plant's supply of
A) energy.
B) carbohydrates.
C) lipids and steroids.
D) minerals.
E) water.

D)

53

Which of the following differentiates T cells and B cells?
A) T cells but not B cells are stimulated to increase the rate of their cell cycles
B) Only B cells are produced from stem cells of the bone marrow
C) T cells but not B cells can directly attack and destroy invading pathogens
D) T cells but not B cells have surface markers
E) Only B cells take part in cell-mediated immunity

C)

54

At which developmental stage should one be able to first distinguish a protostome embryo from a deuterostome embryo?
A) fertilization
B) cleavage
C) gastrulation
D) coelom formation
E) metamorphosis

B)

55

Organisms showing radial symmetry would likely
A) be good swimmers.
B) have rapid escape behavior.
C) move from place to place relatively slowly, if at all.
D) be able to fly.
E) have many fins.

C)

56

Which of the following organisms are deuterostomes?
A) molluscs
B) annelids
C) echinoderms
D) chordates
E) both C and D

E)

57

What are the cells in a sponge that are primarily responsible for trapping food particles from circulating water?
A) amoebocytes
B) choanocytes
C) mesohyl cells
D) pore cells (porocytes)
E) epidermal cells

B)

58

Which of the following statements about tapeworm feeding methods is correct?
A. They have complete digestive tracts.
B. They use degenerate mouths to ingest some of their food.
C. As adults, they live and feed in the host's bloodstream.
D. They are autotrophic.
E. They absorb nutrients across their body walls.

E)

59

Protostomes that have an open circulatory system and an exoskeleton of chitin
For the following questions, match the descriptions with the correct phylum below. Each choice may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
A) Cnidaria
B) Annelida
C) Mollusca
D) Arthropoda
E) Echinodermata

D)

60

What is a characteristic that separates chordates from all other animals?

A) segmentation
B) bilateral symmetry
C) post-anal tail
D) blastopore, which becomes the anus
E) true coelom

C)

61

According to one hypothesis, the jaws of vertebrates were derived by the modification of

A) scales of the lower lip.
B) skeletal rods that had supported pharyngeal (gill) slits.
C) one or more gill slits.
D) one or more of the bones of the cranium.
E) one or more of the vertebrae.

B)

62

Which of these is not considered an amniote?

A) amphibians
B) nonbird reptiles
C) birds
D) egg-laying mammals
E) placental mammals

A)

63

Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?
A) It has a shell that increases gas exchange.
B) It allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
C) It prolongs embryonic development.
D) It provides insulation to conserve heat.
E) It permits internal fertilization to be replaced by external fertilization.

B)

64

Differentiation of teeth is observed in

A) sharks

B) bony fishes

C) amphibians

D) reptiles

E) mammals

E)

65

three major groups: egg-laying, pouched, and placental

A) amphibians
B) non-bird reptiles
C) chondrichthyans
D) mammals
E) birds

D)

66

May have lungs, or gills, and may use skin as a respiratory surface

A) amphibians
B) non-bird reptiles
C) chondrichthyans
D) mammals
E) birds

A)

67

For this pair of items, choose the option that best describes their relationship.
1. The number of cells within the embryo sac
2. The number of nuclei within the embryo sac

A) Item (A) is larger than item (B).
B) Item (A) is smaller than item (B).
C) Item (A) is exactly or very approximately equal to item (B).
D) Item (A) bears no relationship to item (B).

B)

68

location of the ovary:

A) stamen

B) carpel

C) petals

D) sepals

E) receptacle

B)


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