AP BIOLOGY chapter 43

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Campbell Biology
Chapter 43
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1

In mammalian defenses against invading pathogens, all of these are considered nonspecific defense mechanisms except

A) antimicrobial proteins.

B) mucous membranes.

C) the inflammatory response.

D) the immune system.

E) the skin.

Answer: D

2

Physical barriers to invasion by other organisms

A) may work in conjunction with secretions like tears, perspiration, and mucus.

B) are difficult for bacteria and viruses to penetrate.

C) include the skin and the mucous membranes.

D) Only A and C are correct.

E) A, B, and C are correct.

Answer: E

3

One feature that the eye and the respiratory tract share is

A) the formation of similar antibodies.

B) their role in the secondary immune response.

C) the release of slightly acidic secretions.

D) the mucous membranes that cover their surface.

E) the production of lysozyme.

Answer: E

4

After preparing barbequed chicken, you came down with salmonella poisoning. Why?

A) The bacterium released chemical messengers that make it resistant to phagocytosis.

B) The microbe survived the acidic environment of the stomach and resisted lysosomal degradation in macrophages.

C) The combination of foods eaten at the meal reduced the pH of the stomach sufficiently that the bacterium was not destroyed.

D) The chemotactic messengers released by the salmonella bacterium did not attract sufficient neutrophils to entirely destroy the infection.

E) There was a delay in selection of the population of eosinophils that recognize and are responsible for fighting these bacterial infections.

Answer: B

5

The lymphatic system involves which of the following organs?

A) appendix and special portions of the small intestine

B) adenoids and tonsils

C) spleen and lymph nodes

D) Only A and B are correct.

E) A, B, and C are correct.

Answer: E

6

In the inflammatory response, the absence of which of the following would prevent all the others from happening?

A) leakage of plasma to the affected area

B) increased permeability of blood vessels

C) dilation of arterioles

D) release of histamine

E) increased population of phagocytes in the area

Answer: D

7

The main effect of histamine is to

A) phagocytize pathogens.

B) decrease blood flow.

C) attract T cells.

D) dilate blood vessels.

E) destroy white blood cells.

Answer: D

8

An alarm substance that triggers an inflammatory reaction is

A) pyrogen.

B) thyroxine.

C) immunoglobulin.

D) adrenaline.

E) histamine.

Answer: E

9

Inflammatory responses may include all of the following except

A) release of substances to increase the blood supply to an inflamed area.

B) reduced permeability of blood vessels to conserve plasma.

C) The combination of foods eaten at the meal reduced the pH of the stomach sufficiently that the bacterium was not destroyed.

D) The chemotactic messengers released by the salmonella bacterium did not attract sufficient neutrophils to entirely destroy the infection.

E) There was a delay in selection of the population of eosinophils that recognize and are responsible for fighting these bacterial infections.

Answer: B

10

Each indication below is a clinical characteristic of inflammation except

A) increased blood flow.

B) edema.

C) redness.

D) decreased temperature.

E) pain.

Answer: D

11

What is complement?

A) a hormone from the thymus

B) a group of proteins

C) a specialized white blood cell

D) a form of interferon

E) a set of antigens

Answer: B

12

All of the following are correct statements about nonspecific defenses except:

A) They include physical and chemical barriers.

B) They may involve the formation of membrane attack complexes.

C) Macrophages and natural killer cells are participants in the process.

D) They include inflammatory responses.

E) They must be primed by the presence of antigen

Answer: E

13

What are antigens?

A) proteins that consist of two light and two heavy polypeptide chains

B) proteins found in the blood that cause foreign blood cells to clump

C) proteins embedded in B cell membranes

D) antibody-generating foreign macromolecules

E) Both A and C are correct.

Answer: D

14

Jenner successfully used cowpox virus as a vaccine against a different virus that causes smallpox. Why was he successful even though he used viruses of different kinds?

A) There are some antigenic determinants common to both pox viruses.

B) Cowpox and smallpox are antibodies with similar immunizing properties.

C) The cowpox virus made antibodies in response to the presence of smallpox.

D) The immune system responds nonspecifically to antigens.

E) All of the below are true.

Answer: A

15

Jenner successfully used cowpox virus as a vaccine against a different virus that causes smallpox. Why was he successful even though he used viruses of different kinds?

A) There are some antigenic determinants common to both pox viruses.

B) Cowpox and smallpox are antibodies with similar immunizing properties.

C) The cowpox virus made antibodies in response to the presence of smallpox.

D) The immune system responds nonspecifically to antigens.

E) All of the below are true.

Answer: C

16

The clonal selection theory is an explanation for

A) how HIV can disrupt the immune system.

B) how macrophages can recognize specific T cells and B cells.

C) how an antigen can provoke development of very few cells to result in production of high levels of specific antibodies.

D) how a single type of stem cell can produce both red blood cells and white blood cells.

E) how antibody proteins can be molded to fit antigens after the antigen interacts with an antibody-producing type of cell.

Answer: C

17

What are plasma cells?

A) cells that produce few antibodies

B) the cells that are responsible for the phagocytosis of foreign organisms

C) immature forms of T cells

D) the effector cells of humoral immunity

E) the cells that are responsible for immunological memory

Answer: D

18

The following events occur when a mammalian immune system first encounters a pathogen. Place them in correct sequence, and then choose the answer that indicates that sequence.

I. Pathogen is destroyed.

II. Lymphocytes secrete antibodies.

III. Antigenic determinants from pathogen bind to antigen receptors on

lymphocytes.

IV. Lymphocytes specific to antigenic determinants from pathogen

become numerous.

V. Only memory cells remain.

  1. A) II, I, IV, III, V
  2. B) IV, II, III, I, V
  3. C) III, IV, II, I, V
  4. D) III, II, I, V, IV
  5. E) I, III, II, IV, V

Answer: C

19

When would B cells produce effector cells?

A) between 28 and 35 days

B) between 0 and 7 days

C) between 7 and 14 days

D) Both A and B are correct.

E) Both A and C are correct.

Answer: B

20

When would memory cells proliferate?

A) between 0 and 7 days

B) between 7 and 14 days

C) between 28 and 35 days

D) between 35 and 42 days

E) Both A and C are correct.

Answer: E

21

When would you find antibodies being produced?

A) between 28 and 35 days

B) between 14 and 21 days

C) between 3 and 7 days

D) Both B and C are correct.

E) Both A and C are correct.

Answer: E

22

Which of the following cell types is responsible for initiating a secondary immune response?

A) stem cells

B) memory cells

C) macrophages

D) B cells

E) T cells

Answer: B

23

Which of the following is true of both T cells and B cells?

A) They are produced from stem cells of the bone marrow.

B) They produce effector cells against specific pathogens.

C) They can attack and destroy invading pathogens.

D) Both A and B are true.

E) A, B, and C are all true.

Answer: D

24

If a person's bone marrow were destroyed by radiation, which of the following cells could not be produced?

A) T cells

B) erythrocytes

C) neutrophils

D) B cells

E) All of the above could not be produced.

Answer: E

25

The T in T lymphocytes stands for

A) thymus.

B) thyroid

C) toxic.

D) trigger.

E) threshold.

Answer: A

26

All of the following statements about lymphocytes are true except:

A) All cells are produced in bone marrow.

B) They are contained only within the lymphatic vessels and nodes.

C) All cells differentiate only from pluripotent stem cells.

D) They originate from the liver of a developing fetus.

E) They may mature in either bone marrow or the thymus gland

Answer: B

27

The MHC (major histocompatibility complex) is important in

A) distinguishing self from nonself.

B) identifying bacterial pathogens.

C) recognizing parasitic pathogens.

D) identifying abnormal cells.

E) Both A and D are correct.

Answer: E

28
card image

The cell represented by number 5 is a

A) B cell.

B) plasma cell.

C) mast cell.

D) macrophage.

E) T cell.

Answer: E

29
card image

The MHC binding site is represented by

A) 1.

B) 2.

C) 3.

D) 4.

E) 6

Answer: C

30
card image

The MHC protein is represented by

A) 1.

B) 2.

C) 3.

D) 4.

E) 6

Answer: A

31
card image

The "self and nonself" complex is represented by

A) 1.

B) 2

C) 3.

D) 4.

E) 6.

Answer: B

32

Which of the following participates in both the specific and nonspecific defense systems of the body?

A) B cells

B) complement

C) macrophages

D) pyrogens

E) Both B and C are correct.

Answer: E

33

What is the single most important event establishing a primary immune response?

A) the presentation of viral protein complexed to MHC I

B) apoptosis of virally infected cells

C) the phagocytosis of microbes by antigen-presenting cells

D) the lyses of virally infected cell by cytotoxic T cells

E) the recognition of self versus foreign

Answer: E

34

Which of the following types of cells is not involved in both antibody-mediated immunity and cell-mediated immunity?

A) macrophages

B) memory cells

C) pathogenic cells

D) plasma cells

E) helper T cells

Answer: D

35

Which of the following statements about humoral immunity is correct?

A) It primarily defends against bacteria and viruses that have already infected cells.

B) It primarily defends against fungi and protozoa.

C) It is responsible for transplant tissue rejection.

D) It is mounted by lymphocytes that have matured in the bone marrow.

E) It protects the body against cells that become cancerous.

Answer: D

36

What attracts helper T cells to macrophages?

A) interleukins

B) lymphotoxins

C) antigens

D) interferons

E) antibodies

Answer: A

37

Which of the following is an example of positive feedback in the immune system?

A) Cells release a cytokine that stimulates these cells to divide and release more of the cytokine.

B) Memory cells proliferate and produce antibodies.

C) Cytotoxic cells release substances that attract macrophages.

D) Large antigens with many repeating antigenic determinant sites can stimulate B cells without the aid of T cells.

E) Both A and B are examples of positive feedback in the immune system.

Answer: A

38

Each of the items below is a response of helper T cells once they are stimulated except

A) releasing interleukin-2.

B) releasing interleukin-1.

C) enlarging in size.

D) producing memory cells.

E) dividing by mitosis.

Answer: B

39

Which of the following are types of T cells that participate in the immune response system?

A) interleukin-1, interleukin-2, and interferon

B) lymphocytes, macrophages, and coelomocytes

C) plasma, antigen-presenting, and memory cells

D) cytotoxic and helper cells

E) CD4, CD8, and helper cells

Answer: D

40

Which of the following would be most beneficial in treating an individual who has been bitten by a poisonous snake that has a fast-acting toxin?

A) injection of interferon

B) vaccination with a weakened form of the toxin

C) injection of antibodies to the toxin

D) injection of interleukin-2

E) injection of interleukin-1

Answer: C

41

The function of CD4 and CD8 is to assist T cells in

A) binding of the MHC-antigen complex.

B) enhancing secretion of proteins such as interferon.

C) secretion of antibodies specific for each antigen.

D) recognition of self cells.

E) activating B cells and other T cells.

Answer: A

42

For the questions below, match the following answers with the phrase that best describes them. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A) cytotoxic T cells

B) delayed sensitivity T cells

C ) helper T cells

D) suppressor T cells

E) B cells

form plasma cells that give rise to antibodies

Answer: E

43

For the questions below, match the following answers with the phrase that best describes them. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A) cytotoxic T cells

B) delayed sensitivity T cells

C ) helper T cells

D) suppressor T cells

E) B cells

release cytokines, which activate B cells

Answer: C

44

For the questions below, match the following answers with the phrase that best describes them. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A) cytotoxic T cells

B) delayed sensitivity T cells

C ) helper T cells

D) suppressor T cells

E) B cells

release perforin, which causes target cells to lose their cytoplasm

Answer: A

45

For the questions below, match the following answers with the phrase that best describes them. Each answer may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

A) cytotoxic T cells

B) delayed sensitivity T cells

C ) helper T cells

D) suppressor T cells

E) B cells

cooperate with macrophages to enable the production of antibodies by effector cells

Answer: C

46

Which of the following is (are) not involved in the activation and functioning of cytotoxic T cells?

A) perforin

B) interleukins

C) class I MHC molecules

D) antigen-presenting cells

E) T cell surface protein CD4

Answer: E

47

Cell-mediated immunity is mostly the function of

A) B cells.

B) complement cells.

C) T cells.

D) cytotoxic cells.

E) erythrocytes

Answer: C

48

Which of the following defensive actions would be part of the body's third, or most advanced, line of defense?

A) antibody production by plasma cells

B) action of natural killer cells

C) lysozyme production

D) histamine release by basophils

E) phagocytosis by neutrophils

Answer: A

49

A patient can produce antibodies against some bacterial pathogens, but he does not produce antibodies against viral infections. This is probably due to a disorder in which cells of the immune system?

A) B cells

B) T cells

C) plasma cells

D) cytotoxic cells

E) macrophages

Answer: B

50

Why can normal immune responses be described as polyclonal?

A) Diverse antibodies are produced for different epitopes of a specific antigen.

B) Blood contains many different antibodies to many different antigens.

C) Multiple immunoglobulins are produced from descendants of a single B cell.

D) Macrophages, T cells, and B cells all are involved in normal immune response.

E) Construction of a hybridoma requires multiple types of cells.

Answer: A

51

Antibodies of the different classes IgM, IgG, IgA, IgD, and IgE differ from each other in

A) the type of cell that produces them.

B) the way they are produced.

C) the antigenic determinants that they recognize.

D) the way they interact with the antigen.

E) the number of carbohydrate subunits they have.

Answer: D

52

Which of the following are necessary to produce monoclonal antibodies?

A) macrophages

B) plasma cells

C) myeloma cells

D) fibroblasts

E) Both B and C are necessary.

Answer: E

53

Which of the following is not a part of an antibody molecule?

A) the heavy chains

B) the light chains

C) the variable or V regions

D) the epitope

E) the constant or C regions

Answer: D

54

When antibodies attack antigens, clumping of the affected cells generally occurs. This is best explained by

A) denaturation of the antibodies.

B) bonds between class I and class II MHC molecules.

C) disulfide bridges between the antigens.

D) the shape of the antibody with at least two binding regions.

E) complement that makes the affected cells sticky.

Answer: D

55

All of the following statements about antibodies are true except:

A) The structure of antibodies includes both a constant and a variable region.

B) Antibodies bind with foreign cells and destroy them.

C) Antibodies act as signals to blood complement proteins or phagocytes.

D) Antibodies are immunoglobulin proteins.

E) Plasma B cells are responsible for the production of antibodies.

Answer: B

56

The next questions refer to the following substances.

  1. blood complement proteins
  2. interleukin-1
  3. interleukin-2
  4. antibodies
  5. perforin

Which substance is secreted by antigen-presenting cells?

A) 1

B) 2

C) 3

D) 4

E) 5

Answer: B

57

The next questions refer to the following substances.

  1. blood complement proteins
  2. interleukin-1
  3. interleukin-2
  4. antibodies
  5. perforin

Which substances are used in the immune system to kill targeted, infected cells?

A) 2 and 3

B) 1 and 5

C) 1 and 4

D) 4 and 5

E) 1, 4, and 5

Answer: B

58

The next questions refer to the following substances.

  1. blood complement proteins
  2. interleukin-1
  3. interleukin-2
  4. antibodies
  5. perforin

Answer: B

59

The next questions refer to the following substances.

  1. blood complement proteins
  2. interleukin-1
  3. interleukin-2
  4. antibodies
  5. perforin

Answer: C

60

The next questions refer to the following substances.

  1. blood complement proteins
  2. interleukin-1
  3. interleukin-2
  4. antibodies
  5. perforin

Which substance(s) activate(s) T cells?

A) 1 and 4

B) 2 and 3

C) 3 only

D) 1 only

E) 5 only

Answer: B

61

In order to investigate the immune system of an invertebrate animal, a scientist grafts a section of epidermis from one earthworm to another. What would you expect to happen?

A) This graft will be accepted, but a second graft would be rejected.

B) Invertebrates do not have immune responses, so the graft will be accepted.

C) The graft will be recognized as nonself and rejected.

D) Amoeboid coelomocytes may be activated against the foreign tissue.

E) Both B and D would happen.

Answer: D

62

Naturally acquired passive immunity would involve the

A) absorption of pathogens through mucous membranes.

B) injection of vaccine.

C) ingestion of interferon.

D) injection of antibodies.

E) placental transfer of antibodies

Answer: E

63

The questions below refer to the following list. Match the term that best fits each of the following descriptions. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

  1. clonal selection
  2. opsonization
  3. complement system
  4. passive immunity
  5. vaccination

coating of foreign cells by proteins to attract macrophages

Answer: B

64

The questions below refer to the following list. Match the term that best fits each of the following descriptions. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

  1. clonal selection
  2. opsonization
  3. complement system
  4. passive immunity
  5. vaccination

protection by antibodies that cross the placenta from mother to fetus

Answer: D

65

The questions below refer to the following list. Match the term that best fits each of the following descriptions. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

  1. clonal selection
  2. opsonization
  3. complement system
  4. passive immunity
  5. vaccination

part of both specific and nonspecific defense

Answer: C

66

The questions below refer to the following list. Match the term that best fits each of the following descriptions. Each term may be used once, more than once, or not at all.

  1. clonal selection
  2. opsonization
  3. complement system
  4. passive immunity
  5. vaccination

process in which an attenuated pathogen is used to stimulate the body to produce antibodies against the pathogen

Answer: E

67

Prevention of a disease by the injection of an antiserum containing gamma globulins is an example of

A) autoimmunity.

B) clonal selection.

C) active immunity.

D) cell-mediated immunity.

E) passive immunity.

Answer: E

68

A major difference between active and passive immunity is that active immunity requires

A) secretion of interleukins from macrophages.

B) acquisition and activation of antibodies.

C) direct exposure to a living or simulated disease organism.

D) transfer of antibodies from the mother across the placenta.

E) proliferation of lymphocytes in bone marrow.

Answer: C

69

The major concern for an individual with type A blood who receives type B blood would be

A) the antibodies in the serum of the recipient.

B) the production of memory cells that will ocur in the recipient.

C) the anti-A antibodies produced by the donor.

D) the antibodies in the serum of the donor.

E) antibodies in both the donor's and recipient's serum

Answer: A

70

A transfusion of type A blood given to a person who has type O blood would result in

A) the recipient's anti-A and anti-O antibodies reacting with the donated red blood cells if the donor was a heterozygote (Ai) for blood type.

B) the recipient's anti-A antibodies clumping the donated red blood cells.

C) no reaction because type O is a universal donor.

D) no reaction because the O-type individual does not have antibodies.

E) the recipient's B antigens reacting with the donated anti-B antibodies.

Answer: B

71

The next questions refer to the following data.

tableau1 ( ( Case 1 ) ( Case 2 Case 3 ) (Mother Rh to power of (-)) )

In which of the cases could the mother exhibit an anti-Rh-factor reaction to the developing fetus?

A) case 3 only

B) case 1 only

C) cases 1, 2, and 3

D) cases 1 and 2 only

E) It cannot be determined from the data given.

Answer: B

72

The next questions refer to the following data.

tableau1 ( ( Case 1 ) ( Case 2 Case 3 ) (Mother Rh to power of (-)) )

In which of the cases would the mother not exhibit an anti-Rh-factor reaction to the developing fetus?

A) case 1 only

B) cases 2 and 3 only

C) case 3 only

D) cases 1, 2, and 3

E) It cannot be determined from the data given.

Answer: B

73

The next questions refer to the following data.

tableau1 ( ( Case 1 ) ( Case 2 Case 3 ) (Mother Rh to power of (-)) )

In which of the cases would the precaution likely be taken to give the mother anti-Rh antibodies before delivering her baby?

A) cases 1, 2, and 3

B) cases 1 and 2 only

C) case 3 only

D) case 1 only

E) It cannot be determined from the data given.

Answer: D

74

There is usually no concern if the mother's blood type is different from that of the developing fetus unless the Rh factor is involved. This is because

A) maternal Rh antibodies cannot cross the placenta, while those against the ABO blood groups can.

B) maternal Rh antibodies can cross the placenta, while those against the ABO blood groups cannot.

C) maternal blood cells can cross the placenta.

D) fetal blood cells can cross the placenta.

E) antibodies against the Rh factor have a much greater impact on antigens compared to those involving the ABO blood groups

Answer: B

75

An immune response to a tissue graft will differ from an immune response to a bacterium because

A) a response to the graft will involve T cells and a response to the bacterium will not.

B) the graft will stimulate an autoimmune response in the recipient.

C) MHC molecules on the graft may reject the host tissues.

D) the bacterium can escape the immune system by replicating inside normal body cells.

E) the tissue graft, unlike the bacterium, is isolated from the circulation and will not enter into an immune response.

Answer: C

76

Which of the following could prevent the appearance of the symptoms of an allergy attack?

A) reducing the number of T helper cells in the body

B) blocking the antigenic determinants of the IgM antibodies

C) blocking the attachment of the IgE antibodies to the mast cells

D) Only A and B are correct.

E) Only B and C are correct.

Answer: C

77

A patient reports severe symptoms of watery, itchy eyes and sneezing after being given a flower bouquet as a birthday gift. A reasonable initial treatment would involve the use of

A) monoclonal antibodies.

B) a vaccine.

C) sterile pollen.

D) complement.

E) antihistamines.

Answer: E

78

All of the following are usually considered disorders of the immune system except

A) allergic anaphylaxis.

B) lupus erythematosus.

C) MHC-induced transplant rejection.

D) AIDS.

E) SCID

Answer: C

79

A person suffering from AIDS would be unlikely to suffer from which of the following diseases?

A) influenza

B) hepatitis

C) tuberculosis

D) rheumatoid arthritis

E) cancer

Answer: D

80

HIV is ultimately a fatal disease. Which choice could be used as an analogy to describe how HIV affects the body?

A) rebooting a computer after getting a program error message

B) changing the color of your house to match the color of your car

C) bypassing a light switch so that electricity is constantly flowing to a light

D) an elevator stopping at the floor of which the button has been pushed

E) snipping the wires coming from a car battery so that no electricity flows to the car components

Answer: E


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