Biology Chapter 17: The Evolution of Animals

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1

Homo floresiensis was different from our own species (Homo sapiens) in that it ____________________.

Lived millions of years ago.

Lived in a place that is inhospitable to modern humans.

Was larger.

Was only two feet tall.

Had a smaller brain.

Had a smaller brain.

2

An organism is multicellular, ingests food, and undergoes a metamorphosis stage during its lifetime. What type of organism is it?

Animal.

Bacteria.

Protist.

Plant.

Fungus.

Animal.

3

The phrase "Cambrian explosion" refers to _______________________________________.

The evolutionarily sudden proliferation of mammal species.

The rapid adaptive radiation that gave rise to most extant animal phyla.

The evolutionary transition from aquatic to terrestrial vertebrates.

The asteroid impact that caused the mass extinction at the cretaceous-tertiary boundary.

The evolutionarily sudden proliferation of dinosaur species.

The rapid adaptive radiation that gave rise to most extant animal phyla.

Nearly all major animal body plans appear in Cambrian rocks. During this time, a burst of animal origins, called the Cambrian explosion, left a rich fossil assemblage.

4

Animals probably evolved from colonial protists. how do animals differ from these protist ancestors?

The protists were autotrophic.

Animals have cells that are more specialized.

The protists were heterotrophic.

Animals are able to reproduce.

The protists were prokaryotic.

Animals have cells that are more specialized.

5

Which of the following is associated with bilateral symmetry?

A lack of true tissues

No true body tissue.

A stationary lifestyle.

A definite "head end".

A lack of body tissues.

A definite "head end".

Bilateral animals have a concentration of sensory receptors on one end.

6

Which of the following is radially symmetrical?

A spoon.

A submarine sandwich.

An automobile.

A dog.

A doughnut.

A doughnut.

A doughnut has no front, no back, no left, and no right.

7

Which animal phylum is most closely related to the phylum Chordata?

Porifera.

Echinodermata.

Mollusca.

Cnidaria.

Arthropoda.

Echinodermata.

Echinoderms and chordates share some embryological characteristics as well as the mechanism for coelom formation.

8

Which of the following statements is true?

The majority of the world's animals are autotrophic.

The majority of the world's animals are radially symmetrical.

The majority of the world's animals are chordates.

The majority of the world's animals are invertebrates.

The majority of the world's animals are unicellular.

The majority of the world's animals are invertebrates.

Although we don't often realize it, invertebrates make up over 95% of all animal species.

9

Unlike other animals, sponges __________.

Lack true tissues.

Exhibit bilateral symmetry.

Are unicellular.

Are prokaryotic.

Possess cell walls.

Lack true tissues.

Because they were likely some of the earliest animals to evolve, sponges are quite simple compared to other extant animals.

10

Sponges feed by ____________________.

Paralyzing small crustaceans with stringing cells.

Scraping bacteria and algae from hard substrates.

Photosynthesis.

Filtering small particles from water.

Absorbing nutrients from the guts of their hosts.

Filtering small particles from water.

Sponges trap food from the water circulating through their porous body.

11

The animal phylum most like the protists that gave rise to the animals is __________.

Arthropoda.

Porifera.

Cnidaria.

Echinodermata.

Platyhelminthes.

Porifera.

12

Which of the following are found in members of the phylum Cnidaria?

Exoskeleton, radial symmetry.

Internal skeleton, bilateral symmetry.

Stinging cells, bilateral symmetry.

Stinging cells, radial symmetry.

A mantle for respiration, radial symmetry.

Stinging cells; radial symmetry.

Cnidarians are radially symmetrical carnivores that use tentacles armed with batteries of cnidocytes, or stinging cells, to capture prey.

13

Consider the following list of animals: giant squid, earthworm, largemouth bass, snail, tapeworm, coral, and sea star. The two that belong to the sam phylum are the _______________, and their phylum is __________.

Bass and giant squid; Chordata.

Earthworm and tapeworm; Annelida.

Snail and coral; Annelida.

Giant squid and snail; Mollusca.

Coral and sea star; Echinodermata.

Giant squid and snail; Mollusca.

14

Flatworms are the simplest animals with _______________.

Bilateral symmetry.

Free-living individuals.

Radial symmetry

A body cavity.

A complete digestive tract.

Bilateral symmetry.

Flatworms are the simplest animals to have a "left" and a "right" side.

15

Earthworms are most closely related to __________.

Oysters.

Tapeworms.

Leeches.

Roundworms.

Sea urchins.

Leeches.

16

Annelids ____________________.

Are endothermic.

Are named for the stinging cells they use to kill their prey.

Are segmented worms.

Are radially symmetrical.

Include leeches, earthworms, and roundworms.

Are segmented worms.

The phylum includes earthworms, aquatic worms, and leeches. They have characteristically long bodies with both internal and external segmentation. They have a distinct head and tail.

17

Biology deals with many kinds of worms. Which choice includes three different phyla of "worms"?

Nematoda, Platyhelminthes, Echinodermata.

Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Nematoda.

Mollusca, Chordata, Echinodermata.

Nematoda, Cnidaria, Porifera.

Cnidaria, Arthropoda, Corals.

Platyhelminthes, Annelida, Nematoda.

Platyhelminthes are flatworms; nematodes are roundworms; and annelids are segmented worms.

18

Animals such as __________ are the simplest animals to have __________.

Jellies; a complete digestive tract.

Roundworms; a complete digestive tract.

Flatworms; a true body cavity.

Sponges; bilateral symmetry.

Snails; a body cavity.

Roundworms; a true body cavity.

19

The __________ include the largest number of species.

Annelids.

Arthropods.

Echinoderms.

Chordates.

Molluscs.

Anthropods.

There are about one million known arthropod species.

20

In arthropods, molting is necessary because _________________________.

The exoskeleton is progressively resorbed by body tissue.

The chitinous exoskeleton cannot grow.

The environment degrades the exoskeleton, which therefore must be shed and replaced.

This is how arthropods reproduce.

Arthropod appendages generally increase in number as the animal ages.

The chitinous exoskeleton cannot grow.

21

The majority of animal species are __________.

Primates.

Vertebrates.

Lacking a body cavity.

Chordates.

Insects.

Insects.

In species diversity, insects outnumber all other forms of life combined.

22

A sea star and a hookworm belong to the phyla __________ and __________, respectively.

Echinodermata; Nematoda.

Mollusca; Rotifera.

Porifera; Arthropods.

Platyhelminthes; Arachnida.

Cnidaria; Chordata.

Echinodermata; Nematoda.

23

The water vascular system of a sea star functions in __________.

Keeping all parts of the body moist at low tide.

Pumping water for swimming movements.

Waste disposal.

Movement of the tube feet.

Digestion.

Movement of the tube feet.

24

Which one of the following is thought to be most closely related to humans?

Jellies.

Snails.

Earthworms.

Ants.

Sea stars.

Sea stars.

Both humans and sea stars share features of embryological development.

25

An animal has segments, bilateral symmetry, pharyngeal slits, a post-anal tail, and a notochord. It must be a member of the phylum __________.

Platyhelminthes.

Annelida.

Arthropoda.

Mollusca.

Chordata.

Chordata.

26

A __________ is a chordate but not a vertebrate.

Shark.

Lancelet.

Sea star.

Frog.

Lamprey.

Lancelet.

Throughout their lives, lancelets retain the notochord as the primary support of the appendicular skeleton.

27

A distinguishing feature of vertebrates is the presence of __________.

A gastrovascular cavity.

Segmentation.

A post-anal tail.

A backbone.

Feathers.

A backbone.

The group is named after the vertebrae that make up the backbone.

28

Which of the following do a lamprey, a shark, a lizard, and a rabbit all have in common?

They all have jaws.

They all have gill structures in the embryo or adult.

They are all tetrapods.

They are all ectothermic.

They are all amniotes.

They all have gill structures in the embryo or adult.

29

How do lampreys differ from other living vertebrates?

Lampreys lack both jaws and paired appendages.

Lampreys have an endoskeleton.

Lampreys are endothermic.

Lampreys have an exoskeleton.

Lampreys are amniotes.

Lampreys lack both jaws and paired appendages.

30

A feature of bony fish not found in sharks is _______________.

Pelvic and pectoral fins with bony supports.

A swim bladder.

Gills.

An endoskeleton.

A lateral line system.

A swim bladder.

31

The gill flap, or operculum, was an important adaptation for fish because it helps with ____________________.

Sensing chemicals in water.

Maintaining a supply of oxygen.

Underwater sex.

Adjusting buoyancy.

Orientation in currents.

Maintaining a supply of oxygen.

During breathing, water is drawn into the mouth, through te pharynx, and out between the gils by the movement of the operculum and the contraction of muscles surrounding the gill chambers.

32

The first vertebrates to colonize land were __________.

Agnathans.

Mammals.

Reptiles.

Cartilaginous fish.

Amphibians.

Amphibians.

Amphibians, though tied to water for reproduction, include species that are, otherwise, entirely terrestrial.

33

The development that freed vertebrates from water for reproduction and allowed them to radiate into diverse terrestrial environments was the __________.

Placenta.

Amniotic egg.

Bony appendage.

Operculum.

Lateral line system.

Amniotic egg.

The amniotic egg allows for reproduction and development within a structure that provides moisture, food, waste storage, and gas exchange.

34

Which of the following is shared by living birds and living reptiles?

Having feathers.

Having an operculum.

Endothermic metabolism.

Ectothermic metabolism.

Scales containing keratin.

Scales containing keratin.

35

Which of the following pairs is matched correctly?

Aves; little brown bat.

Osteichthyes; great white shark.

Mammal; kangaroo.

Jawed fish; lamprey.

Chondrichthyes; perch.

Mammal; kangaroo.

36

All mammals ____________________.

Complete their embryonic development in the uterus.

Are nurtured in the mother by the placenta.

Bear live young.

Are marsupials.

Have mammary glands.

Have mammary glands.

Mammary glands that produce milk are as distinctively mammalian as hair.

37

The kangaroo is an example of a(n) __________ mammal.

Ectothermic.

Egg-laying.

Marsupial.

Monotreme.

Placental.

Marsupial.

Opossums, kangaroos, bandicoots, and koalas are examples of marsupial mammals.

38

Eutherians ____________________.

have young that develop within the female's body.

Have a tendency toward single births.

Have a pouch where the young develop.

Lay eggs.

Have a tendency toward multiple births.

Have young that develop within the female's body.

39

There are three major groups of mammals, categorized on the basis of their _______________.

Size.

Habitat.

Method of Reproduction.

Presence or absence of hair.

Method of locomotion.

Method of reproduction.

Monotremes are egg-laying mammals; Marsupials are pouched mammals; and eutherians are placental mammals.

40

There are three major groups of primates. Which of the following includes one representative from each of the three groups?

Lemur, loris, chimpanzee.

Loris, baboon, chimpanzee.

Lemur, tarsier, baboon.

Monkey baboon, human.

Tarsier, monkey, gorilla.

Lemur, tarsier, baboon.

41

Primates are distinguished by characteristics adapted for what?

Having culture.

Being endothermic.

Standing upright.

Making tools

Living in the trees.

Living in the trees.

Characteristics designed for living in the trees distinguish primates fro other mammals.

42

Humans, apes, and monkeys are classified together as _______________.

New World monkeys.

Hominoids.

Hominids.

Anthropoids.

Lemurs.

Anthropoids.

43

Primates are distinguished from other mammals by _________________________.

Dexterous hands, nails, and good depth perception.

Fur, claws, and small litters.

Long tails used for balance, good depth perception, and opposable thumbs.

Placental reproduction, opposable thumbs, and good depth perception.

Good depth perception, mammary glands, and single births.

Dextrous hands, nails, and good depth perception.

44

The lineage that led to humans diverged from the one that led to chimpanzees about _____ million years ago.

40.

5.

50.

65.

25.

5.

45

Humans are most closely related to __________.

Chimpanzees.

Gibbons.

Gorillas.

Orangutans.

Lorises.

Chimpanzees.

46

Hominids include __________ but not __________.

Orangutans; monkeys

Humans; Neanderthals

Chimpanzee; orangutans

Chimpanzees; humans

Humans; great apes.

Humans; great apes.

47

The evolution of humans included which of the following?

The evolution of dexterous hands.

Development of good depth perception.

Providing parental care.

Having multiple births.

Increased brain size.

Increased brain size.

48

Which of the following correctly lists probably ancestors of modern humans fro the oldest to the most recent?

Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus

Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Australopithecus

Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Australopithecus

Australopithecus, Homo erectus, Homo habilis

Homo erectus, Australopithecus, Homo habilis

Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus

49

__________ arose very early in hominid evolution; __________ evolved more recently.

Large brains; upright posture.

Culture; forward-looking eyes.

Upright posture; forward-looking eyes.

Large brains; prominent brow ridges.

Upright posture; large brains.

Upright posture; large brains.

50

Bipedalism is associated with what hominid?

All primates

Neanderthals.

Homo erectus.

Australopithecus.

Neanderthals, although they were stooped in posture.

Australopithecus.

51

The first hominid known to make tools is (was)__________.

Homo habilis.

Homo erectus.

Homo sapiens.

Australopithecus africanus.

Australopithecus afarensis.

Homo habilis.

Handmade tools are associated with fossil Homo habilis dating back 2.5 million years.

52

Neanderthals were similar to modern humans in that some of them _______________.

Had small brow ridges.

Lived 10,000 years ago.

Did not use tools.

Lived in Africa.

Had red hair and fair skin.

Had red hair and fair skin.

53

Human genes undergoing relatively rapid evolution include a gene that may play a role in __________.

Artistic ability.

Reproduction.

Speech.

Bipedalism.

Tool use.

Speech. The gene FOSP2 is unique in humans and evidence suggests that it is important for speech.


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