Chapter 1- Matter & Minerals

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1

Mineralogy

The study of minerals

2

1st minerals mined:

Flint & Chert

3

Mineral

any naturally occuring inorganic solid that possesses an orderly crystalline structure and definite chemical composition that allow for some variation

4

Oceanography

This science emphasizes the study of marine environments including composition and movement of seawater, as well as coastal processes, seafloor topography, and the abundant and varied marine life.

5

There is a mixture of gases and small particles that surrounds and envelops Earth because of

Earths Gravity

6

Which of the following is not part of physical geology?

stars

7

Internal forces are responsible for all erosional landscapes.

false

Internal forces come from within the Earth beneath the surface and can affect the landscape, but are unlikely to directly create erosional landscapes.

8

Between the years 1930 and 1975 the population of Earth

doubled

9

The average annual per capita consumption of metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources for the United States is nearly 11 tons.

True

10

The global rate of mineral and energy resource usage has climbed less rapidly than the overall growth of population.

false

11

The process in which researchers gather facts through observations and formulate scientific hypotheses and theories is called the

scientific method

12

Which of the following is not considered a renewable resource?

coal

13

A tentative (or untested) explanation of a natural phenomenon is called a scientific

hypothesis

14

All science is based on the assumption that the natural world behaves in a consistent and predictable manner that is comprehensible through careful, systematic study.

true

15

Which of the following ways is not included in how to test a hypothesis?

popular beliefs

16

Events of the geologic past and Earth's history can be arranged into different units and presented as the

geologic time scale

17

Generally life is considered to be restricted to a narrow band near Earth's surfce, but there are important exceptions.

yeah

18

The geosphere is the largest part of Earth.

true

19

The geosphere is also known as the "Solid Earth."

true

20

Soil is made up of rock material and organic material, and includes air and water between particles.

true

21

The oceans are the most prominent feature of the hydrosphere, but it also includes freshwater such as lakes, rivers, groundwater, and even glaciers.

true

22

Ninety percent of the air in Earth's atmosphere occurs below an altitude of approximately 16 kilometers (10 miles). How much do you think would be within less than half this distance?

true

23

Humans are a part of the Earth system.

true

24

Based on compositional differences, which one of the following is not a principal region of Earth?

nebula

25

Choose the best answer to describe our atmosphere. The atmosphere

protects us from the Sun

includes weather processes

provides the air we breathe

is an integral part of our planet

26

Which of the following sets of planets correctly identifies the four inner rocky planets, in order starting from the closest to the Sun?

Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars

27

The age of Earth is best approximated at

4.5 billion years

28

A very large interstellar cloud of dust and gases is called a

nebula

29

Earth is located in the __________ galaxy.

milky way

30

Early in the formation of Earth, melting allowed the denser elements, principally iron and nickel, to sink to the center of the planet.

true

31

As the inner planets formed, the solar winds whisked away the lighter elements.

true

32

The solar system began forming approximately 13–15 billion years ago.

false

33

Earth and the other planets formed during essentially the same time span and from the same primordial material as the Sun.

true

34

Shortly after Earth formed, __________, coupled with heat released by colliding particles, produced at least some melting of the interior.

radioactive decay

35

The __________ suggests that the bodies of the solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud composed mostly of hydrogen and __________.

nebular hypothesis; helium

36

Paradigms are highly regarded but often involve many ideas.

true

37

As a hypothesis stands up to experimentation, and other competing hypotheses are proven false, the hypothesis is likely to advance to acceptance as a

theory

38
card image

A- outer core

B- lower mantle

C- inner core

D- Athenospehere

39

The core, mantle, and crust are layers sorted and divided based on ________ differences.

compositional and density

40

At the surface, temperature will be the most important but Earth's interior includes gradual changes in temperature, pressure, and density with depth.

true

41

Which of the following features of the oceans is part of the continental margin?

continental shelf

42

Lithospheric plates move because unequal distribution of heat creates motion and a mechanism within Earth called

convection

43

Since carbon dioxide is one of the atmosphere's greenhouse gases, its removal has a negative impact on global warming.

true

44

A common boundary where different parts of a system or subsystem come in contact or overlap and interact is called a/an

interface

45

Negative feedback mechanisms work to maintain the system as it is, in other words, to maintain the status quo.

true

46

Natural systems can be complicated, with energy and matter flowing in and out.

true

47

Earth system science attempts to integrate the knowledge of several academic fields.

true

48

The Earth system is characterized by processes that vary on spatial scales from fractions of millimeters to thousands of kilometers and time scales from milliseconds to billions of years.

true

49

Loosely defined, a __________ can be any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.

system

50

Earth processes are powered by energy from two sources, the __________ and Earth's interior.

sun

51

The hydrologic cycle is a familiar example of a subsystem of the Earth system.

true

52

The flat, expansive, stable interior areas of the continents are known as

shields

53

Plate Tectonics is best described as a

theory

54

Activity in this area is thought to be directly responsible for Earth's magnetic field.

outer core

55

Granite exhibits a coarse-grained texture.

true

56

Quenching of molten material is an important step in the formation of igneous rocks such as

obsidian

57

Igneous rocks are the rock type most likely to contain fossils.

false

58

The most common extrusive igneous rock is granite.

false: Granite is a coarse-grained rock that formed from magma cooling slowly within Earth.

59

Why can two igneous rocks have the same minerals but different names?

They may have different textures.

60

Molten material found inside Earth is called

magma

61

Over time, magma will crystallize to form igneous rocks.

true

62

The size of mineral crystals in igneous rocks is greatly influenced by the rate of magma cooling.

true

63

Igneous rocks are classified by

texture and mineral composition

64

Environmental conditions of heat and pressure are most likely associated with

metamorphism

65

Sediments are best defined as

deposits of loose material

66

__________ processes produce sedimentary rocks.

External

67

Rocks are part of the Geosphere or Solid Earth, but to understand how they form, the cycle shows the interactions with other spheres as well.

true

68

Metamorphic rocks exposed at the surface will most likely

weather

69

The process called weathering, whereby magma cools, solidifies, and forms igneous rocks, may take place either beneath the surface, following a volcanic eruption, or at the surface.

false

70

Compaction and cementation are two common steps or processes of lithification.

true

71

weathering

The surface process that slowly disintegrates and decomposes rock is called

72

The term lithosphere refers to the rigid outer layer of Earth that includes the crust and uppermost mantle.

true

73

Nonmetallic resources are often classified according to their use as building materials or industrial minerals.

true

74

Important metallic minerals, such as gold and copper, are sometime distributed in trace amounts throughout the whole rock in a ____________deposit.

disseminated

75

Deposits of material, including metallic minerals, from fluids moving through fractures or along bedding planes are called

veins

76

Important metallic ore deposits can form when

heavy crystals settle to the bottom of the magma chamber

77

Which of the following is used as an abrasive industrial mineral?

corundum

78

Bushveld Complex in South Africa is best known for the economically important reserves of

platinum (pt)

79

Sedimentary rocks are important economically for

all of the above

80

true

The metamorphic rock slate has better developed rock cleavage than shale and has a variety of building uses.

81

Carbon-rich deposits can be converted to fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas.

true

82

Some of the most important accumulations of metals such as gold, silver, and copper are produced by igneous and metamorphic processes.

true

83

Which of the following is best considered a high-grade regional metamorphic rock?

gneiss

84

Regional metamorphism is the result of differential stress.

true

85

Metamorphism by chemically active fluids are most likely to result in

change in composition

86

Confining pressures are responsible for regional metamorphism.

false: Regional metamorphism occurs as large quantities and areas of rock experience directed pressures and high temperatures associated with large-scale deformation.

87

Changes in the temperature of the Solid Earth with increasing depth is known as

geothermal gradient

88

The most important agent of metamorphism is heat.

true

89

When subjected to high pressure, shale will change to marble.

false Shale is a sedimentary rock made up of clay-sized particles and minerals and is not an appropriate parent material for marble.

90

The alignment of mineral crystals with a preferred orientation in a metamorphic rock that gives the rock a layered or banded appearance is referred to as a ____________ texture.

foliated

91

Detrital particles are predominantly quartz and

clay

92

Chemical sedimentary rocks can form from organic biochemical processes or inorganic chemical processes.

true

93

Chemical precipitates can form as water evaporates.

true

94

Bituminous coal is considered a chemical sedimentary rock.

true

95

The sand-sized particles of red sandstone are most likely cemented with iron oxide.

true

96

Mud cracks are most closely associated with

tidal flats

97

Pore space in loose sediment is reduced over time through compaction and cementation.

true

98

Which of the following cannot be an example of biochemical sedimentary rock?

sandstone

99

Particles transported short distances from their source will most likely be

angular

100

Separating strata are bedding planes, flat surfaces along which rocks tend to separate or break.

True

101

The crystallization of silicate minerals from magma is better understood because of the experiments and work of

N.L. Bowen

102

In which of the following locations are you least likely to see plutonic igneous rocks exposed at the surface?

hawaii

103

The formation of one or more secondary magmas from a single parent magma is best called

magmatic differentiation

104

The process that results as the random movement of ions slows and the ions come to rest organized within a pattern is called

crystallization

105

Which of the following is not a common dark (mafic) silicate mineral?

potassium feldspar

106

Magma is exactly the same as lava.

false

107

Which one of the following is not a primary element found in magma?

carbon

108

Igneous rocks that contain the last minerals to crystallize from magma and consist mainly of feldspars and quartz are said to have a ____________ composition.

felsic

109

Acceptance of the concept of uniformitarianism is compatible with a very short history for Earth.

false

110

Nicolaus Steno proposed the most basic principle of relative dating, the law of

superposition

111
card image

Youngest-A

Second youngest- B

third oldest- C

Second oldest- D

Oldest- E

112

Disconformities are often overlooked because rocks above and below the disconformity are similar and roughly parallel.

true

113

Which of the following is not a common method of fossilization?

igneous inclusions

114

Corals require warm and shallow tropical seas.

true

115

No place on Earth has a complete set of conformable strata.

true

116

The principle of fossil ____________ states that fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order.

succession

117

The task of matching up rocks of similar ages in different regions is known as

correlation

118

Tilted or folded sedimentary rocks overlain by younger flat-lying strata is typical for

angular uncomformity

119

An accurate numerical date is best determined using

radioactivity

120

The Kaibab limestone rocks of the Grand Canyon are older than the Supai Group.

false

121

Pieces of one rock unit contained within another are called

inclusions

122

The principle of __________ states that "Layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal position."

original horizontality

123

A(n) ____________ in the rock record represents a long period during which deposition ceased, erosion removed previously formed rocks, and then deposition resumed.

unconformity

124

Earth has experienced many episodes or cycles of mountain building and erosion.

true

125

The understanding and acceptance of a short history of a young Earth is supported by mountains and erosional processes.

false

126

Geologists attempt to understand the history of Earth by studying rocks.

true

127

The statement "The physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today also operated in the past" represents the concept of

uniformitarianism

128

Which of the following persons led an expedition through the Grand Canyon?

John Wesley Powell

129

Catastrophists believed that Earth was only a few thousand years old.

true


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