Chapter 1- Matter & Minerals
The study of minerals
1st minerals mined:
Flint & Chert
any naturally occuring inorganic solid that possesses an orderly crystalline structure and definite chemical composition that allow for some variation
This science emphasizes the study of marine environments including composition and movement of seawater, as well as coastal processes, seafloor topography, and the abundant and varied marine life.
There is a mixture of gases and small particles that surrounds and envelops Earth because of
Which of the following is not part of physical geology?
Internal forces are responsible for all erosional landscapes.
Internal forces come from within the Earth beneath the surface and can affect the landscape, but are unlikely to directly create erosional landscapes.
Between the years 1930 and 1975 the population of Earth
The average annual per capita consumption of metallic and nonmetallic mineral resources for the United States is nearly 11 tons.
The global rate of mineral and energy resource usage has climbed less rapidly than the overall growth of population.
The process in which researchers gather facts through observations and formulate scientific hypotheses and theories is called the
Which of the following is not considered a renewable resource?
A tentative (or untested) explanation of a natural phenomenon is called a scientific
All science is based on the assumption that the natural world behaves in a consistent and predictable manner that is comprehensible through careful, systematic study.
Which of the following ways is not included in how to test a hypothesis?
Events of the geologic past and Earth's history can be arranged into different units and presented as the
geologic time scale
Generally life is considered to be restricted to a narrow band near Earth's surfce, but there are important exceptions.
The geosphere is the largest part of Earth.
The geosphere is also known as the "Solid Earth."
Soil is made up of rock material and organic material, and includes air and water between particles.
The oceans are the most prominent feature of the hydrosphere, but it also includes freshwater such as lakes, rivers, groundwater, and even glaciers.
Ninety percent of the air in Earth's atmosphere occurs below an altitude of approximately 16 kilometers (10 miles). How much do you think would be within less than half this distance?
Humans are a part of the Earth system.
Based on compositional differences, which one of the following is not a principal region of Earth?
Choose the best answer to describe our atmosphere. The atmosphere
protects us from the Sun
includes weather processes
provides the air we breathe
is an integral part of our planet
Which of the following sets of planets correctly identifies the four inner rocky planets, in order starting from the closest to the Sun?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
The age of Earth is best approximated at
4.5 billion years
A very large interstellar cloud of dust and gases is called a
Earth is located in the __________ galaxy.
Early in the formation of Earth, melting allowed the denser elements, principally iron and nickel, to sink to the center of the planet.
As the inner planets formed, the solar winds whisked away the lighter elements.
The solar system began forming approximately 13–15 billion years ago.
Earth and the other planets formed during essentially the same time span and from the same primordial material as the Sun.
Shortly after Earth formed, __________, coupled with heat released by colliding particles, produced at least some melting of the interior.
The __________ suggests that the bodies of the solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud composed mostly of hydrogen and __________.
nebular hypothesis; helium
Paradigms are highly regarded but often involve many ideas.
As a hypothesis stands up to experimentation, and other competing hypotheses are proven false, the hypothesis is likely to advance to acceptance as a
A- outer core
B- lower mantle
C- inner core
The core, mantle, and crust are layers sorted and divided based on ________ differences.
compositional and density
At the surface, temperature will be the most important but Earth's interior includes gradual changes in temperature, pressure, and density with depth.
Which of the following features of the oceans is part of the continental margin?
Lithospheric plates move because unequal distribution of heat creates motion and a mechanism within Earth called
Since carbon dioxide is one of the atmosphere's greenhouse gases, its removal has a negative impact on global warming.
A common boundary where different parts of a system or subsystem come in contact or overlap and interact is called a/an
Negative feedback mechanisms work to maintain the system as it is, in other words, to maintain the status quo.
Natural systems can be complicated, with energy and matter flowing in and out.
Earth system science attempts to integrate the knowledge of several academic fields.
The Earth system is characterized by processes that vary on spatial scales from fractions of millimeters to thousands of kilometers and time scales from milliseconds to billions of years.
Loosely defined, a __________ can be any size group of interacting parts that form a complex whole.
Earth processes are powered by energy from two sources, the __________ and Earth's interior.
The hydrologic cycle is a familiar example of a subsystem of the Earth system.
The flat, expansive, stable interior areas of the continents are known as
Plate Tectonics is best described as a
Activity in this area is thought to be directly responsible for Earth's magnetic field.
Granite exhibits a coarse-grained texture.
Quenching of molten material is an important step in the formation of igneous rocks such as
Igneous rocks are the rock type most likely to contain fossils.
The most common extrusive igneous rock is granite.
false: Granite is a coarse-grained rock that formed from magma cooling slowly within Earth.
Why can two igneous rocks have the same minerals but different names?
They may have different textures.
Molten material found inside Earth is called
Over time, magma will crystallize to form igneous rocks.
The size of mineral crystals in igneous rocks is greatly influenced by the rate of magma cooling.
Igneous rocks are classified by
texture and mineral composition
Environmental conditions of heat and pressure are most likely associated with
Sediments are best defined as
deposits of loose material
__________ processes produce sedimentary rocks.
Rocks are part of the Geosphere or Solid Earth, but to understand how they form, the cycle shows the interactions with other spheres as well.
Metamorphic rocks exposed at the surface will most likely
The process called weathering, whereby magma cools, solidifies, and forms igneous rocks, may take place either beneath the surface, following a volcanic eruption, or at the surface.
Compaction and cementation are two common steps or processes of lithification.
The surface process that slowly disintegrates and decomposes rock is called
The term lithosphere refers to the rigid outer layer of Earth that includes the crust and uppermost mantle.
Nonmetallic resources are often classified according to their use as building materials or industrial minerals.
Important metallic minerals, such as gold and copper, are sometime distributed in trace amounts throughout the whole rock in a ____________deposit.
Deposits of material, including metallic minerals, from fluids moving through fractures or along bedding planes are called
Important metallic ore deposits can form when
heavy crystals settle to the bottom of the magma chamber
Which of the following is used as an abrasive industrial mineral?
Bushveld Complex in South Africa is best known for the economically important reserves of
Sedimentary rocks are important economically for
all of the above
The metamorphic rock slate has better developed rock cleavage than shale and has a variety of building uses.
Carbon-rich deposits can be converted to fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
Some of the most important accumulations of metals such as gold, silver, and copper are produced by igneous and metamorphic processes.
Which of the following is best considered a high-grade regional metamorphic rock?
Regional metamorphism is the result of differential stress.
Metamorphism by chemically active fluids are most likely to result in
change in composition
Confining pressures are responsible for regional metamorphism.
false: Regional metamorphism occurs as large quantities and areas of rock experience directed pressures and high temperatures associated with large-scale deformation.
Changes in the temperature of the Solid Earth with increasing depth is known as
The most important agent of metamorphism is heat.
When subjected to high pressure, shale will change to marble.
false Shale is a sedimentary rock made up of clay-sized particles and minerals and is not an appropriate parent material for marble.
The alignment of mineral crystals with a preferred orientation in a metamorphic rock that gives the rock a layered or banded appearance is referred to as a ____________ texture.
Detrital particles are predominantly quartz and
Chemical sedimentary rocks can form from organic biochemical processes or inorganic chemical processes.
Chemical precipitates can form as water evaporates.
Bituminous coal is considered a chemical sedimentary rock.
The sand-sized particles of red sandstone are most likely cemented with iron oxide.
Mud cracks are most closely associated with
Pore space in loose sediment is reduced over time through compaction and cementation.
Which of the following cannot be an example of biochemical sedimentary rock?
Particles transported short distances from their source will most likely be
Separating strata are bedding planes, flat surfaces along which rocks tend to separate or break.
The crystallization of silicate minerals from magma is better understood because of the experiments and work of
In which of the following locations are you least likely to see plutonic igneous rocks exposed at the surface?
The formation of one or more secondary magmas from a single parent magma is best called
The process that results as the random movement of ions slows and the ions come to rest organized within a pattern is called
Which of the following is not a common dark (mafic) silicate mineral?
Magma is exactly the same as lava.
Which one of the following is not a primary element found in magma?
Igneous rocks that contain the last minerals to crystallize from magma and consist mainly of feldspars and quartz are said to have a ____________ composition.
Acceptance of the concept of uniformitarianism is compatible with a very short history for Earth.
Nicolaus Steno proposed the most basic principle of relative dating, the law of
Second youngest- B
third oldest- C
Second oldest- D
Disconformities are often overlooked because rocks above and below the disconformity are similar and roughly parallel.
Which of the following is not a common method of fossilization?
Corals require warm and shallow tropical seas.
No place on Earth has a complete set of conformable strata.
The principle of fossil ____________ states that fossil organisms succeed one another in a definite and determinable order.
The task of matching up rocks of similar ages in different regions is known as
Tilted or folded sedimentary rocks overlain by younger flat-lying strata is typical for
An accurate numerical date is best determined using
The Kaibab limestone rocks of the Grand Canyon are older than the Supai Group.
Pieces of one rock unit contained within another are called
The principle of __________ states that "Layers of sediment are generally deposited in a horizontal position."
A(n) ____________ in the rock record represents a long period during which deposition ceased, erosion removed previously formed rocks, and then deposition resumed.
Earth has experienced many episodes or cycles of mountain building and erosion.
The understanding and acceptance of a short history of a young Earth is supported by mountains and erosional processes.
Geologists attempt to understand the history of Earth by studying rocks.
The statement "The physical, chemical, and biological laws that operate today also operated in the past" represents the concept of
Which of the following persons led an expedition through the Grand Canyon?
John Wesley Powell
Catastrophists believed that Earth was only a few thousand years old.