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Exercise 24: Special Senses: Vision

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created 7 years ago by jncanf
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Exercise 24 pg. 377 - 382 Im making these notecards to help, so if you use them, please sign up and help add more notecards! And dont forget to rate my helpfulness!!

updated 7 years ago by jncanf

Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year

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1

ACCESSORY STRUCTURES:
LACRIMAL APPARATUS - GLAND

PRODUCT:
DILUTE SALT SOLUTION (TEARS) LYSOZYME-ANTIBACTERIAL ENZYME

2

ACCESSORY STRUCTURES:
LACRIMAL CARUNCLE

PRODUCT:
WHITISH OILY SECRETION

3

ACCESSORY STRUCTURES:
CONJUNCTIVA

PRODUCT:
MUCUS, AIDS IN LUBRICATION OF EYE

4

ACCESSORY STRUCTURES:
CILIARY GLANDS

PRODUCT:
MODIFIED SWEAT GLANDS - AID IN LUBRICATION OF EYE

5

ACCESSORY STRUCTURES:
TARSAL GLANDS

PRODUCT:
SECRETES AN OILY SUBSTANCE

6

THE EYEBALL IS WRAPPED IN ADIPOSE TISSUE WITHIN THE ORBIT. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE ADIPOSE TISSUE?

ADIPOSE TISSUE PROTECTS THE EYEBALL FROM OUTER ENVIRONMENTS AND WORKS AS CUSHION FOR EYEBALL.

7

WHY DOES ONE OFTEN HAVE TO BLOW ONES NOSE AFTER CRYING?

SOME PERCENT OF YOUR TEARS IS RELEASED INTO THE NASOLACRIMAL DUCT, THEN SENT TO THE NASAL CAVITY. THIS MAKES YOUR NOSE SECRETE FLUIDS THAT MAKES YOU HAVE TO BLOW YOUR NOSE.

8

TURNS THE EYE LATERALLY

LATERAL RECTUS

9

TURNS THE EYE MEDIALLY

MEDIAL RECTUS

10

TURNS THE EYE UP AND LATERALLY

INFERIOR OBLIQUE

11

TURNS THE EYE INFERIORLY AND MEDIALLY

INFERIOR RECTUS

12

TURNS THE EYE SUPERIORLY AND MEDIALLY

SUPERIOR RECTUS

13

THE THE EYE DOWN AND LATERALLY

SUPERIOR OBLIQUE

14

WHAT IS A STY?

AN INFLAMMATION OF ONE OF THE CILIARY GLANDS OR A SMALL OIL GLAND IS A STY.

15

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16

WHAT IS CONJUNCTIVITIS?

INFLAMMATION OF THE CONJUNCTIVA

17
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(A - F)

A. CORNEA
B. LENS
C. ANTERIOR CHAMBER
D. SCLERAL VENOUS SINUS
E. CILIARY MUSCLE
F. CHOROID

18
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(G - N)

G. POSTERIOR CHAMBER
H. SCLERA
I. RETINA
J. DURA MATER
K. OPTIC NERVE
L. ANTERIOR SEGMENT
M. SUSPENSORY LIGAMENTS (CILIARY ZONULE)
N. POSTERIOR SEGMENT

19
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(O - U)

O. IRIS
P. CILIARY BODY AND PROCESSES
Q. FOVEA CENTRALIS
R. OPTIC DISC
S. PHOTORECEPTORS
T. BIPOLAR NEURONS
U. GANGLION CELLS

20

THE IRIS IS COMPOSED PRIMARILY OF TWO SMOOTH MUSCLE LAYERS, ONE ARRANGED RADIALLY AND THE OTHER CIRCULARLY. WHICH OF THESE DILATES THE PUPIL?

DILATOR PUPILLAE

21

YOU WOULD EXPECT THE PUPIL TO BE DILATED IN WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING CIRCUMSTANCES?

IN DIM LIGHT; OBSERVING DISTANT OBJECTS

22

THE INTRINSIC EYE MUSCLES ARE CONTROLLED BY?

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

23

FLUID FILLING THE ANTERIOR SEGMENT OF THE EYE

AQUEOUS HUMOR

24

THE "WHITE" OF THE EYE

SCLERA

25

PART OF THE RETINA THAT LACKS PHOTORECEPTORS

OPTIC DISC

26

MODIFICATION OF THE CHOROID THAT CONTROLS THE SHAPE OF THE CRYSTALLINE LENS AND CONTAINS THE CILIARY MUSCLE

CILIARY BODY

27

DRAINS THE AQUEOUS HUMOR FROM THE EYE

SCLERAL VENOUS SINUS

28

LAYER CONTAINING THE RODS AND CONES

RETINA

29

SUBSTANCE OCCUPYING THE POSTERIOR SEGMENT OF THE EYEBALL

VITROUS HUMOR

30

FORMS THE BULK OF THE HEAVILY PIGMENTED VASCULAR LAYER

CHOROID

31

SMOOTH MUSCLE STRUCTURES (2)

CILIARY BODY; IRIS

32

AREA OF CRITICAL FOCUSING AND DISCRIMINATORY VISION

FOVEA CENTRALIS

33

FORM (BY FILTRATION) THE AQUEOUS HUMOR

CILIARY PROCESSES OF THE CILIARY BODY

34

LIGHT-BENDING MEDIA OF THE EYE (4)

AQUEOUS HUMOR, CORNEA, LENS, VITREOUS HUMOR

35

ANTERIOR CONTINUATION OF THE SCLERA - YOUR "WINDOW ON THE WORLD"

CORNEA

36

COMPOSED OF TOUGH, WHITE, OPAQUE, FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE

SCLERA

37

THE TWO MAJOR LAYERS OF THE RETINA ARE THE EPITHELIAL AND NEURAL LAYERS. IN THE NEURAL LAYER, THE NEURON POPULATIONS ARE ARRANGED AS FOLLOWS FROM THE PIGMENTED EPITHELIAL LAYER TO THE VITREOUS HUMOR.

PHOTORECEPTORS, BIPOLAR CELLS, GANGLION CELLS

38

THE AXONS OF THE _____ CELLS FORM THE OPTIC NERVE, WHICH EXITS FROM THE EYEBALL.

GANGLION

39

THE DIM LIGHT RECEPTORS ARE THE ___1__. ONLY ___2__ ARE FOUND IN THE FOVEA CENTRALIS, WHEREAS MOSTLY ___3___ ARE FOUND IN THE PERIPHERY OF THE RETINA. ____4___ ARE THE PHOTORECEPTORS THAT OPERATE BEST IN BRIGHT LIGHT AND ALLOW FOR COLOR VISION.

1. RODS
2. CONES
3. RODS
4. CONES

40

WHAT MODIFICATION OF THE CHOROID THAT IS NOT PRESENT IN HUMANS IS FOUND IN THE COW EYE?

TAPETUM LUCIDUM

41

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE TAPETUM LUCIDUM?

THE REFLECT LIGHT ONTO THE RETINA. HELPS WITH THE CONDITIONS OF LOW-INTENSITY LIGHT.

42

WHAT DOES THE RETINA LOOK LIKE?

DELICATE WHITE MEMBRANE OVERLYING THE DARKLY PIGMENTED CHOROID COAT.

43

AT WHAT POINT IS IT (RETINA) ATTACHED TO THE POSTERIOR ASPECT OF THE EYEBALL?

OPTIC DISC

44

NORMAL VISION IN LEFT EYE VISUAL FIELD; ABSENCE OF VISION IN RIGHT EYE VISUAL FIELD

RIGHT OPTIC NERVE

45

NORMAL VISION IN BOTH EYES FOR RIGHT HALF OF THE VISUAL FIELD; ABSENCE OF VISION IN BOTH EYES FOR LEFT HALF OF THE VISUAL FIELD

RIGHT OPTIC TRACT

46

HOW IS THE RIGHT OPTIC TRACT ANATOMICALLY DIFFERENT FROM THE RIGHT OPTIC NERVE?

THE RIGHT OPTIC NERVE LEAVES THE RIGHT SIDE POSTERIOR TO THE EYE. HOWEVER, THE RIGHT OPTIC TRACT AFTER IS PAST THE OPTIC CHIASMA CROSSED TO THE LEFT SIDE OF THE BRAIN. THEY ARE ON COMPLETE OPPOSITE SIDES.

47

LIGHT BENDING

REFRACTION

48

ABILITY TO FOCUS FOR CLOSE (LESS THAN 20 FT) VISION

ACCOMMODATION

49

NORMAL VISION

EMMETROPIA

50

INABILITY TO FOCUS WELL ON CLOSE OBJECTS (FARSIGHTEDNESS)

HYPEROPIA

51

NEARSIGHTEDNESS

MYOPIA

52

BLURRED VISION DUE TO UNEQUAL CURVATURES OF THE LENDS OR CORNEA

ASTIGMATISM

53

MEDIAL MOVEMENT OF THE EYES DURING FOCUSING ON CLOSE OBJECTS

CONVERGENCE

54

IN FARSIGHTEDNESS, THE LIGHT IS FOCUSED __1__ THE RETINA. THE LENS REQUIRED TO TREAT MYOPIA IS A __2__ LENS. THE "NEAR POINT" INCREASES WITH AGE BECAUSE THE __3__ OF THE LENDS DECREASES AS WE GET OLDER. a CONVEX LENS, LIKE THAT OF THE EYE, PRODUCES AN IMAGE THAT IS UPSIDE DOWN AND REVERSED FROM LEFT TO RIGHT. SUCH AN IMAGE IS CALLED A __4__ IMAGE.

1. BEHIND
2. CONCAVE
3. FLEXIBILITY
4. REAL

55

DURING DISTANCE VISION, THE CILIARY MUSCLE IS __1__, THE SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT IS __2__, THE CONVEXITY OF THE LENDS IS __3__, AND LIGHT REFRACTION IS __4__. DURING CLOSE VISION, THE CILIARY MUSCLE IS __5__, THE SUSPENSORY LIGAMENT IS __6__, LENS CONVEXITY IS __7__, AND LIGHT REFRACTION IS __8__.

1. RELAXED
2. TAUT
3. DECREASED
4. DECREASED
5. CONTRACTED
6. RELAXED
7. INCREASED
8. INCREASED

56

EXPLAIN WHY VISION IS LOST WHEN LIGHT HITS THE BLIND SPOT.

HAS NO PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS AND DOES NOT RESPOND TO LIGHT.

57

USING THE SNELLEN EYE TEST:

IS YOUR VISUAL ACUITY NORMAL, LESS THEN NORMAL, OR BETTER THEN NORMAL. EXPLAIN

NORMAL; I CAN SEE AT 20 FT WHAT A PERSON WITH NORMAL VISION CAN SEE AT 20 FT.

58

EXPLAIN WHY EACH EYE IS TESTED SEPARATELY WHEN USING THE SNELLEN EYE CHART?

BECAUSE BOTH EYES COULD HAVE DIFFERENT VISION, COMPAIRED THE OTHER VISION IS NOT THE SAME.

59

EXPLAIN 20/40

PERSON CAN SEE AT 20 FT WHAT A PERSON WITH NORMAL VISION CAN SEE AT 40 FT. LESS THEN NORMAL VISION

60

EXPLAIN 20/10

PERSON CAN SEE AT 20 FT WHAT A PERSON WITH NORMAL VISION CAN SEE AT 10 FT. BETTER THEN NORMAL VISION.

61

DEFINE ASTIGMATISM

IS A TYPE OF REFRECTIVE ERROR THAT AFFECTS THE QUALITY OF FOCUS. IF CORNEA/LENS IS NOT UNIFORMLY CURVED, LIGHT RAYS DONT FOCUS AT A SINGLE POINT. BUT FALL AS A BLURRED CIRCLE.

62

HOW CAN IT BE CORRECTED (ASTIGMATISM)

BY GLASSES FORMED WITH THE OPPOSITE CURVATURE GRADATION.

63

DEFINE PRESBYOPIA

NORMAL, PRESENTLY UNAVOIDABLE DEGENERATION OF THE ACCOMMODATION POWER OF THE EYE ASSOCIATED WITH AGING.

64

WHAT CAUSES IT? (PRESBYOPIA)

OCCURS BECAUSE THE LENS BECOMES SCLEROTIC AND LESS FLEXIBLE.

65

TO WHICH WAVELENGTHS OF LIGHT DO THE THREE CONE TYPES OF THE RETINA RESPOND MAXIMALLY?

BLUE PIGMENTS - 430 NM
GREEN PIGMENTS - 530 NM
RED PIGMENTS - 560 NM

66

HOW CAN YOU EXPLAIN THE FACT THAT WE SEE A GREAT RANGE OF COLORS EVEN THOUGH ONLY THREE CONE TYPES EXIST?

INTERPRETATION OF THE INTERMEDIATE COLORS OF THE VISIBLE LIGHT SPECTRUM IS A RESULT OF OVERLAPPING INPUT FROM MORE THAN ONE CONE TYPE.

67

EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BINOCULAR AND PANORAMIC VISION.

WITH BINOCULAR VISION, THERE IS A CONSIDERABLE OVERLAP BETWEEN THE VISUAL FIELDS OF THE LEFT AND RIGHT EYE. UNLIKE BINOCULAR VISION, WITH PANORAMIC VISION THE LEFT AND RIGHT EYES SEE IN TWO DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS RESULTING IN A PANORAMIC FIELD OF VIEW.

68

WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGE OF BINOCULAR VISION?

PROVIDES 3-DIMENSIONAL VISION, AND AND ACCURATE MEANS OF LOCATING OBJECTS IN SPACE, THIS IS KNOWN AS DEPTH PERCEPTION.

69

WHAT FACTOR(S) ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR BINOCULAR VISION?

THE FACT THAT THE EYES ARE IN THE FRONT OF THE HEAD AND THE ABILITY OF VISUAL CORTEX TO RESOLVE TWO DIFFERENT VIEWS INTO A SINGLE IMAGE.

70

IN THE EXPERIMENT ON THE CONVERGENCE REFLEX, WHAT HAPPENED TO THE POSITION OF THE EYEBALLS AS THE OBJECT WAS MOVED CLOSER TO THE SUBJECT'S EYES?

MEDIAL EYE MOVEMENTS, BOTH EYES ARE DIRECTED TOWARD THE NEAR OBJECT VIEWED.

71

WHAT EXTRINSIC EYE MUSCLES CONTROL THE MOVEMENT OF THE EYES DURING THE CONVERGENCE REFLEX?

MEDIAL, SUPERIOR, AND INFERIOR RECTUS MUSCLES CONTROL THE MOVEMENT OF THE EYE DURING THE CONVERGENCE REFLEX

72

WHAT IS THE VALUE OF THIS REFLEX? (CONVERGENCE)

HELPS MAINTAIN AND IS RESPONSIBLE FOR KEEPING THE EYES ALIGNED AND FOCUSED ON AN OBJECT

73

WHAT IS THE VALUE OF THE CONVERGENCE REFLEX?

TO PROTECT AND TO KEEP YOU AWARE OF YOUR SURROUNDINGS

74

IN THE EXPERIMENT ON THE PHOTOPUPILLARY REFLEX, WHAT HAPPENED TO THE PUPIL OF THE EYE EXPOSED TO LIGHT? EXPLAIN

IT CONSTRICTED; BECAUSE LIGHT IS BEING EXPOSED TO THE RETINA THE PUPIL WILL CONSTRICT AS A PROTECTIVE RESPONSE TO PREVENT DAMAGE TO PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS.

75

WHAT HAPPENED TO THE PUPIL OF THE NONILLUMINATED EYE? EXPLAIN

IT DILATED; PUPILS WILL STAY DILATED IN LOW LIGHT BECAUSE THERE IS NO NEED TO BE PROTECTIVE.

76

WHY IS THE OPHTHALMOSCOPIC EXAMINATION AN IMPORTANT DIAGNOSTIC TOOL?

TO DETERMINE VISUALLY THE CONDITION OF THE RETINA, OPTIC DISC, AND INTERNAL BLOOD VESSELS. CAN DETERMINE IF A PERSON HAS PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OR DEGENERATIVE CHANGES IN OPTIC NERVE OR RETINA.

77

MANY COLLEGE STUDENTS STRUGGLING THROUGH MOUNTAINOUS READING ASSIGNMENTS ARE TOLD THAT THEY NEED GLASSES FOR "EYESTRAIN." WHY IS IT MORE OF A STRAIN ON THE EXTRINSIC AND INTRINSIC EYE MUSCLES TO LOOK AT CLOSE OBJECTS THAN AT FAR OBJECTS?

WHEN LOOKING AT NEAR OBJECTS YOUR EYES CONSTANTLY NEED TO CONVERGE AND ACCOMODATE. USING THESE MUSCLES CONSTANTLY WILL CAUSE STRAIN. HOWEVER LOOKING AT FAR OBJECTS THE EYES DONT NEED TO CONVERGE AND ACCOMODATE SO YOU DONT USE THESE MUSCLES MAKING LESS STRAIN ON THE EYE.


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