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The Respiratory System

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1
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Identify the letter that indicates structures that assist in filtering, heating, and humidifying
inspired air.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

A

2
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Identify the letter that indicates a muscular tube that serves as a common passageway for food
and air.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

D

3
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Identify the letter that indicates a flexible tube that has C-shaped cartilaginous rings that keep
it from collapsing.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

E

4
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Identify the letter that indicates the opening of the pharyngotympanic tube.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

B

5
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Identify the letter that indicates the uvula.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

C

6
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Identify the letter that indicates Ciliated cells in this layer transport mucus laden with dust,
bacteria, pollen, and viruses towards the pharynx.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

C

7
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Identify the letter that indicates the fibromusculocartilaginous layer with hyaline cartilaginous
rings that allow the trachea to bend and elongate but not collapse.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

D

8
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Identify the letter that indicates the trachealis muscle.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

B

9
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Identify the letter that indicates the soft wall of the trachea allows the esophagus to expand
anteriorly.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

B

10
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Identify the letter that indicates a muscular tube that propels swallowed food to the stomach.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

A

11
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Identify the letter that indicates the cartilage that has a laryngeal prominence that is also
known as the "Adam's apple."
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

D

12
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Identify the letter that indicates the vocal fold, or true vocal cord.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

E

13
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Identify the letter that indicates the cartilage that folds over the opening of the larynx — the
glottis. The function of this cartilage is to prevent aspiration of foods and liquids into the lower
respiratory tubes.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

B

14
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Identify the letter that indicates the vestibular fold, or false vocal cord.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

C

15
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Identify the letter that indicates the cartilage that anchors the vocal cords posteriorly.
A) A
B) B
C) C
D) D
E) E

A

16

Anatomical region of the nasal cavity containing nose hairs.
A) nasal septum
B) olfactory mucosa
C) nasal conchae
D) vestibule
E) uvula

D

17

The smallest airway of the bronchial tree that is primarily responsible for creating
bronchoconstriction.
A) primary bronchi
B) bronchiopulmonary segment
C) lobe of lung
D) bronchiole
E) alveoli sac

D

18

Alveolar cells that allow rapid diffusion of respiratory gases.
A) Type I
B) Type II
C) alveolar macrophages
D) endothelial cells
E) pseudostratiied columnar epithelial cells

A

19

The serous membrane lining of the wall of the thoracic cavity.
A) visceral pleura
B) parietal pleura
C) mucous membrane
D) parietal pericardium
E) visceral pericardium

B

20

The region of the lung served by secondary, or lobar, bronchi.
A) bronchopulmonary segment
B) lobe
C) lobule
D) lingular
E) cardiac notch

B

21

Fluid that reduces surface tension of the alveolar walls.
A) serous fluid
B) pleural fluid
C) surfactant
D) lysozyme
E) mucin

C

22

These are peripheral chemoreceptors that monitor changes in respiratory gasses and blood
acidity levels.
A) ventral respiratory center
B) vagus nerve
C) reticular activating system
D) carotid bodies
E) medulla oblongata

D

23

The medial opening between the vocal folds through which air passes.
A) glottis
B) vestibule
C) rima glottidis
D) thyrohyoid membrane
E) cricothyroid ligament

C

24

Specific location within the lungs where gas exchange occurs.
A) terminal bronchioles
B) carina
C) bronchopulmonary segments
D) alveoli
E) respiratory membrane

E

25

Fissure separating the upper and middle lobes of the right lung.
A) horizontal
B) oblique
C) carina
D) superior
E) inferior

A

26

The superior and middle nasal conchae are bony projections from the
A) vomer.
B) ethmoid bone.
C) sphenoid bone.
D) maxillary bone.

B

27

Which cells produce surfactant?
A) type I cells
B) type II cells
C) alveolar macrophages
D) chondrocytes

B

28

Which part of the nose is composed of dense fibrous connective tissue?
A) the apex
B) the border where the nostril attaches to the maxilla
C) the nasal septum
D) the surface connecting to the nasal bones

B

29

The rubbing together of inflamed pleural membranes that produces a stabbing pain in the
chest is called
A) influenza.
B) tuberculosis.
C) rhinitis.
D) pleurisy.

D

30

Which structure is not located within the nasopharynx?
A) opening of the pharyngotympanic tube
B) palatine tonsil
C) pharyngeal tonsil
D) tubal tonsil

B

31

Which of the following is not a function of the nasal conchae?
A) They deflect particulates to the mucosa.
B) They help warm the air.
C) They decrease the turbulence in the flow of air through the nasal cavity.
D) They moisten the air.

C

32

When the diaphragm contracts, the size of the thoracic cavity ________, the pressure inside
the thoracic cavity ________, and air flows ________ the lungs.
A) decreases; rises; into
B) increases; drops; into
C) decreases; drops; out of
D) increases; drops; out of

B

33

In lung cancer, the cancer cells usually arise from
A) the smooth muscle fibers around the bronchioles.
B) the epithelium lining a large bronchus.
C) the alveoli.
D) lymph nodes in the lung.

B

34

Vibrissae are
A) specialized cells in the larynx that react to vibrations of air.
B) large hairlike projections on epithelial cells that line the trachea.
C) nose hairs.
D) the sensory organs of the inner ear.

C

35

Which muscle contracts during forced expiration?
A) internal oblique
B) serratus anterior
C) sternocleidomastoid
D) pectoralis major

A

36

The part of the brain that generates the basic respiratory rhythm is the
A) medulla oblongata.
B) limbic system.
C) hypothalamus.
D) cerebrum.

A

37

Sympathetic stimulation of terminal bronchioles causes
A) bronchoconstriction.
B) a decrease in blood supply to the bronchioles.
C) bronchodilation.
D) secretion of less surfactant.

C

38

The left lung
A) has three lobes.
B) is supplied entirely by a secondary bronchus.
C) receives oxygenated blood from the heart via the left pulmonary artery.
D) has a cardiac notch.

D

39

Which portion of the nasal cavity is lined with sebaceous and sweat glands and numerous
hair follicles?
A) hard and soft palate
B) nasal conchae
C) roof (ceiling)
D) vestibule

D

40

The detergent-like molecule that keeps the alveoli from collapsing between breaths is called
A) bile.
B) hemoglobin.
C) surfactant.
D) oxygen.

C

41

The passageway between the nasopharynx and the middle ear is the
A) oval window.
B) internal acoustic meatus.
C) mastoid sinus.
D) pharyngotympanic tube.

D

42

Of the three different layers of tissue in the wall of the trachea, the outermost layer is the
A) adventitia.
B) lamina propria.
C) submucosa.
D) muscularis.

A

43

What type of epithelium occurs in the respiratory mucosa?
A) pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
B) simple squamous epithelium
C) simple columnar epithelium
D) stratified squamous epithelium

A

44

Some bronchi have names such as the "right upper-lobe bronchus," "left lower-lobe
bronchus," and "right middle-lobe bronchus." These are ________ bronchi.
A) primary
B) secondary
C) tertiary
D) very small (about fifteenth-order)

B

45

The correct definition of bronchopulmonary segments is
A) arbitrary subdivisions of a lung, about as large as a fist (0.3 liter).
B) parts of the lung that are easy to remove during surgery.
C) parts of the lungs that are separated by the oblique and horizontal fissures.
D) parts of the lung that are supplied by a single tertiary bronchus (and its branches).

D

46

The ________ flaps over the glottis when we swallow food.
A) uvula
B) epiglottis
C) palate
D) vocal fold

B

47

The respiratory mucosa is present throughout each of the following areas except the
A) bronchi.
B) nasal cavity.
C) nasopharynx.
D) superior laryngopharynx.

D

48

Most foreign substances in inspired air fail to reach the lungs because of the
A) ciliated epithelium and mucus that line the respiratory passages.
B) abundant blood supply to the nasal mucosa.
C) porous structure of the nasal conchae.
D) action of the epiglottis.

A

49

The ability to vary the pitch of the voice results from varying
A) the force of air passing over the vocal folds.
B) the tension in the vocal folds.
C) the size of the laryngeal cartilages.
D) the shape of the cricoid cartilage.

B

50

In the wall of the trachea and bronchi, the cartilage rings lie within which tissue layer?
A) inner epithelium
B) mucosa
C) submucosa
D) fibromusculocartilaginous layer

D

51

The aortic bodies
A) sense the concentration of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
B) give rise to the pulmonary arteries.
C) are innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve.
D) are in the hilum of the lung.

A

52

Of the following, which is the only organ that is not an upper respiratory structure? (Hint:
Recall Figure 22.3.)
A) larynx
B) oropharynx
C) vestibule of the nose
D) nasal cavity

A

53

An aortic aneurysm that presses on the left recurrent laryngeal nerve could lead to
A) paralysis of the diaphragm.
B) hoarse speech.
C) complete loss of speech.
D) inability of the carotid sinus to monitor blood gases.

B

54

The main function of the elaborate venous plexus in the nasal mucosa is
A) diapedesis of leukocytes.
B) to replace vessels broken in nose bleeds.
C) to supply extra blood to the brain and supplement the dural sinuses.
D) to warm blood and moisten inhaled air.

D

55

The vocal ligaments attach between the thyroid cartilage and the
A) arytenoid cartilage.
B) corniculate cartilage.
C) cricoid cartilage.
D) cuneiform cartilage.

A

56

The trachealis muscle
A) constricts the trachea.
B) controls the length and tension of the vocal cords.
C) initiates the cough reflex.
D) raises the larynx when swallowing.

A

57

The pharyngeal tonsil is
A) scattered throughout the pharynx.
B) in the fauces.
C) the largest tonsil.
D) synonymous with the adenoids in the roof of the nasopharynx.

D

58

Embryologically, the nasal cavity develops from
A) invagination of the ectoderm of the olfactory placode.
B) the nasopharynx.
C) a cranial extension of the mouth.
D) the early precursor of the paranasal sinuses.

A

59

Supportive cartilage disappears from the bronchial tree at the level of the
A) alveolar duct.
B) bronchioles.
C) lobar bronchi.
D) respiratory bronchiole.

B

60

The lobes of a lung are easy to recognize and distinguish from one another because
A) they all have slightly different colors.
B) they are separated by fissures.
C) each is supplied by a primary bronchus, and the primary bronchi are easy to find.
D) carbon from the air accumulates between and outlines the lobes in most people (even if they
breathe almost-unpolluted air).

B

61

Alveolar pores
A) allow gases to transfer from the alveoli to the blood.
B) allow pleural fluid to enter the alveoli and keep their walls from sticking together.
C) are the openings between the alveolar duct and the alveolus.
D) equalize air pressure throughout the lung.

D

62

The space between the right and left vocal folds is called the
A) laryngeal inlet.
B) cricoid.
C) vestibule.
D) rima glottidis.

D

63

Which structure does not enter or exit from the hilum of a lung?
A) bronchial vein
B) phrenic nerve
C) pulmonary artery
D) pulmonary plexus

B

64

Which structure is both a lower respiratory structure and in the conducting zone? (Hint:
Recall Figure 22.3.)
A) the laryngopharynx
B) a respiratory bronchiole
C) any bronchus
D) an alveolus

C

65

In a runner who is breathing heavily during a race, the rima glottidis is
A) half closed.
B) half open.
C) open as far as possible.
D) all the way closed.

C

66

It is easy to see on the outer surface of a smoker's lung hexagons approximately the size of
the tip of a little finger and clearly outlined by black lines of carbon. These structures are
A) lobes.
B) bronchopulmonary segments.
C) lobules.
D) bronchioles.

C

67

Which muscle is used for both quiet inspiration and forced expiration?
A) external intercostals
B) internal intercostals
C) latissimus dorsi
D) scalenes

B

68

Which of the following changes does not occur as the conducting tubes of the respiratory tree
become smaller?
A) Cartilage rings are replaced by irregular plates of cartilage.
B) The lining epithelium thins.
C) Elastin in the walls disappears.
D) Cartilage disappears in the bronchioles.

C

69

The ventral respiratory group (VRG) is a group of neurons located within the
A) forebrain.
B) medulla oblongata.
C) midbrain.
D) pons.

B

70

In a preserved cadaver, the first rib is likely to form a groove on which surface of the lung?
A) basal
B) mediastinal
C) inferior costal
D) apical (apex)

D

71

The lungs are located in the
A) mediastinum.
B) abdominopelvic cavity.
C) thoracic cavity.
D) pleura.

C

72

The trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles are all located within the lungs.

A) True

B) False

B

73

Changes in the size of the thoracic cavity bring about inspiration and expiration.

A) True

B) False

A

74

Type II alveolar cells produce pleural fluid to keep the walls of the alveoli from collapsing or
adhering together.

A) True

B) False

B

75

Gas exchange occurs across the bronchi and bronchioles.

A) True

B) False

B

76

The left lung has both a horizontal fissure and oblique fissure.

A) True

B) False

B

77

The pleural cavities extend two ribs below the inferior border of the lungs.

A) True

B) False

A

78

The external intercostal muscles are involved in active inspiration.

A) True

B) False

A

79

The groove through which air passes between nasal conchae is called a choanae.

A) True

B) False

B

80

The respiratory zone begins at the large bronchioles.

A) True

B) False

B

81

The only laryngeal cartilage to form a complete ring is the cuneiform.

A) True

B) False

B

82

When the diaphragm contracts, it raises the floor of the thoracic cavity upward.

A) True

B) False

B

83

The scalene muscles are involved in deep inspiration.

A) True

B) False

A

84

The number of secondary, or lobar, bronchi is a distinguishing characteristic of the right and
left lungs.

A) True

B) False

A

85

The vocal ligaments are attached between the cricoid and arytenoid cartilages.

A) True

B) False

B

86

The mucosal epithelium transitions from pseudostratified columnar to simple cuboidal along
the path to the respiratory bronchioles.

A) True

B) False

A


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