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Biology Lab Practical

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created 3 years ago by Lizzygweber19
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updated 3 years ago by Lizzygweber19

Grade levels:
College: Second year

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1

Exercise 10

Be able to recognize examples of protisans and give the taxonomy of each. Give a general characteristic of each example.

2

Two major characteristics of Kingdom Protist:

Eukaryotic, and aquatic.

3

Protist means:

A eukaryote that is not a plant, animal or fungus.

4

Most protists are multi-cellular or unicellular?

Unicellular.

5

Photoautotrophs:

Organisms make their own food using sunlight as energy.

6

Heterotrophic:

Obtain food by ingesting other organisms.

7

Mizotrophs:

They combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition.

8

Five clades of Kingdom Protist:

Excavata, Chromalveolata, Rhizaria, Archaeplastida, and Unikonta.

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Clade Excavata:

Similar: feeding groove, resembles a "scoop", a flagellum

10

Clade Chromalveolata:

Marine organisms, usually contain 2 flagella, plankton, Golden and brown algae, evolved from secondary endosymbiosis,

11

Clade Rhizaria:

Defined by DNA similarities, amoeboid shape, shells

12

Clade Archaeplastida:

Includes red and green algae, developed from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, all have plastids in their cells

13

Clade Unikonta:

Myosin proteins, single flagellum---"uni"konta

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Example of Clade Excavata (Euglena)

15

Characteristics of Euglena

Found in fresh but polluted waters

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Example of Clade Excavata (Trypanosoma)

17

What causes African Sleeping Sickness?

Trypamosoma

18

Vector for African Sleeping Sickness

Tsetse fly

19

Why is African Sleeping sickness difficult to treat?

Surface is covered with multiple copies of a single protein, before the immune system can attack, surface protein switches.

20
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Example of Clade Chromalveolata: Dinoflagellate called (Ceratium)

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Example of Clade Chromalveolata (Plasmodium) - causes Malaria

22

What causes Malaria?

Plasmodium

23
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Example of Clade Chromalveolata (Paramecium caudatum) (slipper shaped) (ciliate)

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Example of Clade Chromalveolata (Diatoms)

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Example of Clade Archaeplastida (Green algae) (Spirogyra)

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Example of Clade Archaeplastida (green algae) (Volvox)

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Example of Clade Unikonta (Amoeba Proteus)

28

What is the cell wall of diatoms made of?

Silica

29

What is plankton?

bottom of the food chain in marine waters

30

What is a distinctive feature seen in Paramecium?

2 nuclei, macronucleus and micronuclei

31

What is a distinctive feature seen in spirogyra?

Spiral shaped chloroplasts.

32

What kind of algae is Volvox?

Green algae.

33

How does the amoeba move?

pseudopods

34

Name the process by which amoeba ingests its food?

Phagocytosis

35

Why would you expect a fresh water amoeba to be more likely to have a contractile vacuole than a marine amoeba?

A freshwater amoeba lives in a hypotonic environment, water enters by osmosis. Contractile vacuole needed to pump out excess water.
An amoeba in salt water lives hypertonic environment, no need for a contractile vacuole

36

Exercise 11

Kingdom Animalia: Sponges and Cnidarians

37

The Animal Kingdom is characterized by:

multicellular, eukaryotic organisms that obtain their nutrients by feeding on other animals, plants or fungi.

38

Characteristics of Animal Kingdom:

heterotrophic, multicellular organisms

39

What animal does not have tissues, organs or organ systems?

Sponges

40

Characteristics of Sponges:

Heterotrophic, filter feeders, asexual reproduction (budding), no tissues, neither protostomes or deuterostomes, sessile, hermaphrodites

41

What Phylum do sponges belong to?

Porifera (porous body)

42

What are the classes of sponges?

Calcarea, Hexactinellida, Demospongiae

43
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Class Calcarea (sponge)

44
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Class Hezactinellida (sponge)

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Class Demospongiae (sponge)

46

Why are sponges so different from other animals in the Kingdom Animalia?

No tissues, organ systems, coelom, or organs.

47

Phylum Cnidarian

Have true tissues but no organs or organ systems. Radial symmetry. Aquatic.

48

Characteristics of Phylum Cnidarian:

Radial symmetry, aquatic, three body forms.

49

The two tissue layers in Phylum Cnidarian?

Epidermis, and inner gastrodermis.

50

Coelenteron:

The gastrovascular cavity in Phylum Cnidarian.

51

Cnidocyte:

Cell type in cnidarians, "stinging cell", helps them capture prey.

52

Two adult forms of Cnidaria?

Polyp and medusa.

53

hydroid or polyp form:

colonial, not free-moving.

54

Medusa form:

Free moving,

55

Are jellyfish medusa or colonial?

Medusa

56

3 Classes of phylum Cnidaria:

Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Anthozoa.

57

Examples of Class Hydrozoa:

Hydra, Obelia, and Portugese man of war.

58
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Polyp form of Obelia. (Class Hydrozoa)

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Medusa form of Obelia. (Class Hydrozoa)

60

Is the Portugese man-of war medusa or colonies of individual polyps?

Floating colonies of individual polyps.

61

Examples of Class Scyphozoa:

Jellyfish (Class Scyphozoa) (always medusa)

62

Examples of Class Anthozoa:

Corals and sea anemones.

63

Characteristics of Class Anthozoa:

Display the polyp form and live in colonies.

64

Which genus in Phylum Cnidaria displays both polyp and medusa adult forms?

Obelia.

65

What is the name of the class in which jellyfish belong?

Class Scyphozoa.

66

What is the name of the class to which coral belong?

Class Anthozoa.

67

Which class of cnidarians always shows the medusa form?

Class Scyphozoa, jellyfish.

68

Are Cnidarians protostomes or deuterostomes?

Neither.

69

Exercise 12

Kingdom Animalia Protostomes: Phyla Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, annelida, Mollusca and Arthropoda.

70

Protostome:

A developmental term that describes the first opening as the forerunner to the animal's mouth. The mouth develops first.

71

Phylum of Kingdom Animalia Protostomes:

Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda.

72

What phylum are "flat worms" in?

Phylum Platyhelminthes.

73

Round worms that are unsegmented belong to what Phylum?

Phylum Nematoda.

74

Segmented round worms belong to what phylum?

Phylum Annelida.

75

What phylum do mollusks belong to?

Phylum Mollusca.

76

What phylum to insects and crustaceans belong to?

Phylum Arthropoda.

77

In what direction are flatworms, flat?

Dorsal-ventral.

78

Meaning of "Platyhelminthes":

"Platy":flat and "Helminth":worm

79

Describe the reproductive system of Phylum Platyhelminthes:

Hermaphrodites.

80

What type of worm is known for being a parasite?

Flat worms.

81

3 classes of Phylum Platyhelminthes:

Turbelaria, Trematoda, Cestoda.

82
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Example of Class Turbelaria:

Planaria.

83

Example of Class Trematoda:

Clonorchis sinesis. (Chinese liver fluke)

84

How to identify the Chinese liver fluke?

oral sucker

85

The three hosts of the Chinese Liver fluke:

Human, snail, and fish.

86

Life-cycle of a chinese liver fluke?

1. Human eats raw or undercooked fish, that contains immature flukes.
2. Flukes mature in the bile ducts of the liver, where they produce eggs.
3. Eggs pass out through feces.
4. Miracidia are eaten by snails, invade tissues and develop into sporocysts.
5. Sporocysts develop into free-swimming cercariae and leave the snail.
6. Cercariae invade fish muscle and form protective cysts and develop into metacercariae.

87

Example of Class Cestoda:

Tapeworms.

88

Scientific name for tapeworm?

Dipylidium caninum.

89

Proglottids:

Repeating units in a tapeworm.

90

Scolex

Head of a tapeworm

91

Can a tapeworm regenerate?

Yes because of its proglottids.

92

Lifecycle of a tapeworm:

1. Human eats undercooked pork that contains tapeworm cysts. 2. Cysts attatch to intestinal wall. 3. Eggs from tapeworm pass in feces. 4. Pig eats infected food. 5. Pig's muscles are filled with larvae cysts.

93

What part of a tapeworm attaches to a dog's intestinal wall?

Scolex.

94

Classes in Phylum Nematoda:

Polychaeta, Hirudinea, and Oligochaeta.

95

Phylum Nematoda consists of:

Round, unsegmented worms with bilateral symmetry.

96

How do you tell male from female worm?

Female is bigger and male has a hook at the end.

97
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Ascaris (Nematoda)

98
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Trichinella spiralis (nematoda)

99

How do you get Trichinella spiralis?

Eat under cooked pork.

100

Phylum Annelida consists of:

Round, segmented worms with bilateral symmetry.

101

What worm phylum has a true coelom?

Phylum Annelida

102

Classes in Phylum Annelida:

Polychaeta, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta.

103

Look at Earthworm dissection picture and website:

/>

104

Examples of Class Polychaeta:

Sandworms, and marine worms.

105
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Sand worm

106

Example of Class Hirudinea:

Leeches

107

Example of Class Oligochaeta:

Earthworm

108

What Class do earthworms belong to?

Oligochaeta

109

Phylum Mollusca:

Soft bodied animals, many with outer shells and a bilaterally symmetrical body plan with three areas called foot, mantle, and visceral mass. Animals live in land or water.

110

5 classes of Phylum MolluscaL:

Polyplacophora, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, Scaphopoda, and Arthropoda.

111

Class Polyplacophora:

Chitons, lives in intertidal regions. (sea rollie-pollie)

112

Class Bivalvia:

Clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops. Two shells connected together at a hinge joint.

113

Class Gastropoda:

Snails, slugs, welks and conchs.

114

Class Cephalopoda:

Squid, octopus, and the nautilus shell.

115

Siphon (squid):

Helps the squid propel itself backwards

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Tusk shells. (Class Scaphopoda)

117

Class Scaphopoda:

Tusk shells

118

Phylum Arthropoda:

Insects and crustaceans.

119

What are exoskeletons made of?

Chitin.

120

Go back and write characteristics of each phylum and class.

no data

121

The 3 body regions of Arthropoda:

Head, Thorax, and abdomen.

122

Cephalothorax:

When the head and thorax are fused together.

123

The 3 subphylum of Phyla Arthropoda:

Chelicerata, Crustacea and Uniramia

124

Two classes in Sub-Phylum Chelicerata:

Merostomata (horseshoecrab), and Arachnida (spiders).

125

Class Merostomata:

Horseshoecrab

126

The horseshoecrab belongs to which Class?

Merostomata

127

Class Arachnida:

Spiders

128

Sub-phylum Crustacea:

Barnacles, and all crustaceans

129

Carapace:

Outer covering on custacean.

130

Telson:

Tail on a horseshoecrab

131

3 classes in sub-phylum Uniramia:

Insecta, Chilopoda, and Diplopoda.

132

Class insecta:

Insects

133

Class Chilopoda:

Centepedes

134

Class Diplopoda:

Millipedes.

135

Earth Worm dissection:

no data

136

EWD: Clitellum:

Un-segmented, smooth section, 1/3 down the worm. Where eggs are shed, functions as a cocoon.

137

EWD: Prostomium

Mouth and overhanging "lip" on an Earth worm.

138

EWD:Setae

Tony bristles that cover an earth worm.

139

EWD: Septum, or septa

Segmented section of earth worm body.

140

EWD:The gastrointestinal tract is referred to as the...

Alimentary canal

141

EWD:What are earth worm "hearts"?

five enlarged arteries that contract and relax

142

EWD: What are the two major blood vessels?

Dorsal and ventral

143

Squid dissection:

no data

144

SD: Mantle:

the outer covering of the body of the squid

145

Phylum Arthropoda:

no data


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